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  • Altered biodistribution of deglycosylated extracellular vesicles through enhanced cellular uptake
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Nao Nishida-Aoki; Naoomi Tominaga; Nobuyoshi Kosaka; Takahiro Ochiya

    ABSTRACT Extracellular vesicles (EVs) from cancer are delivered both proximal and distal organs. EVs are highly glycosylated at the surface where EVs interact with cells and therefore has an impact on their properties and biological functions. Aberrant glycosylation in cancer is associated with cancer progression and metastasis. However, the biological function of glycosylation on the surface of EV is uncovered. We first demonstrated differential glycosylation profiles of EVs and their originated cells, and distinct glycosylation profiles in a brain-metastatic subline BMD2a from its parental human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231-luc-D3H2LN by lectin blot. We then investigated the roles of surface glycoconjugates on EV uptake. N- and/or O-glycosylation removal of fluorescent-labelled BMD2a EVs enhanced cellular uptake to endothelial cells, suggesting that surface glycosylation has inhibitory effects on cellular uptake. Biodistribution of glycosylation-deprived BMD2a EVs administrated intravenously into mice was further analysed ex vivo using near-infrared lipophilic dye. EVs treated with O-deglycosylation enzymes enhanced the accumulation of EVs to the lungs after 24 h from the injection, while N-deglycosylation did not markedly alter biodistribution. As the lungs are first organs in which intravenous blood flows, we suggest that surface glycosylation of cancer-derived EVs avoid promiscuous adhesion to proximal tissues to be delivered to distant organs.

  • Tracking the evolution of circulating exosomal-PD-L1 to monitor melanoma patients
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Marine Cordonnier; Charlée Nardin; Gaëtan Chanteloup; Valentin Derangere; Marie-Paule Algros; Laurent Arnould; Carmen Garrido; François Aubin; Jessica Gobbo

    ABSTRACT In the era of immunotherapies there is an urgent need to implement the use of circulating biomarkers in clinical practice to facilitate personalized therapy and to predict treatment response. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate the usefulness of circulating exosomal-PD-L1 in melanoma patients’ follow-up. We studied the dynamics of exosomal-PD-L1 from 100 melanoma patients by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that PD-L1 was secreted through exosomes by melanoma cells. Exosomes carrying PD-L1 had immunosuppressive properties since they were as efficient as the cancer cell from which they derive at inhibiting T-cell activation. In plasma from melanoma patients, the level of PD-L1 (n= 30, median 64.26 pg/mL) was significantly higher in exosomes compared to soluble PD-L1 (n= 30, 0.1 pg/mL). Furthermore, exosomal-PD-L1 was detected in all patients whereas only 67% of tumour biopsies were PD-L1 positive. Although baseline exosomal-PD-L1 levels were not associated with clinic-pathologic characteristics, their variations after the cures (ΔExoPD-L1) correlated with the tumour response to treatment. A ΔExoPD-L1 cut-off of> 100 was defined, yielding an 83% sensitivity, a 70% specificity, a 91% positive predictive value and 54% negative predictive values for disease progression. The use of the cut-off allowed stratification in two groups of patients statistically different concerning overall survival and progression-free survival. PD-L1 levels in circulating exosomes seem to be a more reliable marker than PD-L1 expression in tumour biopsies. Monitoring of circulating exosomal-PD-L1 may be useful to predict the tumour response to treatment and clinical outcome.

  • Phenotypic analysis of extracellular vesicles: a review on the applications of fluorescence
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Maria S. Panagopoulou; Alastair W. Wark; David J S Birch; Christopher D. Gregory

    ABSTRACT Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have numerous potential applications in the field of healthcare and diagnostics, and research into their biological functions is rapidly increasing. Mainly because of their small size and heterogeneity, there are significant challenges associated with their analysis and despite overt evidence of the potential of EVs in clinical diagnostic practice, guidelines for analytical procedures have not yet been properly established. Here, we present an overview of the main methods for studying the properties of EVs based on the principles of fluorescence. Setting aside the isolation, purification and physicochemical characterization strategies which answer questions about the size, surface charge and stability of EVs (reviewed elsewhere), we focus on available optical tools that enable the direct analysis of phenotype and mechanisms of interaction with tissues. In brief, the topics on which we elaborate range from the most popular approaches such as nanoparticle tracking analysis and flow cytometry, to less commonly used techniques such as fluorescence depolarization and microarrays as well as emerging areas such as fast fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). We highlight that understanding the strengths and limitations of each method is essential for choosing the most appropriate combination of analytical tools. Finally, future directions of this rapidly developing area of medical diagnostics are discussed.

  • The EV-TRACK summary add-on: integration of experimental information in databases to ensure comprehensive interpretation of biological knowledge on extracellular vesicles
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2020-01-05
    Quentin Roux; Jan Van Deun; Sandor Dedeyne; An Hendrix

    (2020). The EV-TRACK summary add-on: integration of experimental information in databases to ensure comprehensive interpretation of biological knowledge on extracellular vesicles. Journal of Extracellular Vesicles: Vol. 9, No. 1, 1699367.

  • Monocytes mediate homing of circulating microvesicles to the pulmonary vasculature during low-grade systemic inflammation
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2020-01-05
    Kieran P. O’Dea; Ying Ying Tan; Sneh Shah; Brijesh V Patel; Kate C Tatham; Mike R. Wilson; Sanooj Soni; Masao Takata

    ABSTRACT Microvesicles (MVs), a plasma membrane-derived subclass of extracellular vesicles, are produced and released into the circulation during systemic inflammation, yet little is known of cell/tissue-specific uptake of MVs under these conditions. We hypothesized that monocytes contribute to uptake of circulating MVs and that their increased margination to the pulmonary circulation and functional priming during systemic inflammation produces substantive changes to the systemic MV homing profile. Cellular uptake of i.v.-injected, fluorescently labelled MVs (J774.1 macrophage-derived) in vivo was quantified by flow cytometry in vascular cell populations of the lungs, liver and spleen of C57BL6 mice. Under normal conditions, both Ly6Chigh and Ly6Clow monocytes contributed to MV uptake but liver Kupffer cells were the dominant target cell population. Following induction of sub-clinical endotoxemia with low-dose i.v. LPS, MV uptake by lung-marginated Ly6Chigh monocytes increased markedly, both at the individual cell level (~2.5-fold) and through substantive expansion of their numbers (~8-fold), whereas uptake by splenic macrophages was unchanged and uptake by Kupffer cells actually decreased (~50%). Further analysis of MV uptake within the pulmonary vasculature using a combined model approach of in vivo macrophage depletion, ex vivo isolated perfused lungs and in vitro lung perfusate cell-based assays, indicated that Ly6Chigh monocytes possess a high MV uptake capacity (equivalent to Kupffer cells), that is enhanced directly by endotoxemia and ablated in the presence of phosphatidylserine (PS)-enriched liposomes and β3 integrin receptor blocking peptide. Accordingly, i.v.-injected PS-enriched liposomes underwent a redistribution of cellular uptake during endotoxemia similar to MVs, with enhanced uptake by Ly6Chigh monocytes and reduced uptake by Kupffer cells. These findings indicate that monocytes, particularly lung-marginated Ly6Chigh subset monocytes, become a dominant target cell population for MVs during systemic inflammation, with significant implications for the function and targeting of endogenous and therapeutically administered MVs, lending novel insights into the pathophysiology of pulmonary vascular inflammation.

  • Exosomal PD-L1 functions as an immunosuppressant to promote wound healing
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Dandan Su; Hsiang-I Tsai; Zhanxue Xu; Fuxia Yan; Yingyi Wu; Youmei Xiao; Xiaoyan Liu; Yanping Wu; Sepideh Parvanian; Wangshu Zhu; John E. Eriksson; Dongqing Wang; Haitao Zhu; Hongbo Chen; Fang Cheng

    ABSTRACT Excessive and persistent inflammation after injury lead to chronic wounds, increased tissue damage or even aggressive carcinogenic transformation. Effective wound repair could be achieved by inhibiting overactive immune cells to the injured site. In this study, we obtained high concentration of PD-L1 in exosomes from either genetically engineered cells overexpressing PD-L1 or IFN-γ stimulated cells. We found that exosomal PD-L1 is specially bound to PD-1 on T cell surface, and suppressed T cell activation. Interestingly, exosomal PD-L1 promoted the migration of epidermal cells and dermal fibroblasts when pre-incubated with T cells. We further embedded exosomes into thermoresponsive PF-127 hydrogel, which was gelatinized at body temperature to release exosomes to the surroundings in a sustained manner. Of importance, in a mouse skin excisional wound model, exosomal PD-L1 significantly fastened wound contraction and reepithelialization when embedded in hydrogel during inflammation phase. Finally, exosomal PD-L1 inhibited cytokine production of CD8+ T cells and suppressed CD8+ T cell numbers in spleen and peripheral lymph nodes. Taken together, these data provide evidence on exosomal PD-L1 exerting immune inhibitory effects and promoting tissue repair.

  • Activated human astrocyte-derived extracellular vesicles modulate neuronal uptake, differentiation and firing
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Yang You; Kathleen Borgmann; Venkata Viswanadh Edara; Satomi Stacy; Anuja Ghorpade; Tsuneya Ikezu

    ABSTRACT Astrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) provide supportive neural functions and mediate inflammatory responses from microglia. Increasing evidence supports their critical roles in regulating brain homoeostasis in response to pro-inflammatory factors such as cytokines and pathogen/damage-associated molecular pattern molecules in infectious and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms of the trans-cellular communication are still unclear. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) can transfer a large diversity of molecules such as lipids, nucleic acids and proteins for cellular communications. The purpose of this study is to characterize the EVs cargo proteins derived from human primary astrocytes (ADEVs) under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. ADEVs were isolated from human primary astrocytes after vehicle (CTL) or interleukin-1β (IL-1β) pre-treatment. Label-free quantitative proteomic profiling revealed a notable up-regulation of proteins including actin-associated molecules, integrins and major histocompatibility complex in IL-1β-ADEVs compared to CTL-ADEVs, which were involved in cellular metabolism and organization, cellular communication and inflammatory response. When fluorescently labelled ADEVs were added into primary cultured mouse cortical neurons, we found a significantly increased neuronal uptake of IL-1β-ADEVs compared to CTL-ADEVs. We further confirmed it is likely due to the enrichment of surface proteins in IL-1β-ADEVs, as IL-1β-ADEVs uptake by neurons was partially suppressed by a specific integrin inhibitor. Additionally, treatment of neurons with IL-1β-ADEVs also reduced neurite outgrowth, branching and neuronal firing. These findings provide insight for the molecular mechanism of the ADEVs’ effects on neural uptake, neural differentiation and maturation, and its alteration in inflammatory conditions.

  • Neuronal-derived extracellular vesicles are enriched in the brain and serum of HIV-1 transgenic rats
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Raghubendra Singh Dagur; Ke Liao; Susmita Sil; Fang Niu; Zhiqiang Sun; Yuri L. Lyubchenko; Eric S. Peeples; Guoku Hu; Shilpa Buch

    ABSTRACT Despite the efficacy of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in controlling human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) replication, cytotoxic viral proteins such as HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) persist in tissues such as the brain. Although HIV-1 does not infect neuronal cells, it is susceptible to viral Tat protein-mediated toxicity, leading to neuroinflammation that underlies HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Given the role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in both cellular homoeostasis and under pathological conditions, we sought to investigate the alterations in the quantity of neuronal-derived EVs in the brain – as defined by the presence of cell adhesion molecule L1 (L1CAM) and to evaluate the presence of L1CAM+ EVs in the peripheral circulation of HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1 Tg) rats. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term exposure of HIV-1 viral proteins on the release of neuronal EVs in the brain and their transfer in the systemic compartment. Brain and serum EVs were isolated from both wild type and HIV-1 Tg rats using differential ultracentrifugation with further purification using the Optiprep gradient method. The subpopulation of neuronal EVs was further enriched using immunoprecipitation. The current findings demonstrated increased presence of L1CAM+ neuronal-derived EVs both in the brain and serum of HIV-1 Tg rats.

