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  • A Synthesis Concerning Conservation and Divergence of Cell Types across Epithelia.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2020-03-02
    Daniel T Montoro,Adam L Haber,Jennifer E Rood,Aviv Regev,Jayaraj Rajagopal

    Advances in single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq) and computational analysis have enabled the systematic interrogation of the cellular composition of tissues. Combined with tools from developmental biology, cell biology, and genetics, these approaches are revealing fundamental aspects of tissue geometry and physiology, including the distribution, origins, and inferred functions of specialized cell types

    更新日期:2020-03-02
  • A Stem Cell Approach to Cure Type 1 Diabetes.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2020-03-02
    Aharon Helman,Douglas A Melton

    Treatment of type 1 diabetes with insulin injection is expensive, complicated, and insufficient. While cadaveric islet transplantations coupled with immunosuppressants can cure diabetes, the scarcity of acceptable islets is problematic. Developmental research on pancreas formation has informed in vitro differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into functional islets. Although generating β cells

    更新日期:2020-03-02
  • Cardiac Neural Crest.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2020-02-18
    Hiroyuki Yamagishi

    Cardiac neural crest (CNC) cells are pluripotent cells derived from the dorsal neural tube that migrate and contribute to the remodeling of pharyngeal arch arteries and septation of the cardiac outflow tract (OFT). Numerous molecular cascades regulate the induction, specification, delamination, and migration of the CNC. Extensive analyses of the CNC ranging from chick ablation models to molecular biology

    更新日期:2020-02-18
  • Discovering New Progenitor Cell Populations through Lineage Tracing and In Vivo Imaging.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2020-02-10
    Rudra Nayan Das,Karina Yaniv

    Identification of progenitor cells that generate differentiated cell types during development, regeneration, and disease states is central to understanding the mechanisms governing such transitions. For more than a century, different lineage-tracing strategies have been developed, which helped disentangle the complex relationship between progenitor cells and their progenies. In this review, we discuss

    更新日期:2020-02-10
  • A History of Cancer Research: Tumor Suppressor Genes.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2020-02-03
    Joseph Lipsick

    Tumor suppressor genes encode critical intracellular regulators, such as the retinoblastoma protein. They control processes including cell proliferation, cell survival, and responses to DNA damage and are frequently mutated in cancer. In this excerpt from his forthcoming book on the history of cancer research, Joe Lipsick looks back at the discovery of tumor suppressor genes, covering the early work

    更新日期:2020-02-03
  • Death Receptors and Their Ligands in Inflammatory Disease and Cancer.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Alessandro Annibaldi,Henning Walczak

    On binding to their cognate ligands, death receptors can initiate a cascade of events that can result in two distinct outcomes: gene expression and cell death. The study of three different death receptor-ligand systems, the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1), the CD95L-CD95, and the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-TRAIL-R1/2 system, has drawn the attention of generations

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • 3D Anatomy of the Developing Heart: Understanding Ventricular Septation.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Timothy J Mohun,Robert H Anderson

    Understanding how the four-chambered mammalian heart is formed from a simple, looped tube remains challenging, notwithstanding the descriptive accounts left by generations of cardiac anatomists. Much of the difficulty lies in attempting to visualize an intricate series of morphological transformations through the restrictive lens of two-dimensional images derived from histology. Modern imaging methods

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • Development of the Cardiac Conduction System.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Samadrita Bhattacharyya,Nikhil V Munshi

    The cardiac conduction system initiates and propagates each heartbeat. Specialized conducting cells are a well-conserved phenomenon across vertebrate evolution, although mammalian and avian species harbor specific components unique to organisms with four-chamber hearts. Early histological studies in mammals provided evidence for a dominant pacemaker within the right atrium and clarified the existence

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • The Endocardium and Heart Valves.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Bailey Dye,Joy Lincoln

    Endocardial cells are specialized endothelial cells that, during embryogenesis, form a lining on the inside of the developing heart, which is maintained throughout life. Endocardial cells are an essential source for several lineages of the cardiovascular system including coronary endothelium, endocardial cushion mesenchyme, cardiomyocytes, mural cells, fibroblasts, liver vasculature, adipocytes, and

