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  • Deciphering the molecular mechanism of stop codon readthrough
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-10-22
    Martine Palma; Fabrice Lejeune

    Recognition of the stop codon by the translation machinery is essential to terminating translation at the right position and to synthesizing a protein of the correct size. Under certain conditions, the stop codon can be recognized as a coding codon promoting translation, which then terminates at a later stop codon. This event, called stop codon readthrough, occurs either by error, due to a dedicated

  • Learning in non‐avian reptiles 40 years on: advances and promising new directions
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Birgit Szabo; Daniel W. A. Noble; Martin J. Whiting

    Recently, there has been a surge in cognition research using non‐avian reptile systems. As a diverse group of animals, non‐avian reptiles [turtles, the tuatara, crocodylians, and squamates (lizards, snakes and amphisbaenids)] are good model systems for answering questions related to cognitive ecology, from the role of the environment on the brain, behaviour and learning, to how social and life‐history

  • New insights on the reparative cells in bone regeneration and repair
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-10-13
    Shuo Huang; Min Jin; Nan Su; Lin Chen

    Bone possesses a remarkable repair capacity to regenerate completely without scar tissue formation. This unique characteristic, expressed during bone development, maintenance and injury (fracture) healing, is performed by the reparative cells including skeletal stem cells (SSCs) and their descendants. However, the identity and functional roles of SSCs remain controversial due to technological difficulties

  • Convergence and divergence in lizard colour polymorphisms
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-10-08
    Devi Stuart‐Fox; Anne Aulsebrook; Katrina J. Rankin; Caroline M. Dong; Claire A. McLean

    Colour polymorphic species are model systems for examining the evolutionary processes that generate and maintain discrete phenotypic variation in natural populations. Lizards have repeatedly evolved strikingly similar polymorphic sexual signals in distantly related lineages, providing an opportunity to examine convergence and divergence in colour polymorphism, correlated traits and associated evolutionary

  • Poor nutritional condition promotes high‐risk behaviours: a systematic review and meta‐analysis
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-10-05
    Nicholas P. Moran; Alfredo Sánchez‐Tójar; Holger Schielzeth; Klaus Reinhold

    Animal behaviour can lead to varying levels of risk, and an individual's physical condition can alter the potential costs and benefits of undertaking risky behaviours. How risk‐taking behaviour depends on condition is subject to contrasting hypotheses. The asset protection principle proposes that individuals in better condition should be more risk averse, as they have higher future reproductive potential

  • The science and engineering of stem cell‐derived organoids‐examples from hepatic, biliary, and pancreatic tissues
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-10-01
    Ogechi Ogoke; Mitchell Maloy; Natesh Parashurama

    The field of organoid engineering promises to revolutionize medicine with wide‐ranging applications of scientific, engineering, and clinical interest, including precision and personalized medicine, gene editing, drug development, disease modelling, cellular therapy, and human development. Organoids are a three‐dimensional (3D) miniature representation of a target organ, are initiated with stem/progenitor

  • The biology of human hair greying.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    James D B O'Sullivan,Carina Nicu,Martin Picard,Jérémy Chéret,Barbara Bedogni,Desmond J Tobin,Ralf Paus

    Hair greying (canities) is one of the earliest, most visible ageing‐associated phenomena, whose modulation by genetic, psychoemotional, oxidative, senescence‐associated, metabolic and nutritional factors has long attracted skin biologists, dermatologists, and industry. Greying is of profound psychological and commercial relevance in increasingly ageing populations. In addition, the onset and perpetuation

  • Ancient life and moving fluids.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-09-22
    Brandt M Gibson,David J Furbish,Imran A Rahman,Mark W Schmeeckle,Marc Laflamme,Simon A F Darroch

    Over 3.7 billion years of Earth history, life has evolved complex adaptations to help navigate and interact with the fluid environment. Consequently, fluid dynamics has become a powerful tool for studying ancient fossils, providing insights into the palaeobiology and palaeoecology of extinct organisms from across the tree of life. In recent years, this approach has been extended to the Ediacara biota

  • Shrinking body sizes in response to warming: explanations for the temperature-size rule with special emphasis on the role of oxygen.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-09-22
    Wilco C E P Verberk,David Atkinson,K Natan Hoefnagel,Andrew G Hirst,Curtis R Horne,Henk Siepel

    Body size is central to ecology at levels ranging from organismal fecundity to the functioning of communities and ecosystems. Understanding temperature‐induced variations in body size is therefore of fundamental and applied interest, yet thermal responses of body size remain poorly understood. Temperature–size (T–S) responses tend to be negative (e.g. smaller body size at maturity when reared under

  • Why are there so many bee-orchid species? Adaptive radiation by intra-specific competition for mnesic pollinators.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-09-21
    Michel Baguette,Joris A M Bertrand,Virginie M Stevens,Bertrand Schatz

