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  • Organization of the Pluripotent Genome
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-09-14
    Patrick S.L. Lim; Eran Meshorer

    In the past several decades, the establishment of in vitro models of pluripotency has ushered in a golden era for developmental and stem cell biology. Research in this arena has led to profound insights into the regulatory features that shape early embryonic development. Nevertheless, an integrative theory of the epigenetic principles that govern the pluripotent nucleus remains elusive. Here, we summarize

    更新日期:2020-09-15
  • Next-Generation Biomaterials for Culture and Manipulation of Stem Cells.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    Koichiro Uto,Christopher K Arakawa,Cole A DeForest

    Stem cell fate decisions are informed by physical and chemical cues presented within and by the extracellular matrix. Despite the generally attributed importance of extracellular cues in governing self-renewal, differentiation, and collective behavior, knowledge gaps persist with regard to the individual, synergistic, and competing effects that specific physiochemical signals have on cell function

    更新日期:2020-09-01
  • Capturing Stem Cell Behavior Using Intravital and Live Cell Microscopy.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    Arianna Fumagalli,Lotte Bruens,Colinda L G J Scheele,Jacco van Rheenen

    Stem cells maintain tissue homeostasis by driving cellular turnover and regeneration upon damage. They reside within specialized niches that provide the signals required for stem cell maintenance. Stem cells have been identified in many tissues and cancer types, but their behavior within the niche and their reaction to microenvironmental signals were inferred from limited static observations. Recent

    更新日期:2020-09-01
  • Death Receptors and Their Ligands in Inflammatory Disease and Cancer.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    Alessandro Annibaldi,Henning Walczak

    On binding to their cognate ligands, death receptors can initiate a cascade of events that can result in two distinct outcomes: gene expression and cell death. The study of three different death receptor–ligand systems, the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)–TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1), the CD95L–CD95, and the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)–TRAIL-R1/2 system, has drawn the attention of generations

    更新日期:2020-09-01
  • Genetic Basis of Human Congenital Heart Disease.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    Shannon N Nees,Wendy K Chung

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common major congenital anomaly with an incidence of ∼1% of live births and is a significant cause of birth defect–related mortality. The genetic mechanisms underlying the development of CHD are complex and remain incompletely understood. Known genetic causes include all classes of genetic variation including chromosomal aneuploidies, copy number variants

    更新日期:2020-09-01
  • The Evolutionary Origins of Programmed Cell Death Signaling.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    Kay Hofmann

    Programmed cell death (PCD) pathways are found in many phyla, ranging from developmentally programmed apoptosis in animals to cell-autonomous programmed necrosis pathways that limit the spread of biotrophic pathogens in multicellular assemblies. Prominent examples for the latter include animal necroptosis and pyroptosis, plant hypersensitive response (HR), and fungal heterokaryon incompatibility (HI)

    更新日期:2020-09-01
  • Area under Immunosurveillance: Dedicated Roles of Memory CD8 T-Cell Subsets.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-08-24
    Loreto Parga-Vidal,Klaas P J M van Gisbergen

    Immunological memory, defined as the ability to respond in an enhanced manner upon secondary encounter with the same pathogen, can provide substantial protection against infectious disease. The improved protection is mediated in part by different populations of memory CD8 T cells that are retained after primary infection. Memory cells persist in the absence of pathogen-derived antigens and enable secondary

    更新日期:2020-08-24
  • Long-Lived Skin-Resident Memory T Cells Contribute to Concomitant Immunity in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-08-24
    Phillip Scott

    Memory T cells, which protect against reinfection in many diseases, have predominantly been characterized in models of acute viral or bacterial infection. In contrast, memory T cells are less well understood in diseases where pathogens persist following disease resolution, such as leishmaniasis, in spite of the fact that these infections often lead to immunity to reinfection, termed concomitant immunity

    更新日期:2020-08-24
  • Divergence of Tissue-Memory T Cells: Distribution and Function-Based Classification.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-08-18
    Shiki Takamura

    Tissue-resident memory T cells (Trm) comprise the majority of memory cells in nonlymphoid tissues and play a predominant role in immunity at barrier surfaces. A better understanding of Trm cell maintenance and function is essential for the development of vaccines that confer frontline protection. However, it is currently challenging to precisely distinguish Trm cells from other T cells, and this has