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • Cardiac Morphogenesis: Specification of the Four-Chambered Heart.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Vincent Christoffels,Bjarke Jensen

    Early heart morphogenesis involves a process in which embryonic precursor cells are instructed to form a cyclic contracting muscle tube connected to blood vessels, pumping fluid. Subsequently, the heart becomes structurally complex and its size increases several orders of magnitude to functionally keep up with the demands of the growing organism. Programmed transcriptional regulatory networks control

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Advancing Stem Cell Research through Multimodal Single-Cell Analysis.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Iwo Kucinski,Berthold Gottgens

    Technological advances play a key role in furthering our understanding of stem cell biology, and advancing the prospects of regenerative therapies. Highly parallelized methods, developed in the last decade, can profile DNA, RNA, or proteins in thousands of cells and even capture data across two or more modalities (multiomics). This allows unbiased and precise definition of molecular cell states, thus

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Tracing the Dynamics of Stem Cell Fate.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Lemonia Chatzeli,Benjamin D Simons

    The mechanisms that regulate the balance between stem cell duplication and differentiation in adult tissues remain in debate. Using a combination of genetic lineage tracing and marker-based assays, the quantitative statistical analysis of clone size and cell composition has provided insights into the patterns of stem cell fate across a variety of tissue types and organisms. These studies have emphasized

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Stem Cell DNA Damage and Genome Mutation in the Context of Aging and Cancer Initiation.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Lara Al Zouabi,Allison J Bardin

    Adult stem cells fuel tissue homeostasis and regeneration through their unique ability to self-renew and differentiate into specialized cells. Thus, their DNA provides instructions that impact the tissue as a whole. Since DNA is not an inert molecule, but rather dynamic, interacting with a myriad of chemical and physical factors, it encounters damage from both endogenous and exogenous sources. Damage

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Long Noncoding RNAs in Cardiac Development.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Michael Alexanian,Samir Ounzain

    The exquisite transcriptional control of developmental gene programs is critical for hardwiring the complex expression patterns that govern cell-fate determination and differentiation during heart development. During the past several years, studies have illuminated our understanding of a complex noncoding transcriptional landscape, primarily associated with long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), that is implicated

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • The Autophagy Lysosomal Pathway and Neurodegeneration.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2020-03-02
    Steven Finkbeiner

    The autophagy lysosomal pathway (ALP) is a major mechanism for degrading intracellular macromolecules. The catabolic products can then be used by the cell for energy or as building blocks to make other macromolecules. Since its discovery, a variety of cellular pathways have emerged that target components with varying specificity for lysosomal degradation. Under some circumstances, lysosomes may release

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Determinants of Cardiac Growth and Size.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2020-03-02
    Todd R Heallen,Zachary A Kadow,Jun Wang,James F Martin

    Within the realm of zoological study, the question of how an organism reaches a specific size has been largely unexplored. Recently, studies performed to understand the regulation of organ size have revealed that both cellular signals and external cues contribute toward the determination of total cell mass within each organ. The establishment of final organ size requires the precise coordination of

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Proteostasis in Viral Infection: Unfolding the Complex Virus-Chaperone Interplay.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2020-03-02
    Ranen Aviner,Judith Frydman

    Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that rely on their hosts for protein synthesis, genome replication, and viral particle production. As such, they have evolved mechanisms to divert host resources, including molecular chaperones, facilitate folding and assembly of viral proteins, stabilize complex structures under constant mutational pressure, and modulate signaling pathways to dampen antiviral

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mechanism and Regulation of Gasdermin-Mediated Cell Death.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2020-03-02
    Shiyu Xia,Louis Robert Hollingsworth,Hao Wu

    The innate immune system senses and responds to pathogens and endogenous damage through supramolecular protein complexes known as inflammasomes. Cytosolic inflammasome sensor proteins trigger inflammasome assembly on detection of infection and danger. Assembled inflammasomes activate a cascade of inflammatory caspases, which process procytokines and gasdermin D (GSDMD). Cleaved GSDMD forms membrane