  • Inhibiting extracellular vesicles formation and release: a review of EV inhibitors
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Mariadelva Catalano; Lorraine O’Driscoll

    ABSTRACT It is now becoming well established that vesicles are released from a broad range of cell types and are involved in cell-to-cell communication, both in physiological and pathological conditions. Once outside the cell, these vesicles are termed extracellular vesicles (EVs). The cellular origin (cell type), subcellular origin (through the endosomal pathway or pinched from the cell membrane) and content (what proteins, glycoproteins, lipids, nucleic acids, metabolites) are transported by the EVs, and their size, all seem to be contributing factors to their overall heterogeneity. Efforts are being invested into attempting to block the release of subpopulations of EVs or, indeed, all EVs. Some such studies are focussed on investigating EV inhibitors as research tools; others are interested in the longerterm potential of using such inhibitors in pathological conditions such as cancer. This review, intended to be of relevance to both researchers already well established in the EV field and newcomers to this field, provides an outline of the compounds that have been most extensively studied for this purpose, their proposed mechanisms of actions and the findings of these studies.

  • Plasma mEV levels in Ghanain malaria patients with low parasitaemia are higher than those of healthy controls, raising the potential for parasite markers in mEVs as diagnostic targets
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Samuel Antwi-Baffour; Memory Malibha-Pinchbeck; Dan Stratton; Samireh Jorfi; Sigrun Lange; Jameel Inal

    ABSTRACT This study sought to measure medium-sized extracellular vesicles (mEVs) in plasma, when patients have low Plasmodium falciparum early in infection. We aimed to define the relationship between plasma mEVs and: (i) parasitaemia, (ii) period from onset of malaria symptoms until seeking medical care (patient delay, PD), (iii) age and (iv) gender. In this cross-sectional study, n = 434 patients were analysed and Nanosight Tracking Analysis (NTA) used to quantify mEVs (vesicles of 150–500 nm diameter, isolated at 15,000 × g, β-tubulin-positive and staining for annexin V, but weak or negative for CD81). Overall plasma mEV levels (1.69 × 1010 mEVs mL−1) were 2.3-fold higher than for uninfected controls (0.51 × 1010 mEVs mL−1). Divided into four age groups, we found a bimodal distribution with 2.5- and 2.1-fold higher mEVs in infected children (<11 years old [yo]) (median:2.11 × 1010 mEVs mL−1) and the elderly (>45 yo) (median:1.92 × 1010 mEVs mL−1), respectively, compared to uninfected controls; parasite density varied similarly with age groups. There was a positive association between mEVs and parasite density (r = 0.587, p < 0.0001) and mEVs were strongly associated with PD (r = 0.919, p < 0.0001), but gender had no effect on plasma mEV levels (p = 0.667). Parasite density was also exponentially related to patient delay. Gender (p = 0.667) had no effect on plasma mEV levels. During periods of low parasitaemia (PD = 72h), mEVs were 0.93-fold greater than in uninfected controls. As 75% (49/65) of patients had low parasitaemia levels (20–500 parasites µL−1), close to the detection limits of microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick blood films (5–150 parasites µL−1), mEV quantification by NTA could potentially have early diagnostic value, and raises the potential of Pf markers in mEVs as early diagnostic targets.

  • Anti-melanogenic effects of extracellular vesicles derived from plant leaves and stems in mouse melanoma cells and human healthy skin
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Ruri Lee; Hae Ju Ko; Kimin Kim; Yehjoo Sohn; Seo Yun Min; Jeong Ah Kim; Dokyun Na; Ju Hun Yeon

    ABSTRACT Consumer interest in cosmetic industry products that produce whitening effects has increased demand for agents that decrease melanin production. Many such anti-melanogenic agents are associated with side effects, such as contact dermatitis and high toxicity, and also exhibit poor skin penetration. Considerable recent research has focused on plant-derived products as alternatives to chemotherapeutic agents that possess fewer side effects. In the current study, we investigated the anti-melanogenic effects of extracellular vesicles (EVs) extracted from leaves and stems of Dendropanax morbifera. Using spectrophotometric and biochemical approaches, we found that leaf-derived extracellular vesicles (LEVs) and stem-derived extracellular vesicles (SEVs) reduced melanin content and tyrosinase (TYR) activity in the B16BL6 mouse melanoma cell line in a concentration-dependent manner. An electron microscopy analysis further confirmed that LEVs and SEVs induce a concentration-dependent decrease in melanin content in melanoma cells. Both LEVs and SEVs exerted a greater whitening effect on melanoma cells than arbutin, used as a positive control, with LEVs producing the greater effect. Notably, neither LEVs nor SEVs induced significant cytotoxicity. We also examined the effects of plant-derived EVs on the expression of tyrosinase-related proteins (TRPs) in melanoma cells. LEVs inhibited expression of melanogenesis-related genes and proteins, including microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), TYR, TRP-1 and TRP-2. In a human epidermis model, LEVs exerted a stronger inhibitory effect on melanin production than arbutin. Collectively, our data suggest that LEVs from D. morbifera may be a novel candidate natural substance for use as an anti-melanogenic agent in cosmeceutical formulations.

  • Role of Mac-1 integrin in generation of extracellular vesicles with antibacterial capacity from neutrophilic granulocytes
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Ákos M. Lőrincz, Balázs Bartos, Dávid Szombath, Viktória Szeifert, Csaba I. Timár, Lilla Turiák, László Drahos, Ágnes Kittel, Dániel S. Veres, Ferenc Kolonics, Attila Mócsai, Erzsébet Ligeti

    ABSTRACT Production of extracellular vesicles (EVs) involved in intercellular communication is a common capacity of most cell types. Upon encountering opsonized microorganisms, neutrophilic granulocytes release EVs that compromise bacterial growth. We carried out a systematic investigation of the involvement of potential opsonin receptors in EV-generation from human and murine neutrophils. Applying flow cytometric, proteomic and functional analysis as well as using genetically modified mice, we demonstrate that formation of antibacterial EVs depends upon stimulation of the multifunctional Mac-1 integrin complex, also called as complement receptor 3 (CR3), whereas activation of immunoglobulin binding Fc receptors or pattern recognition receptors alone or in combination is ineffective. Mac-1/CR3 stimulation and downstream tyrosine kinase signalling affect both the numbers, the cargo content and the antibacterial capacity of the produced vesicles. In contrast, Mac-1/CR3 signalling is not required for spontaneous EV formation, clearly indicating the existence of separate molecular pathways in EV biogenesis. We propose that EVs are “tailor-made” with different composition and functional properties depending on the environmental circumstances.

  • Characterization of protein, long noncoding RNA and microRNA signatures in extracellular vesicles derived from resting and degranulated mast cells
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Yuting Liang, Sheng Huang, Longwei Qiao, Xia Peng, Chong Li, Kun Lin, Guogang Xie, Jia Li, Lihui Lin, Yue Yin, Huanjin Liao, Qian Li, Li Li

    ABSTRACT Mast cells (MCs) are known to participate in a variety of patho-physiological processes depending largely on the intragranular mediators and the production of cytokines and chemokines during degranulation. Recently, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been implicated important functions for MCs, but the components of MC-derived EVs have not yet been well-characterized. In this study, we aimed to identify signatures of proteins, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and microRNAs (miRNAs) in EVs derived from resting (Rest-EV) and degranulated (Sti-EV) MCs by differential ultracentrifugation. Using tandem mass tag (TMT)-based quantitative proteomics technology and RNA sequencing, we identified a total of 1988 proteins, 397 lncRNAs, and 272 miRNAs in Rest-EV and Sti-EV. The proteins include common EVs markers (cytoskeletal proteins), MCs markers (FcεRI and tryptase), and some preformed MCs mediators (lysosomal enzymes) as well. The global expression profiles of lncRNAs and miRNAs identified, for the first time, from Rest-EV and Sti-EV, strongly suggest a potential regulatory function of MC-derived EVs. We have also performed Western blotting and qRT-PCR analysis to further verify some of the proteins, lncRNAs, and miRNAs identified from Rest-EV and Sti-EV. Our findings will help to elucidate the functions of MC-derived EVs, and provide a reference dataset for future translational studies involving MC-derived EVs.

  • MiR155-5p in adventitial fibroblasts-derived extracellular vesicles inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation via suppressing angiotensin-converting enzyme expression
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Xing-Sheng Ren, Ying Tong, Yun Qiu, Chao Ye, Nan Wu, Xiao-Qing Xiong, Jue-Jin Wang, Ying Han, Ye-Bo Zhou, Feng Zhang, Hai-Jian Sun, Xing-Ya Gao, Qi Chen, Yue-Hua Li, Yu-Ming Kang, Guo-Qing Zhu

    ABSTRACT Proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays crucial roles in vascular remodelling and stiffening in hypertension. Vascular adventitial fibroblasts are a key regulator of vascular wall function and structure. This study is designed to investigate the roles of adventitial fibroblasts-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) in VSMC proliferation and vascular remodelling in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), an animal model of human essential hypertension. EVs were isolated from aortic adventitial fibroblasts of WKY (WKY-EVs) and SHR (SHR-EVs). Compared with WKY-EVs, miR155-5p content was reduced, while angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) content was increased in SHR-EVs. WKY-EVs inhibited VSMC proliferation of SHR, which was prevented by miR155-5p inhibitor. SHR-EVs promoted VSMC proliferation of both strains, which was enhanced by miR155-5p inhibitor, but abolished by captopril or losartan. Dual luciferase reporter assay showed that ACE was a target gene of miR155-5p. MiR155-5p mimic or overexpression inhibited VSMC proliferation and ACE upregulation of SHR. WKY-EVs reduced ACE mRNA and protein expressions while SHR-EVs only increased ACE protein level in VSMCs of both strains. However, the SHR-EVs-derived from the ACE knockdown-treated adventitial fibroblasts lost the roles in promoting VSMC proliferation and ACE upregulation. Systemic miR155-5p overexpression reduced vascular ACE, angiotensin II and proliferating cell nuclear antigen levels, and attenuated hypertension and vascular remodelling in SHR. Repetitive intravenous injection of SHR-EVs increased blood pressure and vascular ACE contents, and promoted vascular remodelling in both strains, while WKY-EVs reduced vascular ACE contents and attenuated hypertension and vascular remodelling in SHR. We concluded that WKY-EVs-mediated miR155-5p transfer attenuates VSMC proliferation and vascular remodelling in SHR via suppressing ACE expression, while SHR-EVs-mediated ACE transfer promotes VSMC proliferation and vascular remodelling.

  • Quality and efficiency assessment of six extracellular vesicle isolation methods by nano-flow cytometry
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Ye Tian, Manfei Gong, Yunyun Hu, Haisheng Liu, Wenqiang Zhang, Miaomiao Zhang, Xiuxiu Hu, Dimitri Aubert, Shaobin Zhu, Lina Wu, Xiaomei Yan

    ABSTRACT Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have sparked tremendous interest owing to their prominent potential in diagnostics and therapeutics. Isolation of EVs from complex biological fluids with high purity is essential to the accurate analysis of EV cargo. Unfortunately, generally used isolation techniques do not offer good separation of EVs from non-EV contaminants. Hence, it is important to have a standardized method to characterise the properties of EV preparations, including size distribution, particle concentration, purity and phenotype. Employing a laboratory-built nano-flow cytometer (nFCM) that enables multiparameter analysis of single EVs as small as 40 nm, here we report a new benchmark to the quality and efficiency assessment of EVs isolated from plasma, one of the most difficult body fluids to work with. The performance of five widely used commercial isolation kits was examined and compared with the traditional differential ultracentrifugation (UC). Two to four orders of magnitude higher particle concentrations were observed for EV preparations from platelet-free plasma (PFP) by kits when compared with the EV preparation by UC, yet the purity was much lower. Meanwhile, the particle size distribution profiles of EV preparations by kits closely resembled those of PFP whereas the EV preparation by UC showed a broader size distribution at relatively large particle size. When these kits were used to isolate EVs from vesicle-depleted PFP (VD-PFP), comparable particle counts were obtained with their corresponding EV preparations from PFP, which confirmed again the isolation of a large quantity of non-vesicular contaminants. As CD9, CD63 and CD81 also exist in the plasma matrix, single-particle phenotyping of EVs offers distinct advantage in the validation of EVs compared with ensemble-averaged approaches, such as Western blot analysis. nFCM allows us to compare different isolation techniques without prejudice.