    更新日期:2020-08-18
  • The Chicken as a Model Organism to Study Heart Development.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-08-01
    Johannes G Wittig,Andrea Münsterberg

    Heart development is a complex process and begins with the long-range migration of cardiac progenitor cells during gastrulation. This culminates in the formation of a simple contractile tube with multiple layers, which undergoes remodeling into a four-chambered heart. During this morphogenesis, additional cell populations become incorporated. It is important to unravel the underlying genetic and cellular

    更新日期:2020-08-03
  • Brain Organoids: Human Neurodevelopment in a Dish.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-08-01
    Silvia Benito-Kwiecinski,Madeline A Lancaster

    The human brain is often described as the most complex organ in our body. Because of the limited accessibility of living brain tissue, human-specific features of neurodevelopment and disease remain largely unknown. The ability of induced pluripotent stem cells to self-organize into 3D brain organoids has revolutionized approaches to studying brain development in vitro. This review will first look at

    更新日期:2020-08-03
  • Development of Stem Cell Therapies for Retinal Degeneration.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-08-01
    Emma L West,Joana Ribeiro,Robin R Ali

    Degenerative retinal disease is the major cause of sight loss in the developed world and currently there is a lack of effective treatments. As the loss of vision is directly the result of the loss of retinal cells, effective cell replacement through stem-cell-based therapies may have the potential to treat a great number of retinal diseases whatever their underlying etiology. The eye is an ideal organ

    更新日期:2020-08-03
  • Cardiopharyngeal Progenitor Specification: Multiple Roads to the Heart and Head Muscles.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-08-01
    Benjamin Swedlund,Fabienne Lescroart

    During embryonic development, the heart arises from various sources of undifferentiated mesodermal progenitors, with an additional contribution from ectodermal neural crest cells. Mesodermal cardiac progenitors are plastic and multipotent, but are nevertheless specified to a precise heart region and cell type very early during development. Recent findings have defined both this lineage plasticity and

    更新日期:2020-08-03
  • Regulation of Cell Death and Immunity by XIAP.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-08-01
    Philipp J Jost,Domagoj Vucic

    X-chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) controls cell survival in several regulated cell death pathways and coordinates a range of inflammatory signaling events. Initially identified as a caspase-binding protein, it was considered to be primarily involved in blocking apoptosis from both intrinsic as well as extrinsic triggers. However, XIAP also prevents TNF-mediated, receptor-interacting

    更新日期:2020-08-03
  • The Killer Pseudokinase Mixed Lineage Kinase Domain-Like Protein (MLKL).
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-08-01
    James M Murphy

    Whereas the apoptosis cell death pathway typically enables cells to undergo death in an immunologically silent manner, cell death by necroptosis induces cell lysis and release of cellular constituents known to elicit an immune response. Consequently, the origins of necroptosis likely originated in host defense against pathogens, although recently it has emerged that dysregulation of the pathway underlies

    更新日期:2020-08-03
  • Direct Lineage Reprogramming: Harnessing Cell Plasticity between Liver and Pancreas.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Silvia Ruzittu,David Willnow,Francesca M Spagnoli

    Direct lineage reprogramming of abundant and accessible cells into therapeutically useful cell types holds tremendous potential in regenerative medicine. To date, a number of different cell types have been generated by lineage reprogramming methods, including cells from the neural, cardiac, hepatic, and pancreatic lineages. The success of this strategy relies on developmental biology and the knowledge

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Advancing Stem Cell Research through Multimodal Single-Cell Analysis.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Iwo Kucinski,Berthold Gottgens

    Technological advances play a key role in furthering our understanding of stem cell biology, and advancing the prospects of regenerative therapies. Highly parallelized methods, developed in the last decade, can profile DNA, RNA, or proteins in thousands of cells and even capture data across two or more modalities (multiomics). This allows unbiased and precise definition of molecular cell states, thus

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Dysregulation of Cell Death in Human Chronic Inflammation.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Yue Li,Christoph Klein,Daniel Kotlarz