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Multitasking Kinase RIPK1 Regulates Cell Death and Inflammation.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2020-03-02
    Kim Newton

    Receptor-interacting serine threonine kinase 1 (RIPK1) is a widely expressed kinase that is essential for limiting inflammation in both mice and humans. Mice lacking RIPK1 die at birth from multiorgan inflammation and aberrant cell death, whereas humans lacking RIPK1 are immunodeficient and develop very early-onset inflammatory bowel disease. In contrast to complete loss of RIPK1, inhibiting the kinase

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Identifying New Substrates and Functions for an Old Enzyme: Calcineurin.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2020-03-02
    Jagoree Roy,Martha S Cyert

    Biological processes are dynamically regulated by signaling networks composed of protein kinases and phosphatases. Calcineurin, or PP3, is a conserved phosphoserine/phosphothreonine-specific protein phosphatase and member of the PPP family of phosphatases. Calcineurin is unique, however, in its activation by Ca2+ and calmodulin. This ubiquitously expressed phosphatase controls Ca2+-dependent processes

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Calcium Signaling in Cardiomyocyte Function.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2020-03-02
    Guillaume Gilbert,Kateryna Demydenko,Eef Dries,Rosa Doñate Puertas,Xin Jin,Karin Sipido,H Llewelyn Roderick

    Rhythmic increases in intracellular Ca2+ concentration underlie the contractile function of the heart. These heart muscle-wide changes in intracellular Ca2+ are induced and coordinated by electrical depolarization of the cardiomyocyte sarcolemma by the action potential. Originating at the sinoatrial node, conduction of this electrical signal throughout the heart ensures synchronization of individual

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Programmed Cell Death in the Evolutionary Race against Bacterial Virulence Factors.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2020-02-03
    Carolyn A Lacey,Edward A Miao

    Innate immune sensors can recognize when host cells are irrevocably compromised by pathogens, and in response can trigger programmed cell death (pyroptosis, apoptosis, and necroptosis). Innate sensors can directly bind microbial ligands; for example, NAIP/NLRC4 detects flagellin/rod/needle, whereas caspase-11 detects lipopolysaccharide. Other sensors are guards that monitor normal function of cellular

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Endoplasmic Reticulum-Plasma Membrane Junction: A Hub for Agonist Regulation of Ca2+ Entry.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2020-02-03
    Hwei Ling Ong,Indu Suresh Ambudkar

    Stimulation of cell-surface receptors induces cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) increases that are detected and transduced by effector proteins for regulation of cell function. Intracellular Ca2+ release, via endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3R) and ryanodine receptors (RyR), and Ca2+ influx, via store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), contribute to the increase in [Ca2+]i

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Primary Active Ca2+ Transport Systems in Health and Disease.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2020-02-03
    Jialin Chen,Aljona Sitsel,Veronick Benoy,M Rosario Sepúlveda,Peter Vangheluwe

    Calcium ions (Ca2+) are prominent cell signaling effectors that regulate a wide variety of cellular processes. Among the different players in Ca2+ homeostasis, primary active Ca2+ transporters are responsible for keeping low basal Ca2+ levels in the cytosol while establishing steep Ca2+ gradients across intracellular membranes or the plasma membrane. This review summarizes our current knowledge on

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cell Death and Neurodegeneration.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2020-02-03
    Benjamin J Andreone,Martin Larhammar,Joseph W Lewcock

    Neurodegenerative disease is characterized by the progressive deterioration of neuronal function caused by the degeneration of synapses, axons, and ultimately the death of nerve cells. An increased understanding of the mechanisms underlying altered cellular homeostasis and neurodegeneration is critical to the development of effective treatments for disease. Here, we review what is known about neuronal

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Epicardium in Heart Development.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2020-02-03
    Yingxi Cao,Sierra Duca,Jingli Cao