    Adaptive radiations occur mostly in response to environmental variation through the evolution of key innovations that allow emerging species to occupy new ecological niches. Such biological innovations may play a major role in niche divergence when emerging species are engaged in reciprocal ecological interactions. To demonstrate coevolution is a difficult task; only a few studies have confirmed coevolution

  • Spatial inference without a cognitive map: the role of higher-order path integration.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Youcef Bouchekioua,Aaron P Blaisdell,Yutaka Kosaki,Iku Tsutsui-Kimura,Paul Craddock,Masaru Mimura,Shigeru Watanabe

    The cognitive map has been taken as the standard model for how agents infer the most efficient route to a goal location. Alternatively, path integration – maintaining a homing vector during navigation – constitutes a primitive and presumably less‐flexible strategy than cognitive mapping because path integration relies primarily on vestibular stimuli and pace counting. The historical debate as to whether

  • Reproductive seasonality in primates: patterns, concepts and unsolved questions.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Sandra A Heldstab,Carel P van Schaik,Dennis W H Müller,Eberhard Rensch,Laurie Bingaman Lackey,Philipp Zerbe,Jean-Michel Hatt,Marcus Clauss,Ikki Matsuda

    Primates, like other mammals, exhibit an annual reproductive pattern that ranges from strictly seasonal breeding to giving birth in all months of the year, but factors mediating this variation are not fully understood. We applied both a categorical description and quantitative measures of the birth peak breadth based on daily observations in zoos to characterise reproductive seasonality in 141 primate

  • Phoresy in animals: review and synthesis of a common but understudied mode of dispersal.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-09-13
    Andrew W Bartlow,Salvatore J Agosta

    Phoresy is a type of interaction in which one species, the phoront, uses another species, the dispersal host, for transportation to new habitats or resources. Despite being a widespread behaviour, little is known about the ecology and evolution of phoresy. Our goal is to provide a comprehensive review of phoretic dispersal in animals and to bring renewed attention to this subject. We surveyed literature

  • Tectonics, climate and the diversification of the tropical African terrestrial flora and fauna.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-09-13
    Thomas L P Couvreur,Gilles Dauby,Anne Blach-Overgaard,Vincent Deblauwe,Steven Dessein,Vincent Droissart,Oliver J Hardy,David J Harris,Steven B Janssens,Alexandra C Ley,Barbara A Mackinder,Bonaventure Sonké,Marc S M Sosef,Tariq Stévart,Jens-Christian Svenning,Jan J Wieringa,Adama Faye,Alain D Missoup,Krystal A Tolley,Violaine Nicolas,Stéphan Ntie,Frédiéric Fluteau,Cécile Robin,Francois Guillocheau,Doris

    Tropical Africa is home to an astonishing biodiversity occurring in a variety of ecosystems. Past climatic change and geological events have impacted the evolution and diversification of this biodiversity. During the last two decades, around 90 dated molecular phylogenies of different clades across animals and plants have been published leading to an increased understanding of the diversification and

  • Drugs, host proteins and viral proteins: how their promiscuities shape antiviral design.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    Munishwar Nath Gupta,Ipsita Roy

    The reciprocal nature of drug specificity and target specificity implies that the same is true for their respective promiscuities. Protein promiscuity has two broadly different types of footprint in drug design. The first is relaxed specificity of binding sites for substrates, inhibitors, effectors or cofactors. The second involves protein–protein interactions of regulatory processes such as signal

  • How intelligent is a cephalopod? Lessons from comparative cognition.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-09-06
    Alexandra K Schnell,Piero Amodio,Markus Boeckle,Nicola S Clayton

    The soft‐bodied cephalopods including octopus, cuttlefish, and squid are broadly considered to be the most cognitively advanced group of invertebrates. Previous research has demonstrated that these large‐brained molluscs possess a suite of cognitive attributes that are comparable to those found in some vertebrates, including highly developed perception, learning, and memory abilities. Cephalopods are

  • Lakes in the era of global change: moving beyond single-lake thinking in maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem services.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    Jani Heino,Janne Alahuhta,Luis Mauricio Bini,Yongjiu Cai,Anna-Stiina Heiskanen,Seppo Hellsten,Pirkko Kortelainen,Niina Kotamäki,Kimmo T Tolonen,Petteri Vihervaara,Annika Vilmi,David G Angeler

    The Anthropocene presents formidable threats to freshwater ecosystems. Lakes are especially vulnerable and important at the same time. They cover only a small area worldwide but harbour high levels of biodiversity and contribute disproportionately to ecosystem services. Lakes differ with respect to their general type (e.g. land‐locked, drainage, floodplain and large lakes) and position in the landscape

  • The accuracy and precision of body mass estimation in non-avian dinosaurs.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    Nicolás E Campione,David C Evans