    Inflammation is a fundamental biological process mediating host defense and wound healing during infections and tissue injury. Perpetuated and excessive inflammation may cause autoinflammation, autoimmunity, degenerative disorders, allergies, and malignancies. Multimodal signaling by tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) plays a crucial role in determining the transition between inflammation, cell

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Calcium-Handling Defects and Neurodegenerative Disease.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Sean Schrank,Nikki Barrington,Grace E Stutzmann

    Calcium signaling is critical to neuronal function and regulates highly diverse processes such as gene transcription, energy production, protein handling, and synaptic structure and function. Because there are many common underlying calcium-mediated pathological features observed across several neurological conditions, it has been proposed that neurodegenerative diseases have an upstream underlying

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in Host Defense.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Sabrina Sofia Burgener,Kate Schroder

    Neutrophils are produced in the bone marrow and then patrol blood vessels from which they can be rapidly recruited to a site of infection. Neutrophils bind, engulf, and efficiently kill invading microbes via a suite of defense mechanisms. Diverse extracellular and intracellular microbes induce neutrophils to extrude neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) through the process of NETosis. Here, we review

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Genetic and Epigenetic Control of Heart Development.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Brynn N Akerberg,William T Pu

    A transcriptional program implemented by transcription factors and epigenetic regulators governs cardiac development and disease. Mutations in these factors are important causes of congenital heart disease. Here, we review selected recent advances in our understanding of the transcriptional and epigenetic control of heart development, including determinants of cardiac transcription factor chromatin

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • The First Heartbeat-Origin of Cardiac Contractile Activity.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Richard C V Tyser,Shankar Srinivas

    The amniote embryonic heart starts as a crescent of mesoderm that transitions through a midline linear heart tube in the course of developing into the four chambered heart. It is unusual in having to contract rhythmically while still undergoing extensive morphogenetic remodeling. Advances in imaging have allowed us to determine when during development this contractile activity starts. In the mouse

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Signaling through Ca2+ Microdomains from Store-Operated CRAC Channels.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Pradeep Barak,Anant B Parekh

    Calcium (Ca2+) ion microdomains are subcellular regions of high Ca2+ concentration that develop rapidly near open Ca2+ channels in the plasma membrane or internal stores and generate local regions of high Ca2+ concentration. These microdomains are remarkably versatile in that they activate a range of responses that differ enormously in both their temporal and spatial profile. In this review, we describe

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Tracing the Dynamics of Stem Cell Fate.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-06-01
    Lemonia Chatzeli,Benjamin D Simons

    The mechanisms that regulate the balance between stem cell duplication and differentiation in adult tissues remain in debate. Using a combination of genetic lineage tracing and marker-based assays, the quantitative statistical analysis of clone size and cell composition has provided insights into the patterns of stem cell fate across a variety of tissue types and organisms. These studies have emphasized

    更新日期:2020-06-01
  • Formation and Growth of Cardiac Lymphatics during Embryonic Development, Heart Regeneration, and Disease.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-06-01
    Dana Gancz,Gal Perlmoter,Karina Yaniv

    The lymphatic system plays crucial roles in regulating fluid homeostasis, immune surveillance, and lipid transport. As is in most of the body's organs, the heart possesses an extensive lymphatic network. Moreover, a robust lymphangiogenic response has been shown to take place following myocardial infarction, highlighting cardiac lymphatics as potential targets for therapeutic intervention. Yet, the

    更新日期:2020-06-01
  • Xenopus: Experimental Access to Cardiovascular Development, Regeneration Discovery, and Cardiovascular Heart-Defect Modeling.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-06-01
    Stefan Hoppler,Frank L Conlon

    Xenopus has been used to study a wide array of developmental processes, benefiting from vast quantities of relatively large, externally developing eggs. Xenopus is particularly amenable to examining the cardiac system because many of the developmental processes and genes involved in cardiac specification, differentiation, and growth are conserved between Xenopus and human and have been characterized

    更新日期:2020-06-01
  • Modeling Brain Disorders Using Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-06-01
    Krishna C Vadodaria,Jeffrey R Jones,Sara Linker,Fred H Gage