    The epicardium, the outermost tissue layer that envelops all vertebrate hearts, plays a crucial role in cardiac development and regeneration and has been implicated in potential strategies for cardiac repair. The heterogenous cell population that composes the epicardium originates primarily from a transient embryonic cell cluster known as the proepicardial organ (PE). Characterized by its high cellular

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Amyloid Phenomenon and Its Significance in Biology and Medicine.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2020-02-03
    Christopher M Dobson,Tuomas P J Knowles,Michele Vendruscolo

    The misfolding of proteins is now recognized to be the origin of a large number of medical disorders. One particularly important group of such disorders is associated with the aggregation of misfolded proteins into amyloid structures, and includes conditions ranging from Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases to type II diabetes. Such conditions already affect over 500 million people in the world, a

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Proteome-Scale Mapping of Perturbed Proteostasis in Living Cells.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2020-02-03
    Isabel Lam,Erinc Hallacli,Vikram Khurana

    Proteinopathies are degenerative diseases in which specific proteins adopt deleterious conformations, leading to the dysfunction and demise of distinct cell types. They comprise some of the most significant diseases of aging-from Alzheimer's disease to Parkinson's disease to type 2 diabetes-for which not a single disease-modifying or preventative strategy exists. Here, we survey approaches in tractable

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Proteasome and Its Network: Engineering for Adaptability.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Daniel Finley,Miguel A Prado

    The proteasome, the most complex protease known, degrades proteins that have been conjugated to ubiquitin. It faces the unique challenge of acting enzymatically on hundreds and perhaps thousands of structurally diverse substrates, mechanically unfolding them from their native state and translocating them vectorially from one specialized compartment of the enzyme to another. Moreover, substrates are

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A20 at the Crossroads of Cell Death, Inflammation, and Autoimmunity.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Arne Martens,Geert van Loo

    A20 is a potent anti-inflammatory protein, acting by inhibiting nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling and inflammatory gene expression and/or by preventing cell death. Mutations in the A20/TNFAIP3 gene have been associated with a plethora of inflammatory and autoimmune pathologies in humans and in mice. Although the anti-inflammatory role of A20 is well accepted, fundamental mechanistic questions regarding

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Fundamentals of Cellular Calcium Signaling: A Primer.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Martin D Bootman,Geert Bultynck

    Ionized calcium (Ca2+) is the most versatile cellular messenger. All cells use Ca2+ signals to regulate their activities in response to extrinsic and intrinsic stimuli. Alterations in cellular Ca2+ signaling and/or Ca2+ homeostasis can subvert physiological processes into driving pathological outcomes. Imaging of living cells over the past decades has demonstrated that Ca2+ signals encode information

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Role of Two-Pore Channels in Embryonic Development and Cellular Differentiation.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Sarah E Webb,Jeffrey J Kelu,Andrew L Miller

    Since the identification of nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) and its putative target, the two-pore channel (TPC), the NAADP/TPC/Ca2+ signaling pathway has been reported to play a role in a diverse range of functions in a variety of different cell types. TPCs have also been associated with a number of diseases, which arise when their activity is perturbed. In addition, TPCs have

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cytosolic Ca2+ Buffers Are Inherently Ca2+ Signal Modulators.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Beat Schwaller

    For precisely regulating intracellular Ca2+ signals in a time- and space-dependent manner, cells make use of various components of the "Ca2+ signaling toolkit," including Ca2+ entry and Ca2+ extrusion systems. A class of cytosolic Ca2+-binding proteins termed Ca2+ buffers serves as modulators of such, mostly short-lived Ca2+ signals. Prototypical Ca2+ buffers include parvalbumins (α and β isoforms)

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Plant Inflorescence Architecture: The Formation, Activity, and Fate of Axillary Meristems.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Yang Zhu,Doris Wagner

    The above-ground plant body in different plant species can have very distinct forms or architectures that arise by recurrent redeployment of a finite set of building blocks-leaves with axillary meristems, stems or branches, and flowers. The unique architectures of plant inflorescences in different plant families and species, on which this review focuses, determine the reproductive success and yield