  • Large and small extracellular vesicles released by glioma cells in vitro and in vivo
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Anudeep Yekula, Valentina R. Minciacchi, Matteo Morello, Huilin Shao, Yongil Park, Xuan Zhang, Koushik Muralidharan, Michael R. Freeman, Ralph Weissleder, Hakho Lee, Bob Carter, Xandra O. Breakefield, Dolores Di Vizio, Leonora Balaj

    ABSTRACT Tumour cells release diverse populations of extracellular vesicles (EVs) ranging in size, molecular cargo, and function. We sought to characterize mRNA and protein content of EV subpopulations released by human glioblastoma (GBM) cells expressing a mutant form of epidermal growth factor receptor (U87EGFRvIII) in vitro and in vivo with respect to size, morphology and the presence of tumour cargo. The two EV subpopulations purified from GBM U87EGFRvIII cancer cells, non-cancer human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC; control) and serum of U87EGFRvIII glioma-bearing mice using differential centrifugation (EVs that sediment at 10,000 × g or 100,000 × g are termed large EVs and small EVs, respectively) were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), confocal microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), flow cytometry, immunofluorescence (IF), quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) and micro-nuclear magnetic resonance (μNMR). We report that both U87EGFRvIII and HUVEC release a similar number of small EVs, but U87EGFRvIII glioma cells alone release a higher number of large EVs compared to non-cancer HUVEC. The EGFRvIII mRNA from the two EV subpopulations from U87EGFRvIII glioma cells was comparable, while the EGFR protein (wild type + vIII) levels are significantly higher in large EVs. Similarly, EGFRvIII mRNA in large and small EVs isolated from the serum of U87EGFRvIII glioma-bearing mice is comparable, while the EGFR protein (wild type + vIII) levels are significantly higher in large EVs. Here we report for the first time a direct comparison of large and small EVs released by glioma U87EGFRvIII cells and from serum of U87EGFRvIII glioma-bearing mice. Both large and small EVs contain tumour-specific EGFRvIII mRNA and proteins and combining these platforms may be beneficial in detecting rare mutant events in circulating biofluids.

  • Blood concentrations of small extracellular vesicles are determined by a balance between abundant secretion and rapid clearance
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Akihiro Matsumoto, Yuki Takahashi, Hsin-Yi Chang, Yi-Wen Wu, Aki Yamamoto, Yasushi Ishihama, Yoshinobu Takakura

    ABSTRACT Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) are important mediators of cell–cell communication with respect to diverse physiological processes. To further understand their physiological roles, understanding blood sEV homoeostasis in a quantitative manner is desired. In this study, we propose novel kinetic approaches to estimate the secretion and clearance of mouse plasma–derived sEVs (MP-sEVs) based on the hypothesis that blood sEV concentrations are determined by a balance between the secretion and clearance of sEVs. Using our specific and sensitive sEV labelling technology, we succeeded in analysing MP-sEV clearance from the blood after intravenous administration into mice. This revealed the rapid disappearance of MP-sEVs with a half-life of approximately 7 min. Moreover, the plasma sEV secretion rate, which is presently impossible to directly evaluate, was calculated as 18 μg/min in mice based on pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis. Next, macrophage-depleted mice were prepared as a model of disrupted sEV homoeostasis with retarded sEV clearance. MP-sEV concentrations were increased in macrophage-depleted mice, which probably reflected a shift in the balance of secretion and clearance. Moreover, the increased MP-sEV concentration in macrophage-depleted mice was successfully simulated using calculated clearance rate constant, secretion rate constant and volume of distribution, suggesting the validity of our PK approaches. These results demonstrate that blood sEV concentration homoeostasis can be explained by the dynamics of rapid secretion/clearance.

  • Tetraspanin CD82 interaction with cholesterol promotes extracellular vesicle–mediated release of ezrin to inhibit tumour cell movement
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Chao Huang, Franklin A. Hays, James J. Tomasek, Siribhinya Benyajati, Xin A. Zhang

    ABSTRACT Tumour metastasis suppressor KAI1/CD82 inhibits tumour cell movement. As a transmembrane protein, tetraspanin CD82 bridges the interactions between membrane microdomains of lipid rafts and tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs). In this study, we found that CD82 and other tetraspanins contain cholesterol recognition/interaction amino-acid consensus (CRAC) sequences in their transmembrane domains and revealed that cholesterol binding of CD82 determines its interaction with lipid rafts but not with TEMs. Functionally, CD82 needs cholesterol binding to inhibit solitary migration, collective migration, invasion and infiltrative outgrowth of tumour cells. Importantly, CD82–cholesterol/–lipid raft interaction not only promotes extracellular release of lipid raft components such as cholesterol and gangliosides but also facilitates extracellular vesicle (EV)–mediated release of ezrin–radixin–moesin (ERM) protein Ezrin. Since ERM proteins link actin cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane, we show for the first time that cell movement can be regulated by EV-mediated releases, which disengage the plasma membrane from cytoskeleton and then impair cell movement. Our findings also conceptualize that interactions between membrane domains, in this case converge of lipid rafts and TEMs by CD82, can change cell movement. Moreover, CD82 coalescences with both lipid rafts and TEMs are essential for its inhibition of tumour cell movement and for its enhancement of EV release. Finally, our study underpins that tetraspanins as a superfamily of functionally versatile molecules are cholesterol-binding proteins. Abbreviations: Ab: antibody; CBM: cholesterol-binding motif; CCM: cholesterol consensus motif; CRAC/CARC: cholesterol recognition or interaction amino-acid consensus; CTxB: cholera toxin B subunit; ECM: extracellular matrix; ERM: ezrin, radixin and moesin; EV: extracellular vesicles; FBS: foetal bovine serum; mAb: monoclonal antibody; MST: microscale thermophoresis; pAb: polyclonal antibody; and TEM: tetraspanin-enriched microdomain

  • Purity and yield of melanoma exosomes are dependent on isolation method
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
    Shin La Shu, Yunchen Yang, Cheryl L. Allen, Edward Hurley, Kaity H. Tung, Hans Minderman, Yun Wu, Marc S. Ernstoff

    ABSTRACT Both exosomes and soluble factors have been implicated in the generation of an immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment. Determining the contribution of each requires stringent control of purity of the isolated analytes. The present study compares several conventional exosome isolation methods for the presence of co-enriched soluble factors while isolating exosomes from human melanoma-derived cell lines. The resultant preparations were analysed by multiplex bead array analysis for cytokine profiles, and by electron microscopy and nanotracking analysis for exosome size distribution and concentration. It is demonstrated that the amount and repertoire of soluble factors in exosome preparations is dependent upon the isolation method used. A combination of ultrafiltration and size exclusion chromatography yielded up to 58-fold more exosomes than ultracentrifugation, up to 836-fold lower concentrations of co-purified soluble factors when adjusted for exosome yield, and a greater than two-fold increase in PD-L1 expressing exosomes. Mechanistically, in context of the immunomodulatory effects of exosomes, the exosome isolation method should be carefully considered in order to limit any effects due instead to co-eluted soluble factors.

    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2019-05-01

    (2019). CORRECTION. Journal of Extracellular Vesicles: Vol. 8, No. 1, 1612606.

  • Extracellular vesicles containing oncogenic mutant β-catenin activate Wnt signalling pathway in the recipient cells
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    Hina Kalra, Lahiru Gangoda, Pamali Fonseka, Sai V. Chitti, Michael Liem, Shivakumar Keerthikumar, Monisha Samuel, Stephanie Boukouris, Haidar Al Saffar, Christine Collins, Christopher G. Adda, Ching-Seng Ang, Suresh Mathivanan

    ABSTRACT Mutations in β-catenin, especially at the residues critical for its degradation, render it constitutively active. Here, we show that mutant β-catenin can be transported via extracellular vesicles (EVs) and activate Wnt signalling pathway in the recipient cells. An integrative proteogenomic analysis identified the presence of mutated β-catenin in EVs secreted by colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Follow-up experiments established that EVs released from LIM1215 CRC cells stimulated Wnt signalling pathway in the recipient cells with wild-type β-catenin. SILAC-based quantitative proteomics analysis confirmed the transfer of mutant β-catenin to the nucleus of the recipient cells. In vivo tracking of DiR-labelled EVs in mouse implanted with RKO CRC cells revealed its bio-distribution, confirmed the activation of Wnt signalling pathway in tumour cells and increased the tumour burden. Overall, for the first time, this study reveals that EVs can transfer mutant β-catenin to the recipient cells and promote cancer progression.

  • Biological membranes in EV biogenesis, stability, uptake, and cargo transfer: an ISEV position paper arising from the ISEV membranes and EVs workshop
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2019-11-08
    Ashley E. Russell, Alexandra Sneider, Kenneth W. Witwer, Paolo Bergese, Suvendra N. Bhattacharyya, Alexander Cocks, Emanuele Cocucci, Uta Erdbrügger, Juan M. Falcon-Perez, David W. Freeman, Thomas M. Gallagher, Shuaishuai Hu, Yiyao Huang, Steven M. Jay, Shin-ichi Kano, Gregory Lavieu, Aleksandra Leszczynska, Alicia M. Llorente, Quan Lu, Vasiliki Mahairaki, Dillon C. Muth, Nicole Noren Hooten, Matias Ostrowski, Ilaria Prada, Susmita Sahoo, Tine Hiorth Schøyen, Lifu Sheng, Deanna Tesch, Guillaume Van Niel, Roosmarijn E. Vandenbroucke, Frederik J. Verweij, Ana V. Villar, Marca Wauben, Ann M. Wehman, Hang Yin, David Raul Francisco Carter, Pieter Vader

    ABSTRACT Paracrine and endocrine roles have increasingly been ascribed to extracellular vesicles (EVs) generated by multicellular organisms. Central to the biogenesis, content, and function of EVs are their delimiting lipid bilayer membranes. To evaluate research progress on membranes and EVs, the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV) conducted a workshop in March 2018 in Baltimore, Maryland, USA, bringing together key opinion leaders and hands-on researchers who were selected on the basis of submitted applications. The workshop was accompanied by two scientific surveys and covered four broad topics: EV biogenesis and release; EV uptake and fusion; technologies and strategies used to study EV membranes; and EV transfer and functional assays. In this ISEV position paper, we synthesize the results of the workshop and the related surveys to outline important outstanding questions about EV membranes and describe areas of consensus. The workshop discussions and survey responses reveal that while much progress has been made in the field, there are still several concepts that divide opinion. Good consensus exists in some areas, including particular aspects of EV biogenesis, uptake and downstream signalling. Areas with little to no consensus include EV storage and stability, as well as whether and how EVs fuse with target cells. Further research is needed in these key areas, as a better understanding of membrane biology will contribute substantially towards advancing the field of extracellular vesicles.