    Brain disorders, from neurodegenerative to psychiatric disorders, are among the most challenging conditions to study because of the intricate nature of the human brain and the limitations of existing model systems in recapitulating all these intricacies. However, innovations in stem cell technologies now allow us to reprogram patient somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which can

    更新日期:2020-06-01
  • Cell-Cycle Cross Talk with Caspases and Their Substrates.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-06-01
    Patrick Connolly,Irmina Garcia-Carpio,Andreas Villunger

    Caspases play central roles in mediating both cell death and inflammation. It has more recently become evident that caspases also drive other biological processes. Most prominently, caspases have been shown to be involved in differentiation. Several stem and progenitor cell types rely on caspases to initiate and execute their differentiation processes. These range from neural and glial cells, to skeletal

    更新日期:2020-06-01
  • Structural Insights into the Regulation of Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II (CaMKII).
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-06-01
    Moitrayee Bhattacharyya,Deepti Karandur,John Kuriyan

    Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a highly conserved serine/threonine kinase that is ubiquitously expressed throughout the human body. Specialized isoforms of CaMKII play key roles in neuronal and cardiac signaling. The distinctive holoenzyme architecture of CaMKII, with 12–14 kinase domains attached by flexible linkers to a central hub, poses formidable challenges for structural

    更新日期:2020-06-01
  • Lysosomal Ca2+ Homeostasis and Signaling in Health and Disease.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-06-01
    Emyr Lloyd-Evans,Helen Waller-Evans

    Calcium (Ca2+) signaling is an essential process in all cells that is maintained by a plethora of channels, pumps, transporters, receptors, and intracellular Ca2+ sequestering stores. Changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration govern processes as far reaching as fertilization, cell growth, and motility through to cell death. In recent years, lysosomes have emerged as a major intracellular Ca2+ storage

    更新日期:2020-06-01
  • Cell Death in Plant Immunity.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-06-01
    Eugenia Pitsili,Ujjal J Phukan,Nuria S Coll

    Pathogen recognition by the plant immune system leads to defense responses that are often accompanied by a form of regulated cell death known as the hypersensitive response (HR). HR shares some features with regulated necrosis observed in animals. Genetically, HR can be uncoupled from local defense responses at the site of infection and its role in immunity may be to activate systemic responses in

    更新日期:2020-06-01
  • Corrigendum: Niche Cells and Signals that Regulate Lung Alveolar Stem Cells In Vivo.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-05-01
    Nicholas H Juul,Courtney A Stockman,Tushar J Desai

    更新日期:2020-05-01
  • Reptiles as a Model System to Study Heart Development.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-05-01
    Bjarke Jensen,Vincent M Christoffels

    A chambered heart is common to all vertebrates, but reptiles show unparalleled variation in ventricular septation, ranging from almost absent in tuataras to full in crocodilians. Because mammals and birds evolved independently from reptile lineages, studies on reptile development may yield insight into the evolution and development of the full ventricular septum. Compared with reptiles, mammals and

    更新日期:2020-05-01
  • Toward Combined Cell and Gene Therapy for Genodermatoses.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-05-01
    Laura De Rosa,Maria Carmela Latella,Alessia Secone Seconetti,Cecilia Cattelani,Johann W Bauer,Sergio Bondanza,Michele De Luca

    To date, more than 200 monogenic, often devastating, skin diseases have been described. Because of unmet medical needs, development of long-lasting and curative therapies has been consistently attempted, with the aim of correcting the underlying molecular defect. In this review, we will specifically address the few combined cell and gene therapy strategies that made it to the clinics. Based on these

    更新日期:2020-05-01
  • Store-Operated Calcium Channels: From Function to Structure and Back Again.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-05-01
    Richard S Lewis

    Store-operated calcium (Ca2+) entry (SOCE) occurs through a widely distributed family of ion channels activated by the loss of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The best understood of these is the Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channel, which is notable for its unique activation mechanism as well as its many essential physiological functions and the diverse pathologies that result from

    更新日期:2020-05-01
  • Ca2+ Signaling in Exocrine Cells.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-05-01
    Malini Ahuja,Woo Young Chung,Wei-Yin Lin,Beth A McNally,Shmuel Muallem