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Functional Modules of the Proteostasis Network.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Gopal G Jayaraj,Mark S Hipp,F Ulrich Hartl

    Cells invest in an extensive network of factors to maintain protein homeostasis (proteostasis) and prevent the accumulation of potentially toxic protein aggregates. This proteostasis network (PN) comprises the machineries for the biogenesis, folding, conformational maintenance, and degradation of proteins with molecular chaperones as central coordinators. Here, we review recent progress in understanding

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Structural Biology of Telomerase.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Yaqiang Wang,Lukas Sušac,Juli Feigon

    SUMMARYTelomerase is a DNA polymerase that extends the 3' ends of chromosomes by processively synthesizing multiple telomeric repeats. It is a unique ribonucleoprotein (RNP) containing a specialized telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and telomerase RNA (TER) with its own template and other elements required with TERT for activity (catalytic core), as well as species-specific TER-binding proteins

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Xenopus: Experimental Access to Cardiovascular Development, Regeneration Discovery, and Cardiovascular Heart-Defect Modeling.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Stefan Hoppler,Frank L Conlon

    Xenopus has been used to study a wide array of developmental processes, benefiting from vast quantities of relatively large, externally developing eggs. Xenopus is particularly amenable to examining the cardiac system because many of the developmental processes and genes involved in cardiac specification, differentiation, and growth are conserved between Xenopus and human and have been characterized

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Store-Operated Calcium Channels: From Function to Structure and Back Again.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2019-10-02
    Richard S Lewis

    Store-operated calcium (Ca2+) entry (SOCE) occurs through a widely distributed family of ion channels activated by the loss of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The best understood of these is the Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channel, which is notable for its unique activation mechanism as well as its many essential physiological functions and the diverse pathologies that result from

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Calcium Signaling and Tissue Calcification.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2019-10-01
    Diane Proudfoot

    Calcification is a regulated physiological process occurring in bones and teeth. However, calcification is commonly found in soft tissues in association with aging and in a variety of diseases. Over the last two decades, it has emerged that calcification occurring in diseased arteries is not simply an inevitable build-up of insoluble precipitates of calcium phosphate. In some cases, it is an active

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cracking the Cell Death Code.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2019-09-23
    Carla V Rothlin,Sourav Ghosh

    Cell death is an invariant feature throughout our life span, starting with extensive scheduled cell death during morphogenesis and continuing with death under homeostasis in adult tissues. Additionally, cells become victims of accidental, unscheduled death following injury and infection. Cell death in each of these occasions triggers specific and specialized responses in the living cells that surround

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Environmental Risk Factors for Congenital Heart Disease.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2019-09-23
    Jacinta Isabelle Kalisch-Smith,Nikita Ved,Duncan Burnaby Sparrow

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) has many forms and a wide range of causes. Clinically, it is important to understand the causes. This allows estimation of recurrence rate, guides treatment options, and may also be used to formulate public health advice to reduce the population prevalence of CHD. The recent advent of sophisticated genetic and genomic methods has led to the identification of more than

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Single-Molecule Analysis of Reverse Transcriptase Enzymes.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2019-09-05
    Linnea I Jansson,Michael D Stone

    SUMMARYThe original discovery of enzymes that synthesize DNA using an RNA template appeared to contradict the central dogma of biology, in which information is transferred, in a unidirectional way, from DNA genes into RNA molecules. The paradigm-shifting discovery of RNA-dependent DNA polymerases, also called reverse transcriptases (RTs), reshaped existing views for how cells function; however, the

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Ca2+ Signaling and Homeostasis in Mammalian Oocytes and Eggs.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2019-08-21
    Takuya Wakai,Aujan Mehregan,Rafael A Fissore

    Changes in the intracellular concentration of calcium ([Ca2+]i) represent a vital signaling mechanism enabling communication between and among cells as well as with the environment. Cells have developed a sophisticated set of molecules, "the Ca2+ toolkit," to adapt [Ca2+]i changes to specific cellular functions. Mammalian oocytes and eggs, the subject of this review, are not an exception, and in fact