  • Extracellular vesicles and coagulation in blood from healthy humans revisited
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2019-11-08
    René J. Berckmans, Romaric Lacroix, Chi M. Hau, Auguste Sturk, Rienk Nieuwland

    ABSTRACT Background: In 2001, we studied the presence and coagulant properties of “microparticles” in the blood of healthy humans. Since then, multiple improvements in detection, isolation and functional characterization of the now called “extracellular vesicles” (EVs) have been made, and shortcomings were identified. Aim: To revisit the presence and function of EVs in blood from healthy humans. Methods: Blood was collected from 20 healthy donors. EV-containing plasma was prepared according to new guidelines, and plasma was diluted to prevent swarm detection. Single EVs were measured by flow cytometry with known sensitivity of fluorescence and light scatter. The haemostatic properties of EVs were measured by thrombin-, fibrin-, and plasmin generation. Plasma concentrations of thrombin-antithrombin complexes and prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 were measured to assess the coagulation status in vivo. Results: Compared to 2001, the total concentrations of detected EVs increased from 190- to 264-fold. In contrast to 2001, however, EVs are non-coagulant which we show can be attributed to improvements in blood collection and plasma preparation. No relation is present between the plasma concentrations of EVs and either TAT or F1 + 2. Finally, we show that EVs support plasmin generation. Discussion: Improvements in blood collection, plasma preparation and detection of EVs reveal that results from earlier studies have to be interpreted with care. Compared to 2001, higher concentrations of EVs are detected in blood of healthy humans which promote fibrinolysis rather than coagulation.

  • Small RNA-sequence analysis of plasma-derived extracellular vesicle miRNAs in smokers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as circulating biomarkers
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Isaac Kirubakaran Sundar, Dongmei Li, Irfan Rahman

    ABSTRACT Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a vital role in normal lung physiology to maintain homeostasis in the airways via intercellular communication. EVs include exosomes and microvesicles, and are characterized by their phospholipid bilayers. EVs have been recognized as novel circulating biomarkers of disease, which are released by different cell types. In this study, we used different EV isolation and purification methods to characterize the plasma-derived EV miRNAs from non-smokers, smokers and patients with COPD. A small RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) approach was adapted to identify novel circulating EV miRNAs. We found that plasma-derived EVs from non-smokers, smokers and patients with COPD vary in their size, concentration, distribution and phenotypic characteristics as confirmed by nanoparticle tracking analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and immunoblot analysis of EV surface markers. RNA-seq analysis confirmed the most abundant types of small RNAs, such as miRNAs, tRNAs, piRNAs snRNAs, snoRNAs and other biotypes in plasma-derived EVs. We mainly focused on miRNAs as novel biomarkers in smokers and patients with COPD for further analysis. Differential expression by DESeq2 identified distinct miRNA profiles (up-regulated: miR-22-3p, miR-99a-5p, miR-151a-5p, miR-320b, miR-320d; and down-regulated: miR-335-5p, miR-628-3p, miR-887-5p and miR-937-3p) in COPD versus smokers or non-smokers in a pairwise comparison. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of differentially expressed miRNAs revealed the top pathways, gene ontology and diseases associated with smokers and patients with COPD. We selectively validated miRNAs in EVs isolated from BEAS-2B cells treated with cigarette smoke extract by quantitative PCR analysis. For the first time, we report that plasma-derived EV miRNAs are novel circulating pulmonary disease biomarkers. Thus, molecular profiling of EV miRNAs has great translational potential for the development of biomarkers that may be used in the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutics of COPD.

  • Extracellular vesicles and chronic inflammation during HIV infection
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Paula Soledad Pérez, María Albertina Romaniuk, Gabriel A. Duette, Zezhou Zhao, Yiyao Huang, Lorena Martin-Jaular, Kenneth W Witwer, Clotilde Théry, Matías Ostrowski

    ABSTRACT Inflammation is a hallmark of HIV infection. Among the multiple stimuli that can induce inflammation in untreated infection, ongoing viral replication is a primary driver. After initiation of effective combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV replication is drastically reduced or halted. However, even virologically controlled patients may continue to have abnormal levels of inflammation. A number of factors have been proposed to cause inflammation in HIV infection: among others, residual (low-level) HIV replication, production of HIV protein or RNA in the absence of replication, microbial translocation from the gut to the circulation, co-infections, and loss of immunoregulatory responses. Importantly, chronic inflammation in HIV-infected individuals increases the risk for a number of non-infectious co-morbidities, including cancer and cardiovascular disease. Thus, achieving a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of HIV-associated inflammation in the presence of cART is of utmost importance. Extracellular vesicles have emerged as novel actors in intercellular communication, involved in a myriad of physiological and pathological processes, including inflammation. In this review, we will discuss the role of extracellular vesicles in the pathogenesis of HIV infection, with particular emphasis on their role as inducers of chronic inflammation.

  • Assessment of methods for serum extracellular vesicle small RNA sequencing to support biomarker development
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Swetha Srinivasan, Manuel X. Duval, Vivek Kaimal, Carolyn Cuff, Stephen H. Clarke

    ABSTRACT Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have great potential as a source for clinically relevant biomarkers since they can be readily isolated from biofluids and carry microRNA (miRNA), mRNA, and proteins that can reflect disease status. However, the biological and technical variability of EV content is unknown making comparisons between healthy subjects and patients difficult to interpret. In this study, we sought to establish a laboratory and bioinformatics analysis pipeline to analyse the small RNA content within EVs from patient serum that could serve as biomarkers and to assess the biological and technical variability of EV RNA content in healthy individuals. We sequenced EV small RNA from multiple individuals (biological replicates) and sequenced multiple replicates per individual (technical replicates) using the Illumina Truseq protocol. We observed that the replicates of samples clustered by subject indicating that the biological variability (~95%) was greater than the technical variability (~0.50%). We observed that ~30% of the sequencing reads were miRNAs. We evaluated the technical parameters of sequencing by spiking the EV RNA preparation with a mix of synthetic small RNA and demonstrated a disconnect between input concentration of the spike-in RNA and sequencing read frequencies indicating that bias was introduced during library preparation. To determine whether there are differences between library preparation platforms, we compared the Truseq with the Nextflex protocol that had been designed to reduce bias in library preparation. While both methods were technically robust, the Nextflex protocol reduced the bias and exhibited a linear range across input concentrations of the synthetic spike-ins. Altogether, our results indicate that technical variability is much smaller than biological variability supporting the use of EV small RNAs as potential biomarkers. Our findings also indicate that the choice of library preparation method leads to artificial differences in the datasets generated invalidating the comparability of sequencing data across library preparation platforms.

  • Single molecule characterization of individual extracellular vesicles from pancreatic cancer
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Kathleen M. Lennon, Devin L. Wakefield, Adam L. Maddox, Matthew S. Brehove, Ari N. Willner, Krystine Garcia-Mansfield, Bessie Meechoovet, Rebecca Reiman, Elizabeth Hutchins, Marcia M. Miller, Ajay Goel, Patrick Pirrotte, Kendall Van Keuren-Jensen, Tijana Jovanovic-Talisman

    ABSTRACT Biofluid-accessible extracellular vesicles (EVs) may represent a new means to improve the sensitivity and specificity of detecting disease. However, current methods to isolate EVs encounter challenges when they are used to select specific populations. Moreover, it has been difficult to comprehensively characterize heterogeneous EV populations at the single vesicle level. Here, we robustly assessed heterogeneous EV populations from cultured cell lines via nanoparticle tracking analysis, proteomics, transcriptomics, transmission electron microscopy, and quantitative single molecule localization microscopy (qSMLM). Using qSMLM, we quantified the size and biomarker content of individual EVs. We applied qSMLM to patient plasma samples and identified a pancreatic cancer-enriched EV population. Our goal is to advance single molecule characterization of EVs for early disease detection. Abbreviations: EV: Extracellular Vesicle; qSMLM: quantitative Single Molecule Localization Microscopy; PDAC: Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma; EGFR: epidermal growth factor receptor 1; CA19-9: carbohydrate antigen 19-9; SEC: size exclusion chromatography; WGA: wheat germ agglutinin; AF647: Alexa Fluor 647; Ab: antibody; HPDEC: Healthy Pancreatic Ductal Epithelial Cell; TEM: Transmission Electron Microscopy.