    Calcium (Ca2+) and cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling cross talk and synergize to stimulate the cardinal functions of exocrine cells, regulated exocytosis, and fluid and electrolyte secretion. This physiological process requires the organization of the two signaling pathways into complexes at defined cellular domains and close placement. Such domains are formed by membrane contact sites (MCS). This review

    更新日期:2020-05-01
  • The Formation of Coronary Vessels in Cardiac Development and Disease.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-05-01
    Lingjuan He,Kathy O Lui,Bin Zhou

    Understanding how coronary blood vessels form and regenerate during development and progression of cardiac diseases will shed light on the development of new treatment options targeting coronary artery diseases. Recent studies with the state-of-the-art technologies have identified novel origins of, as well as new, cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of coronary vessels in the

    更新日期:2020-05-01
  • Recent Insights on Inflammasomes, Gasdermin Pores, and Pyroptosis.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-05-01
    Nathalia M de Vasconcelos,Mohamed Lamkanfi

    Inflammasomes assemble in the cytosol of myeloid and epithelial cells on sensing of cellular stress and pathogen-associated molecular patterns and serve as scaffolds for recruitment and activation of inflammatory caspases. Inflammasomes play beneficial roles in host and immune responses against diverse pathogens but may also promote inflammatory tissue damage if uncontrolled. Gasdermin D (GSDMD) is

    更新日期:2020-05-01
  • Cracking the Cell Death Code.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-05-01
    Carla V Rothlin,Sourav Ghosh

    Cell death is an invariant feature throughout our life span, starting with extensive scheduled cell death during morphogenesis and continuing with death under homeostasis in adult tissues. Additionally, cells become victims of accidental, unscheduled death following injury and infection. Cell death in each of these occasions triggers specific and specialized responses in the living cells that surround

    更新日期:2020-05-01
  • Pharmacologic Approaches for Adapting Proteostasis in the Secretory Pathway to Ameliorate Protein Conformational Diseases.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-05-01
    Jeffery W Kelly

    Maintenance of the proteome, ensuring the proper locations, proper conformations, appropriate concentrations, etc., is essential to preserve the health of an organism in the face of environmental insults, infectious diseases, and the challenges associated with aging. Maintaining the proteome is even more difficult in the background of inherited mutations that render a given protein and others handled

    更新日期:2020-05-01
  • A Chemical Biology Approach to the Chaperome in Cancer-HSP90 and Beyond.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Tony Taldone,Tai Wang,Anna Rodina,Naga Vara Kishore Pillarsetty,Chander S Digwal,Sahil Sharma,Pengrong Yan,Suhasini Joshi,Piyusha P Pagare,Alexander Bolaender,Gail J Roboz,Monica L Guzman,Gabriela Chiosis

    Cancer is often associated with alterations in the chaperome, a collection of chaperones, cochaperones, and other cofactors. Changes in the expression levels of components of the chaperome, in the interaction strength among chaperome components, alterations in chaperome constituency, and in the cellular location of chaperome members, are all hallmarks of cancer. Here we aim to provide an overview on

    更新日期:2020-04-01
  • Specification of the First Mammalian Cell Lineages In Vivo and In Vitro.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Melanie D White,Nicolas Plachta

    Our understanding of how the first mammalian cell lineages arise has been shaped largely by studies of the preimplantation mouse embryo. Painstaking work over many decades has begun to reveal how a single totipotent cell is transformed into a multilayered structure representing the foundations of the body plan. Here, we review how the first lineage decision is initiated by epigenetic regulation but

    更新日期:2020-04-01
  • BAX, BAK, and BOK: A Coming of Age for the BCL-2 Family Effector Proteins.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Tudor Moldoveanu,Peter E Czabotar

    The BCL-2 family of proteins control a key checkpoint in apoptosis, that of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization or, simply, mitochondrial poration. The family consists of three subgroups: BH3-only initiators that respond to apoptotic stimuli; antiapoptotic guardians that protect against cell death; and the membrane permeabilizing effectors BAX, BAK, and BOK. On activation, effector proteins

    更新日期:2020-04-01
  • Developmental Pathways of Cardiac Fibroblasts.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Michelle D Tallquist