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Organellar Calcium Handling in the Cellular Reticular Network.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2019-07-31
    Wen-An Wang,Luis B Agellon,Marek Michalak

    Ca2+ is an important intracellular messenger affecting diverse cellular processes. In eukaryotic cells, Ca2+ is handled by a myriad of Ca2+-binding proteins found in organelles that are organized into the cellular reticular network (CRN). The network is comprised of the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, membranous components of the endocytic and exocytic pathways, peroxisomes, and

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Role of Dwarfing Traits in Historical and Modern Agriculture with a Focus on Rice.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2019-07-31
    Ángel Ferrero-Serrano,Christian Cantos,Sarah M Assmann

    Semidwarf stature is a valuable agronomic trait in grain crops that reduces lodging and increases harvest index. A fundamental advance during the 1960s Green Revolution was the introduction of semidwarf cultivars of rice and wheat. Essentially, all semidwarf varieties of rice under cultivation today owe their diminished stature to a specific null mutation in the gibberellic acid (GA) biosynthesis gene

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Ca2+ Signaling and Regeneration.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2019-07-17
    Jonathan S Marchant

    Regeneration is the process by which lost or damaged tissue is replaced in adult organisms. Some organisms exhibit robust regenerative capabilities, while others, including humans, do not. Understanding the molecular principles governing the regenerative malleability of different organisms is of fundamental biological interest. Further, this problem has clear impact for the field of "regenerative medicine

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Sweet Side of Plant-Specialized Metabolism.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2019-06-27
    Thomas Louveau,Anne Osbourn

    Glycosylation plays a major role in the structural diversification of plant natural products. It influences the properties of molecules by modifying the reactivity and solubility of the corresponding aglycones, so influencing cellular localization and bioactivity. Glycosylation of plant natural products is usually carried out by uridine diphosphate(UDP)-dependent glycosyltransferases (UGTs) belonging

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Sub1 Rice: Engineering Rice for Climate Change.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2019-06-12
    Kyle Emerick,Pamela C Ronald

    By the year 2100, the number of people on Earth is expected to increase by ∼50%, placing increasing demands on food production in a time when a changing climate is predicted to compromise crop yields. Feeding this future world requires scientifically informed innovations in agriculture. Here, we describe how a rice gene conferring tolerance to prolonged submergence has helped farmers in South and Southeast

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • NAADP Receptors.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2019-06-12
    Antony Galione

    Of the established Ca2+-mobilizing messengers, NAADP is arguably the most tantalizing. It is the most potent, often efficacious at low nanomolar concentrations, and its receptors undergo dramatic desensitization. Recent studies have identified a new class of calcium-release channel, the two-pore channels (TPCs), as the likely targets for NAADP regulation, even though the effect may be indirect. These

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Engineering Disease-Resistant Cassava.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2019-06-12
    Z J Daniel Lin,Nigel J Taylor,Rebecca Bart

    Manihot esculenta Crantz (cassava) is a food crop originating from South America grown primarily for its starchy storage roots. Today, cassava is grown in the tropics of South America, Africa, and Asia with an estimated 800 million people relying on it as a staple source of calories. In parts of sub-Saharan Africa, cassava is particularly crucial for food security. Cassava root starch also has use

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Bt Brinjal in Bangladesh: The First Genetically Engineered Food Crop in a Developing Country.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2019-06-12
    Anthony M Shelton,Md J Hossain,Vijay Paranjape,Md Z H Prodhan,Abul K Azad,Rituparna Majumder,Sayed H Sarwer,Md A Hossain

    Eggplant, or brinjal (Solanum melongena), is a popularly consumed vegetable grown throughout Asia that is prone to vicious and sustained attack by the eggplant fruit and shoot borer (EFSB) (Leucinodes orbonalis) throughout the growing season. Yield losses in Bangladesh because of EFSB infestation have been reported as high as 86%. Farmers reduce crop losses by frequent applications of insecticide.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Erratum: Mechanisms and Impact of Symbiotic Phosphate Acquisition.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2019-06-05
    Chai Hao Chiu,Uta Paszkowski