  • Minimal information for studies of extracellular vesicles 2018 (MISEV2018): a position statement of the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles and update of the MISEV2014 guidelines.
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2019-01-15
    Clotilde Théry,Kenneth W Witwer,Elena Aikawa,Maria Jose Alcaraz,Johnathon D Anderson,Ramaroson Andriantsitohaina,Anna Antoniou,Tanina Arab,Fabienne Archer,Georgia K Atkin-Smith,D Craig Ayre,Jean-Marie Bach,Daniel Bachurski,Hossein Baharvand,Leonora Balaj,Shawn Baldacchino,Natalie N Bauer,Amy A Baxter,Mary Bebawy,Carla Beckham,Apolonija Bedina Zavec,Abderrahim Benmoussa,Anna C Berardi,Paolo Bergese,Ewa Bielska,Cherie Blenkiron,Sylwia Bobis-Wozowicz,Eric Boilard,Wilfrid Boireau,Antonella Bongiovanni,Francesc E Borràs,Steffi Bosch,Chantal M Boulanger,Xandra Breakefield,Andrew M Breglio,Meadhbh Á Brennan,David R Brigstock,Alain Brisson,Marike Ld Broekman,Jacqueline F Bromberg,Paulina Bryl-Górecka,Shilpa Buch,Amy H Buck,Dylan Burger,Sara Busatto,Dominik Buschmann,Benedetta Bussolati,Edit I Buzás,James Bryan Byrd,Giovanni Camussi,David Rf Carter,Sarah Caruso,Lawrence W Chamley,Yu-Ting Chang,Chihchen Chen,Shuai Chen,Lesley Cheng,Andrew R Chin,Aled Clayton,Stefano P Clerici,Alex Cocks,Emanuele Cocucci,Robert J Coffey,Anabela Cordeiro-da-Silva,Yvonne Couch,Frank Aw Coumans,Beth Coyle,Rossella Crescitelli,Miria Ferreira Criado,Crislyn D'Souza-Schorey,Saumya Das,Amrita Datta Chaudhuri,Paola de Candia,Eliezer F De Santana,Olivier De Wever,Hernando A Del Portillo,Tanguy Demaret,Sarah Deville,Andrew Devitt,Bert Dhondt,Dolores Di Vizio,Lothar C Dieterich,Vincenza Dolo,Ana Paula Dominguez Rubio,Massimo Dominici,Mauricio R Dourado,Tom Ap Driedonks,Filipe V Duarte,Heather M Duncan,Ramon M Eichenberger,Karin Ekström,Samir El Andaloussi,Celine Elie-Caille,Uta Erdbrügger,Juan M Falcón-Pérez,Farah Fatima,Jason E Fish,Miguel Flores-Bellver,András Försönits,Annie Frelet-Barrand,Fabia Fricke,Gregor Fuhrmann,Susanne Gabrielsson,Ana Gámez-Valero,Chris Gardiner,Kathrin Gärtner,Raphael Gaudin,Yong Song Gho,Bernd Giebel,Caroline Gilbert,Mario Gimona,Ilaria Giusti,Deborah Ci Goberdhan,André Görgens,Sharon M Gorski,David W Greening,Julia Christina Gross,Alice Gualerzi,Gopal N Gupta,Dakota Gustafson,Aase Handberg,Reka A Haraszti,Paul Harrison,Hargita Hegyesi,An Hendrix,Andrew F Hill,Fred H Hochberg,Karl F Hoffmann,Beth Holder,Harry Holthofer,Baharak Hosseinkhani,Guoku Hu,Yiyao Huang,Veronica Huber,Stuart Hunt,Ahmed Gamal-Eldin Ibrahim,Tsuneya Ikezu,Jameel M Inal,Mustafa Isin,Alena Ivanova,Hannah K Jackson,Soren Jacobsen,Steven M Jay,Muthuvel Jayachandran,Guido Jenster,Lanzhou Jiang,Suzanne M Johnson,Jennifer C Jones,Ambrose Jong,Tijana Jovanovic-Talisman,Stephanie Jung,Raghu Kalluri,Shin-Ichi Kano,Sukhbir Kaur,Yumi Kawamura,Evan T Keller,Delaram Khamari,Elena Khomyakova,Anastasia Khvorova,Peter Kierulf,Kwang Pyo Kim,Thomas Kislinger,Mikael Klingeborn,David J Klinke,Miroslaw Kornek,Maja M Kosanović,Árpád Ferenc Kovács,Eva-Maria Krämer-Albers,Susanne Krasemann,Mirja Krause,Igor V Kurochkin,Gina D Kusuma,Sören Kuypers,Saara Laitinen,Scott M Langevin,Lucia R Languino,Joanne Lannigan,Cecilia Lässer,Louise C Laurent,Gregory Lavieu,Elisa Lázaro-Ibáñez,Soazig Le Lay,Myung-Shin Lee,Yi Xin Fiona Lee,Debora S Lemos,Metka Lenassi,Aleksandra Leszczynska,Isaac Ts Li,Ke Liao,Sten F Libregts,Erzsebet Ligeti,Rebecca Lim,Sai Kiang Lim,Aija Linē,Karen Linnemannstöns,Alicia Llorente,Catherine A Lombard,Magdalena J Lorenowicz,Ákos M Lörincz,Jan Lötvall,Jason Lovett,Michelle C Lowry,Xavier Loyer,Quan Lu,Barbara Lukomska,Taral R Lunavat,Sybren Ln Maas,Harmeet Malhi,Antonio Marcilla,Jacopo Mariani,Javier Mariscal,Elena S Martens-Uzunova,Lorena Martin-Jaular,M Carmen Martinez,Vilma Regina Martins,Mathilde Mathieu,Suresh Mathivanan,Marco Maugeri,Lynda K McGinnis,Mark J McVey,David G Meckes,Katie L Meehan,Inge Mertens,Valentina R Minciacchi,Andreas Möller,Malene Møller Jørgensen,Aizea Morales-Kastresana,Jess Morhayim,François Mullier,Maurizio Muraca,Luca Musante,Veronika Mussack,Dillon C Muth,Kathryn H Myburgh,Tanbir Najrana,Muhammad Nawaz,Irina Nazarenko,Peter Nejsum,Christian Neri,Tommaso Neri,Rienk Nieuwland,Leonardo Nimrichter,John P Nolan,Esther Nm Nolte-'t Hoen,Nicole Noren Hooten,Lorraine O'Driscoll,Tina O'Grady,Ana O'Loghlen,Takahiro Ochiya,Martin Olivier,Alberto Ortiz,Luis A Ortiz,Xabier Osteikoetxea,Ole Østergaard,Matias Ostrowski,Jaesung Park,D Michiel Pegtel,Hector Peinado,Francesca Perut,Michael W Pfaffl,Donald G Phinney,Bartijn Ch Pieters,Ryan C Pink,David S Pisetsky,Elke Pogge von Strandmann,Iva Polakovicova,Ivan Kh Poon,Bonita H Powell,Ilaria Prada,Lynn Pulliam,Peter Quesenberry,Annalisa Radeghieri,Robert L Raffai,Stefania Raimondo,Janusz Rak,Marcel I Ramirez,Graça Raposo,Morsi S Rayyan,Neta Regev-Rudzki,Franz L Ricklefs,Paul D Robbins,David D Roberts,Silvia C Rodrigues,Eva Rohde,Sophie Rome,Kasper Ma Rouschop,Aurelia Rughetti,Ashley E Russell,Paula Saá,Susmita Sahoo,Edison Salas-Huenuleo,Catherine Sánchez,Julie A Saugstad,Meike J Saul,Raymond M Schiffelers,Raphael Schneider,Tine Hiorth Schøyen,Aaron Scott,Eriomina Shahaj,Shivani Sharma,Olga Shatnyeva,Faezeh Shekari,Ganesh Vilas Shelke,Ashok K Shetty,Kiyotaka Shiba,Pia R-M Siljander,Andreia M Silva,Agata Skowronek,Orman L Snyder,Rodrigo Pedro Soares,Barbara W Sódar,Carolina Soekmadji,Javier Sotillo,Philip D Stahl,Willem Stoorvogel,Shannon L Stott,Erwin F Strasser,Simon Swift,Hidetoshi Tahara,Muneesh Tewari,Kate Timms,Swasti Tiwari,Rochelle Tixeira,Mercedes Tkach,Wei Seong Toh,Richard Tomasini,Ana Claudia Torrecilhas,Juan Pablo Tosar,Vasilis Toxavidis,Lorena Urbanelli,Pieter Vader,Bas Wm van Balkom,Susanne G van der Grein,Jan Van Deun,Martijn Jc van Herwijnen,Kendall Van Keuren-Jensen,Guillaume van Niel,Martin E van Royen,Andre J van Wijnen,M Helena Vasconcelos,Ivan J Vechetti,Tiago D Veit,Laura J Vella,Émilie Velot,Frederik J Verweij,Beate Vestad,Jose L Viñas,Tamás Visnovitz,Krisztina V Vukman,Jessica Wahlgren,Dionysios C Watson,Marca Hm Wauben,Alissa Weaver,Jason P Webber,Viktoria Weber,Ann M Wehman,Daniel J Weiss,Joshua A Welsh,Sebastian Wendt,Asa M Wheelock,Zoltán Wiener,Leonie Witte,Joy Wolfram,Angeliki Xagorari,Patricia Xander,Jing Xu,Xiaomei Yan,María Yáñez-Mó,Hang Yin,Yuana Yuana,Valentina Zappulli,Jana Zarubova,Vytautas Žėkas,Jian-Ye Zhang,Zezhou Zhao,Lei Zheng,Alexander R Zheutlin,Antje M Zickler,Pascale Zimmermann,Angela M Zivkovic,Davide Zocco,Ewa K Zuba-Surma

    The last decade has seen a sharp increase in the number of scientific publications describing physiological and pathological functions of extracellular vesicles (EVs), a collective term covering various subtypes of cell-released, membranous structures, called exosomes, microvesicles, microparticles, ectosomes, oncosomes, apoptotic bodies, and many other names. However, specific issues arise when working with these entities, whose size and amount often make them difficult to obtain as relatively pure preparations, and to characterize properly. The International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV) proposed Minimal Information for Studies of Extracellular Vesicles ("MISEV") guidelines for the field in 2014. We now update these "MISEV2014" guidelines based on evolution of the collective knowledge in the last four years. An important point to consider is that ascribing a specific function to EVs in general, or to subtypes of EVs, requires reporting of specific information beyond mere description of function in a crude, potentially contaminated, and heterogeneous preparation. For example, claims that exosomes are endowed with exquisite and specific activities remain difficult to support experimentally, given our still limited knowledge of their specific molecular machineries of biogenesis and release, as compared with other biophysically similar EVs. The MISEV2018 guidelines include tables and outlines of suggested protocols and steps to follow to document specific EV-associated functional activities. Finally, a checklist is provided with summaries of key points.

  • Analysis of extracellular RNA in cerebrospinal fluid.
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2017-07-19
    Julie A Saugstad,Theresa A Lusardi,Kendall R Van Keuren-Jensen,Jay I Phillips,Babett Lind,Christina A Harrington,Trevor J McFarland,Amanda L Courtright,Rebecca A Reiman,Ashish S Yeri,M Yashar S Kalani,P David Adelson,Jorge Arango,John P Nolan,Erika Duggan,Karen Messer,Johnny C Akers,Douglas R Galasko,Joseph F Quinn,Bob S Carter,Fred H Hochberg

    We examined the extracellular vesicle (EV) and RNA composition of pooled normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples and CSF from five major neurological disorders: Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), low-grade glioma (LGG), glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), and subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), representing neurodegenerative disease, cancer, and severe acute brain injury. We evaluated: (I) size and quantity of EVs by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and vesicle flow cytometry (VFC), (II) RNA yield and purity using four RNA isolation kits, (III) replication of RNA yields within and between laboratories, and (IV) composition of total and EV RNAs by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and RNA sequencing (RNASeq). The CSF contained ~106 EVs/μL by NTA and VFC. Brain tumour and SAH CSF contained more EVs and RNA relative to normal, AD, and PD. RT-qPCR and RNASeq identified disease-related populations of microRNAs and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) relative to normal CSF, in both total and EV fractions. This work presents relevant measures selected to inform the design of subsequent replicative CSF studies. The range of neurological diseases highlights variations in total and EV RNA content due to disease or collection site, revealing critical considerations guiding the selection of appropriate approaches and controls for CSF studies.

  • Extracellular RNAs: development as biomarkers of human disease.
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2015-09-01
    Joseph F Quinn,Tushar Patel,David Wong,Saumya Das,Jane E Freedman,Louise C Laurent,Bob S Carter,Fred Hochberg,Kendall Van Keuren-Jensen,Matt Huentelman,Robert Spetzler,M Yashar S Kalani,Jorge Arango,P David Adelson,Howard L Weiner,Roopali Gandhi,Beatrice Goilav,Chaim Putterman,Julie A Saugstad

    Ten ongoing studies designed to test the possibility that extracellular RNAs may serve as biomarkers in human disease are described. These studies, funded by the NIH Common Fund Extracellular RNA Communication Program, examine diverse extracellular body fluids, including plasma, serum, urine and cerebrospinal fluid. The disorders studied include hepatic and gastric cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, neurodegenerative disease, brain tumours, intracranial haemorrhage, multiple sclerosis and placental disorders. Progress to date and the plans for future studies are outlined.

  • Journal of extracellular vesicles: the seven year itch!
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2019-09-26
    Clotilde Théry,Yong Song Gho,Peter Quesenberry

  • Extracellular vesicles from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells support ex vivo survival of human antibody secreting cells.
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2018-05-02
    Doan C Nguyen,Holly C Lewis,Chester Joyner,Vivien Warren,Haopeng Xiao,Haydn T Kissick,Ronghu Wu,Jacques Galipeau,F Eun-Hyung Lee

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) from bone marrow (BM)-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSC) are novel mechanisms of cell-cell communication over short and long distances. BM-MSC have been shown to support human antibody secreting cells (ASC) survival ex vivo, but whether the crosstalk between the MSC-ASC interaction can occur via EVs is not known. Thus, we evaluated the role of EVs in ASC survival and IgG secretion. EVs were isolated from irradiated and non-irradiated primary BM-MSC and were quantified. They were further characterized by electron microscopy (EM) and CD63 and CD81 immuno-gold EM staining. Human ASC were isolated via fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and cultured ex vivo with the EV fractions, the EV-reduced fractions, or conventional media. IgG Elispots were used to measure the survival and functionality of the ASC. Contents of the EV fractions were evaluated by proteomics. We saw that both irradiated and non-irradiated MSC secretome preparations afforded vesicles of a size consistent with EVs. Both preparations appeared comparable in EM morphology and CD63 and CD81 immuno-gold EM. Both irradiated and non-irradiated EV fractions supported ASC function, at 88% and 90%, respectively, by day 3. In contrast, conventional media maintained only 4% ASC survival by day 3. To identify the specific factors that provided in vitro ASC support, we compared proteomes of the irradiated and non-irradiated EV fractions with conventional media. Pathway analysis of these proteins identified factors involved in the vesicle-mediated delivery of integrin signalling proteins. These findings indicate that BM-MSC EVs provide an effective support system for ASC survival and IgG secretion.

  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Erratum: Evaluation of serum extracellular vesicle isolation methods for profiling miRNAs by Next-Generation Sequencing.
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2019-03-21
    Dominik Buschmann,Benedikt Kirchner,Stefanie Hermann,Melanie Märte,Christine Wurmser,Florian Brandes,Stefan Kotschote,Michael Bonin,Ortrud K Steinlein,Michael W Pfaffl,Gustav Schelling,Marlene Reithmair

    [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1080/20013078.2018.1481321.].