    Cardiac fibroblasts and fibrosis contribute to the pathogenesis of heart failure, a prevalent cause of mortality. Therefore, a majority of the existing information regarding cardiac fibroblasts is focused on their function and behavior after heart injury. Less is understood about the signaling and transcriptional networks required for the development and homeostatic roles of these cells. This review

    更新日期:2020-04-01
  • Functional Consequences of Calcium-Dependent Synapse-to-Nucleus Communication: Focus on Transcription-Dependent Metabolic Plasticity.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Anna M Hagenston,Hilmar Bading,Carlos Bas-Orth

    In the nervous system, calcium signals play a major role in the conversion of synaptic stimuli into transcriptional responses. Signal-regulated gene transcription is fundamental for a range of long-lasting adaptive brain functions that include learning and memory, structural plasticity of neurites and synapses, acquired neuroprotection, chronic pain, and addiction. In this review, we summarize the

    更新日期:2020-04-01
  • Bcl-2-Protein Family as Modulators of IP3 Receptors and Other Organellar Ca2+ Channels.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Hristina Ivanova,Tim Vervliet,Giovanni Monaco,Lara E Terry,Nicolas Rosa,Mariah R Baker,Jan B Parys,Irina I Serysheva,David I Yule,Geert Bultynck

    The pro- and antiapoptotic proteins belonging to the B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) family exert a critical control over cell-death processes by enabling or counteracting mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. Beyond this mitochondrial function, several Bcl-2 family members have emerged as critical modulators of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and dynamics, showing proapoptotic and antiapoptotic

    更新日期:2020-04-01
  • Phagocyte Responses to Cell Death in Flies.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Andrew J Davidson,Will Wood

    Multicellular organisms are not created through cell proliferation alone. It is through cell death that an indefinite cellular mass is pared back to reveal its true form. Cells are also lost throughout life as part of homeostasis and through injury. This detritus represents a significant burden to the living organism and must be cleared, most notably through the use of specialized phagocytic cells

    更新日期:2020-04-01
  • Cell-Nonautonomous Regulation of Proteostasis in Aging and Disease.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Richard I Morimoto

    The functional health of the proteome is determined by properties of the proteostasis network (PN) that regulates protein synthesis, folding, macromolecular assembly, translocation, and degradation. In eukaryotes, the PN also integrates protein biogenesis across compartments within the cell and between tissues of metazoans for organismal health and longevity. Additionally, in metazoans, proteome stability

    更新日期:2020-04-01
  • Niche Cells and Signals that Regulate Lung Alveolar Stem Cells In Vivo.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-04-29
    Nicholas H Juul,Courtney A Stockman,Tushar J Desai

    The distal lung is a honeycomb-like collection of delicate gas exchange sacs called alveoli lined by two interspersed epithelial cell types: the cuboidal, surfactant-producing alveolar type II (AT2) and the flat, gas-exchanging alveolar type I (AT1) cell. During aging, a subset of AT2 cells expressing the canonical Wnt target gene, Axin2, function as stem cells, renewing themselves while generating

    更新日期:2020-03-16
  • Mouse Spermatogenesis Reflects the Unity and Diversity of Tissue Stem Cell Niche Systems
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-03-09
    Shosei Yoshida

    Mouse spermatogenesis is supported by spermatogenic stem cells (SSCs). SSCs maintain their pool while migrating over an open (or facultative) niche microenvironment of testicular seminiferous tubules, where ligands that support self-renewal are likely distributed widely. This contrasts with the classic picture of closed (or definitive) niches in which stem cells are gathered and the ligands are highly

    更新日期:2020-03-09
  • A Synthesis Concerning Conservation and Divergence of Cell Types across Epithelia.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-03-02
    Daniel T Montoro,Adam L Haber,Jennifer E Rood,Aviv Regev,Jayaraj Rajagopal

    Advances in single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq) and computational analysis have enabled the systematic interrogation of the cellular composition of tissues. Combined with tools from developmental biology, cell biology, and genetics, these approaches are revealing fundamental aspects of tissue geometry and physiology, including the distribution, origins, and inferred functions of specialized cell types