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Beyond DNA and RNA: The Expanding Toolbox of Synthetic Genetics.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2019-06-03
    Alexander I Taylor,Gillian Houlihan,Philipp Holliger

    SUMMARYThe remarkable physicochemical properties of the natural nucleic acids, DNA and RNA, define modern biology at the molecular level and are widely believed to have been central to life's origins. However, their ability to form repositories of information as well as functional structures such as ligands (aptamers) and catalysts (ribozymes/DNAzymes) is not unique. A range of nonnatural alternatives

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Many Facets of Dynamic Plasticity in Plants.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Xiaodong Yang,Sally A Mackenzie

    The evolutionary processes that transitioned plants to land-based habitats also incorporated a multiplicity of strategies to enhance resilience to the greater environmental variation encountered on land. The sensing of light, its quality, quantity, and duration, is central to plant survival and, as such, serves as a central network hub. Similarly, plants as sessile organisms that can encounter isolation

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Circadian Rhythms in Plants.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Nicky Creux,Stacey Harmer

    The circadian oscillator is a complex network of interconnected feedback loops that regulates a wide range of physiological processes. Indeed, variation in clock genes has been implicated in an array of plant environmental adaptations, including growth regulation, photoperiodic control of flowering, and responses to abiotic and biotic stress. Although the clock is buffered against the environment,

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cytoplasmic and Mitochondrial Calcium Signaling: A Two-Way Relationship.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2019-05-22
    Benjamin Wacquier,Laurent Combettes,Geneviève Dupont

    Intracellular Ca2+ signals are well organized in all cell types, and trigger a variety of vital physiological processes. The temporal and spatial characteristics of cytosolic Ca2+ increases are mainly governed by the fluxes of this ion across the membrane of the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane. However, various Ca2+ transporters also allow for Ca2+ exchanges between the cytoplasm

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Creating a New Cancer Therapeutic Agent by Targeting the Interaction between Bcl-2 and IP3 Receptors.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2019-05-22
    Clark W Distelhorst,Martin D Bootman

    Bcl-2 is a member of a family of proteins that regulate cell survival. Expression of Bcl-2 is aberrantly elevated in many types of cancer. Within cells of the immune system, Bcl-2 has a physiological role in regulating immune responses. However, in cancers arising from cells of the immune system Bcl-2 promotes cell survival and proliferation. This review summarizes discoveries over the past 30 years

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Developing Blight-Tolerant American Chestnut Trees.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2019-05-22
    William A Powell,Andrew E Newhouse,Vernon Coffey

    An invasive fungal pathogen has reduced the American chestnut (Castanea dentata), once a keystone tree species within its natural range in the eastern United States and Canada, to functional extinction. To help restore this important canopy tree, blight-tolerant American chestnut trees have been developed using an oxalate oxidase-encoding gene from wheat. This enzyme breaks down oxalate, which is produced

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Astroglial Calcium Signaling in Aging and Alzheimer's Disease.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2019-05-22
    Alexei Verkhratsky

    Astrocytes are the homeostatic and protective cells of the central nervous system (CNS). In neurological diseases, astrocytes undergo complex changes, which are subclassified into (1) reactive astrogliosis, an evolutionary conserved defensive rearrangement of cellular phenotype aimed at neuroprotection; (2) pathological remodeling, when astrocytes acquire new features driving pathology; and (3) astrodegeneration

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Calcium-Signaling Toolkit in Cancer: Remodeling and Targeting.
    CSH Perspect. Biol. (IF 9.110) Pub Date : 2019-05-16
    Sarah J Roberts-Thomson,Silke B Chalmers,Gregory R Monteith

    Processes that are important in cancer progression, such as sustained cell growth, invasion to other organs, and resistance to cell death inducers, have a clear overlap with pathways regulated by Ca2+ signaling. It is therefore not surprising that proteins important in Ca2+ signaling, sometimes referred to as the "Ca2+ signaling toolkit," can contribute to cancer cell proliferation and invasiveness

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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