  • Single exosome study reveals subpopulations distributed among cell lines with variability related to membrane content.
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2015-12-10
    Zachary J Smith,Changwon Lee,Tatu Rojalin,Randy P Carney,Sidhartha Hazari,Alisha Knudson,Kit Lam,Heikki Saari,Elisa Lazaro Ibañez,Tapani Viitala,Timo Laaksonen,Marjo Yliperttula,Sebastian Wachsmann-Hogiu

    Current analysis of exosomes focuses primarily on bulk analysis, where exosome-to-exosome variability cannot be assessed. In this study, we used Raman spectroscopy to study the chemical composition of single exosomes. We measured spectra of individual exosomes from 8 cell lines. Cell-line-averaged spectra varied considerably, reflecting the variation in total exosomal protein, lipid, genetic, and cytosolic content. Unexpectedly, single exosomes isolated from the same cell type also exhibited high spectral variability. Subsequent spectral analysis revealed clustering of single exosomes into 4 distinct groups that were not cell-line specific. Each group contained exosomes from multiple cell lines, and most cell lines had exosomes in multiple groups. The differences between these groups are related to chemical differences primarily due to differing membrane composition. Through a principal components analysis, we identified that the major sources of spectral variation among the exosomes were in cholesterol content, relative expression of phospholipids to cholesterol, and surface protein expression. For example, exosomes derived from cancerous versus non-cancerous cell lines can be largely separated based on their relative expression of cholesterol and phospholipids. We are the first to indicate that exosome subpopulations are shared among cell types, suggesting distributed exosome functionality. The origins of these differences are likely related to the specific role of extracellular vesicle subpopulations in both normal cell function and carcinogenesis, and they may provide diagnostic potential at the single exosome level.

  • Large-scale, cross-flow based isolation of highly pure and endocytosis-competent extracellular vesicles.
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2018-12-12
    Ryan P McNamara,Carolina P Caro-Vegas,Lindsey M Costantini,Justin T Landis,Jack D Griffith,Blossom A Damania,Dirk P Dittmer

    Isolation of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from cell culture supernatant or plasma can be accomplished in a variety of ways. Common measures to quantify relative success are: concentration of the EVs, purity from non-EVs associated protein, size homogeneity and functionality of the final product. Here, we present an industrial-scale workflow for isolating highly pure and functional EVs using cross-flow based filtration coupled with high-molecular weight Capto Core size exclusion. Through this combination, EVs loss is kept to a minimum. It outperforms other isolation procedures based on a number of biochemical and biophysical assays. Moreover, EVs isolated through this method can be further concentrated down or directly immunopurified to obtain discreet populations of EVs. From our results, we propose that cross-flow/Capto Core isolation is a robust method of purifying highly concentrated, homogenous, and functionally active EVs from industrial-scale input volumes with few contaminants relative to other methods.

  • Summary of the ISEV workshop on extracellular vesicles as disease biomarkers, held in Birmingham, UK, during December 2017.
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2019-06-05
    Aled Clayton,Dominik Buschmann,J Brian Byrd,David R F Carter,Lesley Cheng,Carolyn Compton,George Daaboul,Andrew Devitt,Juan Manuel Falcon-Perez,Chris Gardiner,Dakota Gustafson,Paul Harrison,Clemens Helmbrecht,An Hendrix,Andrew Hill,Andrew Hoffman,Jennifer C Jones,Raghu Kalluri,Ji Yoon Kang,Benedikt Kirchner,Cecilia Lässer,Charlotte Lawson,Metka Lenassi,Carina Levin,Alicia Llorente,Elena S Martens-Uzunova,Andreas Möller,Luca Musante,Takahiro Ochiya,Ryan C Pink,Hidetoshi Tahara,Marca H M Wauben,Jason P Webber,Joshua A Welsh,Kenneth W Witwer,Hang Yin,Rienk Nieuwland

    This report summarises the presentations and activities of the ISEV Workshop on extracellular vesicle biomarkers held in Birmingham, UK during December 2017. Among the key messages was broad agreement about the importance of biospecimen science. Much greater attention needs to be paid towards the provenance of collected samples. The workshop also highlighted clear gaps in our knowledge about pre-analytical factors that alter extracellular vesicles (EVs). The future utility of certified standards for credentialing of instruments and software, to analyse EV and for tracking the influence of isolation steps on the structure and content of EVs were also discussed. Several example studies were presented, demonstrating the potential utility for EVs in disease diagnosis, prognosis, longitudinal serial testing and stratification of patients. The conclusion of the workshop was that more effort focused on pre-analytical issues and benchmarking of isolation methods is needed to strengthen collaborations and advance more effective biomarkers.

  • Clinical research using extracellular vesicles: insights from the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles 2018 Annual Meeting.
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2019-06-05
    Morsi Rayyan,Alex Zheutlin,James Brian Byrd

    The abstracts presented at the 2018 International Society for Extracellular Vesicles Annual Meeting offer unique insight into the newest discoveries related to the biology and applied use of extracellular vesicles (EVs). As an extension of a recent "Clinical-Wrap Up" discussion at the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles 2018 Annual Meeting, a systematic review of each abstract was performed to determine which abstracts could be considered clinical research. Once the clinical research abstracts were identified, systematic data extraction included: the major focus of each clinical research abstract; the countries in which the work was done; and the sample size, if provided in the abstract. Each abstract was reviewed by two independent authors, with a third author resolving discrepancies in cases of disagreement. 174 out of 656 (27%) unique abstracts were determined to be clinical research. Oncology was a principal research focus (51 of the 174 clinical research abstracts, 29%). Many other clinical research abstracts presented at the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles 2018 Annual Meeting focused on the use of human samples for development of methods for potential application in the clinic. Beyond oncology and methods development, a wide range of topics was represented, including cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disease, genetics, and many others. Current research involving EVs highlights the common, but false dichotomy of science into curiosity-driven basic science or application-driven clinical research, when in fact both quest for understanding and intent to apply the findings appeared to drive much of the work at the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles 2018 Annual Meeting. Using Pasteur's Quadrant as a framework, we discuss where the field of EV research is heading and how we may gain insight into the biological function of EVs in tandem with how they may benefit individual health.

  • Announcing the ISEV2019 special achievement award recipients: Takahiro Ochiya and Marca Wauben.
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2019-06-06
    Kenneth W Witwer,Andrew F Hill,Hidetoshi Tahara

  • Towards mechanisms and standardization in extracellular vesicle and extracellular RNA studies: results of a worldwide survey.
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2018-10-30
    Carolina Soekmadji,Andrew F Hill,Marca H Wauben,Edit I Buzás,Dolores Di Vizio,Chris Gardiner,Jan Lötvall,Susmita Sahoo,Kenneth W Witwer

    The discovery that extracellular vesicles (EVs) can transfer functional extracellular RNAs (exRNAs) between cells opened new avenues into the study of EVs in health and disease. Growing interest in EV RNAs and other forms of exRNA has given rise to research programmes including but not limited to the Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium (ERCC) of the US National Institutes of Health. In 2017, the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV) administered a survey focusing on EVs and exRNA to canvass-related views and perceived needs of the EV research community. Here, we report the results of this survey. Overall, respondents emphasized opportunities for technical developments, unraveling of molecular mechanisms and standardization of methodologies to increase understanding of the important roles of exRNAs in the broader context of EV science. In conclusion, although exRNA biology is a relatively recent emphasis in the EV field, it has driven considerable interest and resource commitment. The ISEV community looks forward to continuing developments in the science of exRNA and EVs, but without excluding other important molecular constituents of EVs.

  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Engineering mesenchymal stem cells to improve their exosome efficacy and yield for cell-free therapy.
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2018-10-03
    Jennifer Phan,Priyadarsini Kumar,Dake Hao,Kewa Gao,Diana Farmer,Aijun Wang

    Through traditional medicine, there were diseases and disorders that previously remained untreated or were simply thought to be incurable. Since the discovery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), there has been a flurry of research to develop MSC-based therapy for diseases and disorders. It is now well-known that MSCs do not typically engraft after transplantation and exhibit their therapeutic effect via a paracrine mechanism. In addition to secretory proteins, MSCs also produce extracellular vesicles (EVs), membrane-bound nanovesicles containing proteins, DNA and RNA. The secreted vesicles then interact with target cells and deliver their contents, imparting their ultimate therapeutic effect. Unlike the widely studied cancer cells, the yield of MSC-exosomes is a limiting factor for large-scale production for cell-free therapies. Here we summarise potential approaches to increase the yield of such vesicles while maintaining or enhancing their efficacy by engineering the extracellular environment and intracellular components of MSCs.

  • Glycosylated extracellular vesicles released by glioblastoma cells are decorated by CCL18 allowing for cellular uptake via chemokine receptor CCR8.
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2018-04-27
    Jordi Berenguer,Tonny Lagerweij,Xi Wen Zhao,Sophie Dusoswa,Petra van der Stoop,Bart Westerman,Mark C de Gooijer,Marloes Zoetemelk,Anoek Zomer,Matheus H W Crommentuijn,Laurine E Wedekind,Àlan López-López,Alberta Giovanazzi,Marina Bruch-Oms,Ida H van der Meulen-Muileman,Rogier M Reijmers,Toin H van Kuppevelt,Juan-Jesús García-Vallejo,Yvette van Kooyk,Bakhos A Tannous,Pieter Wesseling,Danijela Koppers-Lalic,W Peter Vandertop,David P Noske,Victor W van Beusechem,Jacco van Rheenen,D Michiel Pegtel,Olaf van Tellingen,Thomas Wurdinger

    Cancer cells release extracellular vesicles (EVs) that contain functional biomolecules such as RNA and proteins. EVs are transferred to recipient cancer cells and can promote tumour progression and therapy resistance. Through RNAi screening, we identified a novel EV uptake mechanism involving a triple interaction between the chemokine receptor CCR8 on the cells, glycans exposed on EVs and the soluble ligand CCL18. This ligand acts as bridging molecule, connecting EVs to cancer cells. We show that glioblastoma EVs promote cell proliferation and resistance to the alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ). Using in vitro and in vivo stem-like glioblastoma models, we demonstrate that EV-induced phenotypes are neutralised by a small molecule CCR8 inhibitor, R243. Interference with chemokine receptors may offer therapeutic opportunities against EV-mediated cross-talk in glioblastoma.

  • Evaluation of serum extracellular vesicle isolation methods for profiling miRNAs by next-generation sequencing.
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2018-06-12
    Dominik Buschmann,Benedikt Kirchner,Stefanie Hermann,Melanie Märte,Christine Wurmser,Florian Brandes,Stefan Kotschote,Michael Bonin,Ortrud K Steinlein,Michael W Pfaffl,Gustav Schelling,Marlene Reithmair

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are intercellular communicators with key functions in physiological and pathological processes and have recently garnered interest because of their diagnostic and therapeutic potential. The past decade has brought about the development and commercialization of a wide array of methods to isolate EVs from serum. Which subpopulations of EVs are captured strongly depends on the isolation method, which in turn determines how suitable resulting samples are for various downstream applications. To help clinicians and scientists choose the most appropriate approach for their experiments, isolation methods need to be comparatively characterized. Few attempts have been made to comprehensively analyse vesicular microRNAs (miRNAs) in patient biofluids for biomarker studies. To address this discrepancy, we set out to benchmark the performance of several isolation principles for serum EVs in healthy individuals and critically ill patients. Here, we compared five different methods of EV isolation in combination with two RNA extraction methods regarding their suitability for biomarker discovery-focused miRNA sequencing as well as biological characteristics of captured vesicles. Our findings reveal striking method-specific differences in both the properties of isolated vesicles and the ability of associated miRNAs to serve in biomarker research. While isolation by precipitation and membrane affinity was highly suitable for miRNA-based biomarker discovery, methods based on size-exclusion chromatography failed to separate patients from healthy volunteers. Isolated vesicles differed in size, quantity, purity and composition, indicating that each method captured distinctive populations of EVs as well as additional contaminants. Even though the focus of this work was on transcriptomic profiling of EV-miRNAs, our insights also apply to additional areas of research. We provide guidance for navigating the multitude of EV isolation methods available today and help researchers and clinicians make an informed choice about which strategy to use for experiments involving critically ill patients.