    更新日期:2020-03-02
  • A Stem Cell Approach to Cure Type 1 Diabetes.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-03-02
    Aharon Helman,Douglas A Melton

    Treatment of type 1 diabetes with insulin injection is expensive, complicated, and insufficient. While cadaveric islet transplantations coupled with immunosuppressants can cure diabetes, the scarcity of acceptable islets is problematic. Developmental research on pancreas formation has informed in vitro differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into functional islets. Although generating β cells

    更新日期:2020-03-02
  • Cardiac Neural Crest.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-02-18
    Hiroyuki Yamagishi

    Cardiac neural crest (CNC) cells are pluripotent cells derived from the dorsal neural tube that migrate and contribute to the remodeling of pharyngeal arch arteries and septation of the cardiac outflow tract (OFT). Numerous molecular cascades regulate the induction, specification, delamination, and migration of the CNC. Extensive analyses of the CNC ranging from chick ablation models to molecular biology

    更新日期:2020-02-18
  • Discovering New Progenitor Cell Populations through Lineage Tracing and In Vivo Imaging.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-02-10
    Rudra Nayan Das,Karina Yaniv

    Identification of progenitor cells that generate differentiated cell types during development, regeneration, and disease states is central to understanding the mechanisms governing such transitions. For more than a century, different lineage-tracing strategies have been developed, which helped disentangle the complex relationship between progenitor cells and their progenies. In this review, we discuss

    更新日期:2020-02-10
  • A History of Cancer Research: Tumor Suppressor Genes.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-02-03
    Joseph Lipsick

    Tumor suppressor genes encode critical intracellular regulators, such as the retinoblastoma protein. They control processes including cell proliferation, cell survival, and responses to DNA damage and are frequently mutated in cancer. In this excerpt from his forthcoming book on the history of cancer research, Joe Lipsick looks back at the discovery of tumor suppressor genes, covering the early work

    更新日期:2020-02-03
  • 3D Anatomy of the Developing Heart: Understanding Ventricular Septation.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Timothy J Mohun,Robert H Anderson

    Understanding how the four-chambered mammalian heart is formed from a simple, looped tube remains challenging, notwithstanding the descriptive accounts left by generations of cardiac anatomists. Much of the difficulty lies in attempting to visualize an intricate series of morphological transformations through the restrictive lens of two-dimensional images derived from histology. Modern imaging methods

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • Development of the Cardiac Conduction System.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Samadrita Bhattacharyya,Nikhil V Munshi

    The cardiac conduction system initiates and propagates each heartbeat. Specialized conducting cells are a well-conserved phenomenon across vertebrate evolution, although mammalian and avian species harbor specific components unique to organisms with four-chamber hearts. Early histological studies in mammals provided evidence for a dominant pacemaker within the right atrium and clarified the existence

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • The Endocardium and Heart Valves.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Bailey Dye,Joy Lincoln

    Endocardial cells are specialized endothelial cells that, during embryogenesis, form a lining on the inside of the developing heart, which is maintained throughout life. Endocardial cells are an essential source for several lineages of the cardiovascular system including coronary endothelium, endocardial cushion mesenchyme, cardiomyocytes, mural cells, fibroblasts, liver vasculature, adipocytes, and

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • Cardiac Morphogenesis: Specification of the Four-Chambered Heart.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Vincent Christoffels,Bjarke Jensen

    Early heart morphogenesis involves a process in which embryonic precursor cells are instructed to form a cyclic contracting muscle tube connected to blood vessels, pumping fluid. Subsequently, the heart becomes structurally complex and its size increases several orders of magnitude to functionally keep up with the demands of the growing organism. Programmed transcriptional regulatory networks control

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Stem Cell DNA Damage and Genome Mutation in the Context of Aging and Cancer Initiation.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 7.64) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Lara Al Zouabi,Allison J Bardin

    Adult stem cells fuel tissue homeostasis and regeneration through their unique ability to self-renew and differentiate into specialized cells. Thus, their DNA provides instructions that impact the tissue as a whole. Since DNA is not an inert molecule, but rather dynamic, interacting with a myriad of chemical and physical factors, it encounters damage from both endogenous and exogenous sources. Damage

    更新日期:2020-01-13
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