  • Large extracellular vesicles carry most of the tumour DNA circulating in prostate cancer patient plasma.
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2018-08-16
    Tatyana Vagner,Cristiana Spinelli,Valentina R Minciacchi,Leonora Balaj,Mandana Zandian,Andrew Conley,Andries Zijlstra,Michael R Freeman,Francesca Demichelis,Subhajyoti De,Edwin M Posadas,Hisashi Tanaka,Dolores Di Vizio

    Cancer-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-enclosed structures of highly variable size. EVs contain a myriad of substances (proteins, lipid, RNA, DNA) that provide a reservoir of circulating molecules, thus offering a good source of biomarkers. We demonstrate here that large EVs (L-EV) (large oncosomes) isolated from prostate cancer (PCa) cells and patient plasma are an EV population that is enriched in chromosomal DNA, including large fragments up to 2 million base pair long. While L-EVs and small EVs (S-EV) (exosomes) isolated from the same cells contained similar amounts of protein, the DNA was more abundant in L-EV, despite S-EVs being more numerous. Consistent with in vitro observations, the abundance of DNA in L-EV obtained from PCa patient plasma was variable but frequently high. Conversely, negligible amounts of DNA were present in the S-EVs from the same patients. Controlled experimental conditions, with spike-ins of L-EVs and S-EVs from cancer cells in human plasma from healthy subjects, showed that circulating DNA is almost exclusively enclosed in L-EVs. Whole genome sequencing revealed that the DNA in L-EVs reflects genetic aberrations of the cell of origin, including copy number variations of genes frequently altered in metastatic PCa (i.e. MYC, AKT1, PTK2, KLF10 and PTEN). These results demonstrate that L-EV-derived DNA reflects the genomic make-up of the tumour of origin. They also support the conclusion that L-EVs are the fraction of plasma EVs with DNA content that should be interrogated for tumour-derived genomic alterations.

  • Ready-made chromatography columns for extracellular vesicle isolation from plasma.
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2015-03-31
    Joanne Louise Welton,Jason Paul Webber,Laur-Alexandru Botos,Michael Jones,Aled Clayton

    Proteomic studies of circulating vesicles are hampered by difficulties in purifying vesicles from plasma and serum. Isolations are contaminated with high-abundance blood proteins that may mask genuine vesicular-associated proteins and/or simply provide misleading data. In this brief report, we explored the potential utility of a commercially available size exclusion chromatography column for rapid vesicle purification. We evaluated the performance of the column, with cancer cell line conditioned medium or healthy donor plasma, in terms of removing non-vesicular protein and enriching for vesicles exhibiting exosome characteristics. Serial fractions revealed a peak for typical exosomal proteins (CD9, CD81 etc.) that preceded the peak for highly abundant proteins, including albumin, for either sample type, and harvesting only this peak would represent elimination of >95% of protein from the sample. The columns showed good reproducibility, and streamlining the workflow would allow the exosome-relevant material to be collected in less than 10 minutes. Surprisingly, however, subsequent post-column vesicle concentration steps whilst resulting in some protein loss also lead to low vesicle recoveries, with a net effect of reducing sample purity (assessed by the particle-to-protein ratio). The columns provide a convenient, reproducible and highly effective means of eliminating >95% of non-vesicular protein from biological fluid samples such as plasma.

  • Updating the MISEV minimal requirements for extracellular vesicle studies: building bridges to reproducibility.
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2017-12-01
    Kenneth W Witwer,Carolina Soekmadji,Andrew F Hill,Marca H Wauben,Edit I Buzás,Dolores Di Vizio,Juan M Falcon-Perez,Chris Gardiner,Fred Hochberg,Igor V Kurochkin,Jan Lötvall,Suresh Mathivanan,Rienk Nieuwland,Susmita Sahoo,Hidetoshi Tahara,Ana Claudia Torrecilhas,Alissa M Weaver,Hang Yin,Lei Zheng,Yong Song Gho,Peter Quesenberry,Clotilde Théry

  • Confounding factors in vesicle uptake studies using fluorescent lipophilic membrane dyes.
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2017-12-01
    Kaloyan Takov,Derek M Yellon,Sean M Davidson

    Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) such as exosomes are nanocarriers of proteins, RNAs and DNAs. Isolation of pure sEV populations remains challenging, with reports of protein and lipoprotein contaminants in the isolates. Cellular uptake - a cornerstone for understanding exosome and sEV function - is frequently examined using lipophilic dyes such as PKH67 or CellMask to label the vesicles. In this study, we investigated whether contaminants can confound the outcomes from sEV and exosomes uptake experiments. sEVs were isolated from blood plasma of fasted or non-fasted rats as well as from serum-supplemented or serum-free conditioned cell culture medium using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Eluent fractions were characterized using nanoparticle tracking, protein and triglyceride assays and immunoassays. SEC fractions were labelled with different lipophilic dyes and cellular uptake was quantified using endothelial cells or primary cardiomyocytes. We report co-isolation of sEVs with apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. Cellular dye transfer did not correspond to sEV content of the SEC fractions, but was severely affected by lipoprotein and protein content. Overnight fasting of rats decreased lipoprotein content and also decreased dye transfer, while late, sEV-poor/protein-rich fractions demonstrated even greater dye transfer. The potential for dye transfer to occur in the complete absence of sEVs was clearly shown by experiments using staining of sEV-depleted serum or pure protein sample. In conclusion, proteins and lipoproteins can make a substantial contribution to transfer of lipophilic dyes to recipient cells. Considering the likelihood of contamination of sEV and exosome isolates, lipophilic dye staining experiments should be carefully controlled, and conclusions interpreted with caution.

  • Metastatic state of parent cells influences the uptake and functionality of prostate cancer cell-derived extracellular vesicles.
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2017-08-19
    Elisa Lázaro-Ibáñez,Maarit Neuvonen,Maarit Takatalo,Uma Thanigai Arasu,Cristian Capasso,Vincenzo Cerullo,Johng S Rhim,Kirsi Rilla,Marjo Yliperttula,Pia R-M Siljander

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including microvesicles and exosomes, mediate intercellular signalling which has a profound role in cancer progression and in the development of metastasis. Internalisation of EVs can prompt functional changes in the recipient cells, the nature of which depends on the molecular composition and the cargo of the EVs. We hypothesised that the metastatic stage of cancerous parent cells would determine the uptake efficacy and the subsequent functional effects of the respective cancer cell-derived EVs. To address this question, we compared the internalisation of EVs derived from two metastatic site-derived prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3 and LNCaP), human telomerase reverse transcriptase immortalised primary malignant prostate epithelial cells (RC92a/hTERT), and a benign epithelial prostate cell line (PNT2). EVs isolated from the metastatic site-derived PC-3 and LNCaP cells were more efficiently internalised by the PC-3 and PNT2 cells compared to the EVs from the primary malignant RC92a/hTERT cells or the benign PNT2 cells, as determined by high content microscopy, confocal microscopy, and flow cytometry. EV uptake was also influenced by the phase of the cell cycle, so that an increased EV-derived fluorescence signal was observed in the cells at the G2/M phase compared to the G0/G1 or S phases. Finally, differences were also observed in the functions of the recipient cells based on the EV source. Proliferation of PNT2 cells and to a lesser extent also PC-3 cells was enhanced particularly by the EVs from the metastatic-site-derived prostate cancer cells in comparison to the EVs from the benign cells or primary cancer cells, whereas migration of PC-3 cells was enhanced by all cancerous EVs. RESPONSIBLE EDITOR Takahiro Ochiya, National Cancer Center, Japan.

  • Comprehensive toxicity and immunogenicity studies reveal minimal effects in mice following sustained dosing of extracellular vesicles derived from HEK293T cells.
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2017-07-19
    Xiaohua Zhu,Mohamed Badawi,Steven Pomeroy,Dhruvitkumar S Sutaria,Zhiliang Xie,Alice Baek,Jinmai Jiang,Ola A Elgamal,Xiaokui Mo,Krista La Perle,Jeffrey Chalmers,Thomas D Schmittgen,Mitch A Phelps

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are under evaluation as therapeutics or as vehicles for drug delivery. Preclinical studies of EVs often use mice or other animal models to assess efficacy and disposition. However, as most EVs under evaluation are derived from human cells, they may elicit immune responses which may contribute to toxicities or enhanced EV clearance. Furthermore, EVs from different cell sources or EVs comprising various cargo may differ with respect to immunogenicity or toxicity. To assess EV-induced immune response and toxicity, we dosed C57BL/6 mice with EVs intravenously and intraperitoneally for 3 weeks. EVs were harvested from wild type or engineered HEK293T cells which were modified to produce EVs loaded with miR-199a-3p and chimeric proteins. Blood was collected to assess hematology, blood chemistry, and immune markers. Spleen cells were immunophenotyped, and tissues were harvested for gross necropsy and histopathological examination. No signs of toxicity were observed, and minimal evidence of changes in immune markers were noted in mice dosed with engineered, but not with wild type EVs. This study provides a framework for assessment of immunogenicity and toxicity that will be required as EVs from varying cell sources are tested within numerous animal models and eventually in humans.

  • Platelet extracellular vesicles induce a pro-inflammatory smooth muscle cell phenotype.
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2017-07-19
    Tanja Vajen,Birke J Benedikter,Alexandra C A Heinzmann,Elena M Vasina,Yvonne Henskens,Martin Parsons,Patricia B Maguire,Frank R Stassen,Johan W M Heemskerk,Leon J Schurgers,Rory R Koenen

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are mediators of cell communication during health and disease, and abundantly released by platelets upon activation or during ageing. Platelet EVs exert modulatory effects on immune and vascular cells. Platelet EVs may modulate the function of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC). Platelet EVs were isolated from platelet-rich plasma and incubated with SMC in order to assess binding, proliferation, migration and pro-inflammatory phenotype of the cells. Platelet EVs firmly bound to resting SMC through the platelet integrin αIIbβ3, while binding also occurred in a CX3CL1-CX3CR1-dependent manner after cytokine stimulation. Platelet EVs increased SMC migration comparable to platelet derived growth factor or platelet factor 4 and induced SMC proliferation, which relied on CD40- and P-selectin interactions. Flow-resistant monocyte adhesion to platelet EV-treated SMC was increased compared with resting SMC. Again, this adhesion depended on integrin αIIbβ3 and P-selectin, and to a lesser extent on CD40 and CX3CR1. Treatment of SMC with platelet EVs induced interleukin 6 secretion. Finally, platelet EVs induced a synthetic SMC morphology and decreased calponin expression. Collectively, these data indicate that platelet EVs exert a strong immunomodulatory activity on SMC. In particular, platelet EVs induce a switch towards a pro-inflammatory phenotype, stimulating vascular remodelling.

  • Feasibility of urinary extracellular vesicle proteome profiling using a robust and simple, clinically applicable isolation method.
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2017-07-19
    Irene V Bijnsdorp,Olga Maxouri,Aarzo Kardar,Tim Schelfhorst,Sander R Piersma,Thang V Pham,Andre Vis,R Jeroen van Moorselaar,Connie R Jimenez

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by prostate cancer (PCa) cells contain specific biomarkers and can be isolated from urine. Collection of urine is not invasive, and therefore urinary EVs represent a liquid biopsy for diagnostic and prognostic testing for PCa. In this study, we optimised urinary EV isolation using a method based on heat shock proteins and compared it to gold-standard ultracentrifugation. The urinary EV isolation protocol using the Vn96-peptide is easier, time convenient (≈1.5 h) and no special equipment is needed, in contrast to ultracentrifugation protocol (>3.5 h), making this protocol clinically feasible. We compared the isolated vesicles of both ultracentrifugation and Vn96-peptide by proteome profiling using mass spectrometry-based proteomics (n = 4 per method). We reached a depth of >3000 proteins, with 2400 proteins that were commonly detected in urinary EVs from different donors. We show a large overlap (>85%) between proteins identified in EVs isolated by ultracentrifugation and Vn96-peptide. Addition of the detergent NP40 to Vn96-peptide EV isolations reduced levels of background proteins and highly increased the levels of the EV-markers TSG101 and PDCD6IP, indicative of an increased EV yield. Thus, the Vn96-peptide-based EV isolation procedure is clinically feasibly and allows large-scale protein profiling of urinary EV biomarkers.

  • Unique molecular profile of exosomes derived from primary human proximal tubular epithelial cells under diseased conditions.
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2017-05-06
    Xiangju Wang,Ray Wilkinson,Katrina Kildey,Jeremy Potriquet,Jason Mulvenna,Richard J Lobb,Andreas Möller,Nicole Cloonan,Pamela Mukhopadhyay,Andrew J Kassianos,Helen Healy

    Human proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTEC) of the kidney are known to respond to and mediate the disease process in a wide range of kidney diseases, yet their exosomal production and exosome molecular cargo remain a mystery. Here we investigate, for the first time, the production and molecular content of exosomes derived from primary human PTEC cultured under normal and diseased conditions representing a spectrum of in vivo disease severity from early inflammation, experienced in multiple initial kidney disease states, through to hypoxia, frequently seen in late stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to fibrosis and vascular compromise. We demonstrate a rapid reproducible methodology for the purification of PTEC-derived exosomes, identify increased numbers of exosomes from disease-state cultures and identify differential expression levels of both known and unique miRNA and protein species from exosomes derived from different disease-culture conditions. The validity of our approach is supported by the identification of miRNA, proteins and pathways with known CKD associations, providing a rationale to further evaluate these novel and known pathways as targets for therapeutic intervention.

  • Display of GPI-anchored anti-EGFR nanobodies on extracellular vesicles promotes tumour cell targeting.
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2016-03-17
    Sander A A Kooijmans,Clara Gómez Aleza,Steve R Roffler,Wouter W van Solinge,Pieter Vader,Raymond M Schiffelers

    BACKGROUND Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are attractive candidate drug delivery systems due to their ability to functionally transport biological cargo to recipient cells. However, the apparent lack of target cell specificity of exogenously administered EVs limits their therapeutic applicability. In this study, we propose a novel method to equip EVs with targeting properties, in order to improve their interaction with tumour cells. METHODS EV producing cells were transfected with vectors encoding for anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) nanobodies, which served as targeting ligands for tumour cells, fused to glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor signal peptides derived from decay-accelerating factor (DAF). EVs were isolated using ultrafiltration/size-exclusion liquid chromatography and characterized using western blotting, Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, and electron microscopy. EV-tumour cell interactions were analyzed under static conditions using flow cytometry and under flow conditions using a live-cell fluorescence microscopy-coupled perfusion system. RESULTS EV analysis showed that GPI-linked nanobodies were successfully displayed on EV surfaces and were highly enriched in EVs compared with parent cells. Display of GPI-linked nanobodies on EVs did not alter general EV characteristics (i.e. morphology, size distribution and protein marker expression), but greatly improved EV binding to tumour cells dependent on EGFR density under static conditions. Moreover, nanobody-displaying EVs showed a significantly improved cell association to EGFR-expressing tumour cells under flow conditions. CONCLUSIONS We show that nanobodies can be anchored on the surface of EVs via GPI, which alters their cell targeting behaviour. Furthermore, this study highlights GPI-anchoring as a new tool in the EV toolbox, which may be applied for EV display of a variety of proteins, such as antibodies, reporter proteins and signaling molecules.

  • Specific renal parenchymal-derived urinary extracellular vesicles identify age-associated structural changes in living donor kidneys.
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2016-02-04
    Anne E Turco,Wing Lam,Andrew D Rule,Aleksandar Denic,John C Lieske,Virginia M Miller,Joseph J Larson,Walter K Kremers,Muthuvel Jayachandran

    Non-invasive tests to identify age and early disease-associated pathology within the kidney are needed. Specific populations of urinary extracellular vesicles (EVs) could potentially be used for such a diagnostic test. Random urine samples were obtained from age- and sex-stratified living kidney donors before kidney donation. A biopsy of the donor kidney was obtained at the time of transplantation to identify nephron hypertrophy (larger glomerular volume, cortex per glomerulus and mean profile tubular area) and nephrosclerosis (% fibrosis, % glomerulosclerosis and arteriosclerosis). Renal parenchymal-derived EVs in cell-free urine were quantified by digital flow cytometry. The relationship between these EV populations and structural pathology on the kidney biopsy was assessed. Clinical characteristics of the kidney donors (n=138, age range: 20-70 years, 50% women) were within the normative range. Overall, urine from women contained more EVs than that from men. The number of exosomes, juxtaglomerular cells and podocyte marker-positive EVs decreased (p<0.05) with increasing age. There were fewer total EVs as well as EVs positive for mesangial cell, parietal cell, descending limb of Henle's loop (simple squamous epithelium), collecting tubule-intercalated cell and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 markers (p<0.05) in persons with nephron hypertrophy. The number of EVs positive for intercellular adhesion molecule-1, juxtaglomerular cell, podocyte, parietal cell, proximal tubular epithelial cell, distal tubular epithelial cell and collecting duct cells were fewer (p<0.05) in persons with nephrosclerosis. EVs carrying markers of cells from the renal pelvis epithelium did not associate with any indices of nephron hypertrophy or nephrosclerosis. Therefore, specific populations of EVs derived from cells of the glomerulus and nephron associate with underlying kidney structural changes. Further validation of these findings in other cohorts is needed to determine their clinical utility.

  • Ribonucleic artefacts: are some extracellular RNA discoveries driven by cell culture medium components?
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2017-03-23
    Juan Pablo Tosar,Alfonso Cayota,Erez Eitan,Marc K Halushka,Kenneth W Witwer

    In a recently published study, Anna Krichevsky and colleagues raise the important question of whether results of in vitro extracellular RNA (exRNA) studies, including extracellular vesicle (EV) investigations, are confounded by the presence of RNA in cell culture medium components such as foetal bovine serum (FBS). The answer, according to their data, is a resounding "yes". Even after lengthy ultracentrifugation to remove bovine EVs from FBS, the majority of exRNA in FBS remained. Although technical factors may affect the degree of depletion, residual EVs and exRNA in FBS could influence the conclusions of in vitro studies: certainly, for secreted RNA, and possibly also for cell-associated RNA. In this commentary, we critically examine some of the literature in this field, including a recent study from some of the authors of this piece, in light of the Wei et al. study and explore how cell culture-derived RNAs may affect what we think we know about EV RNAs. These findings hold particular consequence as the field moves towards a deeper understanding of EV-RNA associations and potential functions.

  • Applying extracellular vesicles based therapeutics in clinical trials - an ISEV position paper.
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2016-01-05
    Thomas Lener,Mario Gimona,Ludwig Aigner,Verena Börger,Edit Buzas,Giovanni Camussi,Nathalie Chaput,Devasis Chatterjee,Felipe A Court,Hernando A Del Portillo,Lorraine O'Driscoll,Stefano Fais,Juan M Falcon-Perez,Ursula Felderhoff-Mueser,Lorenzo Fraile,Yong Song Gho,André Görgens,Ramesh C Gupta,An Hendrix,Dirk M Hermann,Andrew F Hill,Fred Hochberg,Peter A Horn,Dominique de Kleijn,Lambros Kordelas,Boris W Kramer,Eva-Maria Krämer-Albers,Sandra Laner-Plamberger,Saara Laitinen,Tommaso Leonardi,Magdalena J Lorenowicz,Sai Kiang Lim,Jan Lötvall,Casey A Maguire,Antonio Marcilla,Irina Nazarenko,Takahiro Ochiya,Tushar Patel,Shona Pedersen,Gabriella Pocsfalvi,Stefano Pluchino,Peter Quesenberry,Ilona G Reischl,Francisco J Rivera,Ralf Sanzenbacher,Katharina Schallmoser,Ineke Slaper-Cortenbach,Dirk Strunk,Torsten Tonn,Pieter Vader,Bas W M van Balkom,Marca Wauben,Samir El Andaloussi,Clotilde Théry,Eva Rohde,Bernd Giebel

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes and microvesicles, are released by different cell types and participate in physiological and pathophysiological processes. EVs mediate intercellular communication as cell-derived extracellular signalling organelles that transmit specific information from their cell of origin to their target cells. As a result of these properties, EVs of defined cell types may serve as novel tools for various therapeutic approaches, including (a) anti-tumour therapy, (b) pathogen vaccination, (c) immune-modulatory and regenerative therapies and (d) drug delivery. The translation of EVs into clinical therapies requires the categorization of EV-based therapeutics in compliance with existing regulatory frameworks. As the classification defines subsequent requirements for manufacturing, quality control and clinical investigation, it is of major importance to define whether EVs are considered the active drug components or primarily serve as drug delivery vehicles. For an effective and particularly safe translation of EV-based therapies into clinical practice, a high level of cooperation between researchers, clinicians and competent authorities is essential. In this position statement, basic and clinical scientists, as members of the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV) and of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) program of the European Union, namely European Network on Microvesicles and Exosomes in Health and Disease (ME-HaD), summarize recent developments and the current knowledge of EV-based therapies. Aspects of safety and regulatory requirements that must be considered for pharmaceutical manufacturing and clinical application are highlighted. Production and quality control processes are discussed. Strategies to promote the therapeutic application of EVs in future clinical studies are addressed.

  • Essentials of extracellular vesicles: posters on basic and clinical aspects of extracellular vesicles.
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2018-12-12
    Rienk Nieuwland,Juan Manuel Falcon-Perez,Carolina Soekmadji,Eric Boilard,Dave Carter,Edit I Buzas

    The past decade has witnessed an exponential development in the field of extracellular vesicles. Sporadic observations have reached a critical level and the scientific community increasingly recognizes the potential biomedical significance of these subcellular structures present in all body fluids as significant components of the cellular secretome. The Educational Committee of the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles prepared two posters ("Basic aspects of extracellular vesicles" and "Clinical aspects of extracellular vesicles") to provide essential pieces of information on extracellular vesicles at glance for anyone not familiar with the field.

  • Newt cells secrete extracellular vesicles with therapeutic bioactivity in mammalian cardiomyocytes.
    J. Extracell. Vesicles (IF 11) Pub Date : 2018-04-27
    Ryan C Middleton,Russell G Rogers,Geoffrey De Couto,Eleni Tseliou,Kristin Luther,Ronald Holewinski,Daniel Soetkamp,Jennifer E Van Eyk,Travis J Antes,Eduardo Marbán

    Newts can regenerate amputated limbs and cardiac tissue, unlike mammals which lack broad regenerative capacity. Several signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and survival during newt tissue regeneration have been elucidated, however the factors that coordinate signaling between cells, as well as the conservation of these factors in other animals, are not well defined. Here we report that media conditioned by newt limb explant cells (A1 cells) protect mammalian cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. The cytoprotective effect of A1-conditioned media was negated by exposing A1 cells to GW4869, which suppresses the generation of extracellular vesicles (EVs). A1-EVs are similar in diameter (~100-150 nm), structure, and share several membrane surface and cargo proteins with mammalian exosomes. However, isolated A1-EVs contain significantly higher levels of both RNA and protein per particle than mammalian EVs. Additionally, numerous cargo RNAs and proteins are unique to A1-EVs. Of particular note, A1-EVs contain numerous mRNAs encoding nuclear receptors, membrane ligands, as well as transcription factors. Mammalian cardiomyocytes treated with A1-EVs showed increased expression of genes in the PI3K/AKT pathway, a pivotal player in survival signaling. We conclude that newt cells secrete EVs with diverse, distinctive RNA and protein contents. Despite ~300 million years of evolutionary divergence between newts and mammals, newt EVs confer cytoprotective effects on mammalian cardiomyocytes.

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