    Inferring the body mass of fossil taxa, such as non‐avian dinosaurs, provides a powerful tool for interpreting physiological and ecological properties, as well as the ability to study these traits through deep time and within a macroevolutionary context. As a result, over the past 100 years a number of studies advanced methods for estimating mass in dinosaurs and other extinct taxa. These methods can

  • A conceptual framework of evolutionary novelty and innovation.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-08-31
    Douglas H Erwin

    Since 1990 the recognition of deep homologies among metazoan developmental processes and the spread of more mechanistic approaches to developmental biology have led to a resurgence of interest in evolutionary novelty and innovation. Other evolutionary biologists have proposed central roles for behaviour and phenotypic plasticity in generating the conditions for the construction of novel morphologies

  • Fundamental research questions in subterranean biology.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-08-25
    Stefano Mammola,Isabel R Amorim,Maria E Bichuette,Paulo A V Borges,Naowarat Cheeptham,Steven J B Cooper,David C Culver,Louis Deharveng,David Eme,Rodrigo Lopes Ferreira,Cene Fišer,Žiga Fišer,Daniel W Fong,Christian Griebler,William R Jeffery,Jure Jugovic,Johanna E Kowalko,Thomas M Lilley,Florian Malard,Raoul Manenti,Alejandro Martínez,Melissa B Meierhofer,Matthew L Niemiller,Diana E Northup,Thais G

    Five decades ago, a landmark paper in Science titled The Cave Environment heralded caves as ideal natural experimental laboratories in which to develop and address general questions in geology, ecology, biogeography, and evolutionary biology. Although the ‘caves as laboratory’ paradigm has since been advocated by subterranean biologists, there are few examples of studies that successfully translated

  • Interocean patterns in shallow water sponge assemblage structure and function.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-08-19
    James J Bell,Emily McGrath,Nora M Kandler,Joseph Marlow,Sandeep S Beepat,Ramadian Bachtiar,Megan R Shaffer,Charlotte Mortimer,Valerio Micaroni,Valeria Mobilia,Alberto Rovellini,Benjamin Harris,Elizabeth Farnham,Francesca Strano,José Luis Carballo

    Sponges are a major component of benthic ecosystems across the world and fulfil a number of important functional roles. However, despite their importance, there have been few attempts to compare sponge assemblage structure and ecological functions across large spatial scales. In this review, we examine commonalities and differences between shallow water (<100 m) sponges at bioregional (15 bioregions)

  • Next-generation biological control: the need for integrating genetics and genomics.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-08-14
    Kelley Leung,Erica Ras,Kim B Ferguson,Simone Ariëns,Dirk Babendreier,Piter Bijma,Kostas Bourtzis,Jacques Brodeur,Margreet A Bruins,Alejandra Centurión,Sophie R Chattington,Milena Chinchilla-Ramírez,Marcel Dicke,Nina E Fatouros,Joel González-Cabrera,Thomas V M Groot,Tim Haye,Markus Knapp,Panagiota Koskinioti,Sophie Le Hesran,Manolis Lyrakis,Angeliki Paspati,Meritxell Pérez-Hedo,Wouter N Plouvier,Christian

    Biological control is widely successful at controlling pests, but effective biocontrol agents are now more difficult to import from countries of origin due to more restrictive international trade laws (the Nagoya Protocol). Coupled with increasing demand, the efficacy of existing and new biocontrol agents needs to be improved with genetic and genomic approaches. Although they have been underutilised

  • Rate of environmental change across scales in ecology.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    Liliana Pinek,India Mansour,Milica Lakovic,Masahiro Ryo,Matthias C Rillig

    The rate of change (RoC) of environmental drivers matters: biotic and abiotic components respond differently when faced with a fast or slow change in their environment. This phenomenon occurs across spatial scales and thus levels of ecological organization. We investigated the RoC of environmental drivers in the ecological literature and examined publication trends across ecological levels, including

  • Deciphering mollusc shell production: the roles of genetic mechanisms through to ecology, aquaculture and biomimetics.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-07-31
    Melody S Clark,Lloyd S Peck,Jaison Arivalagan,Thierry Backeljau,Sophie Berland,Joao C R Cardoso,Carlos Caurcel,Gauthier Chapelle,Michele De Noia,Sam Dupont,Karim Gharbi,Joseph I Hoffman,Kim S Last,Arul Marie,Frank Melzner,Kati Michalek,James Morris,Deborah M Power,Kirti Ramesh,Trystan Sanders,Kirsikka Sillanpää,Victoria A Sleight,Phoebe J Stewart-Sinclair,Kristina Sundell,Luca Telesca,David L J Vendrami

    Most molluscs possess shells, constructed from a vast array of microstructures and architectures. The fully formed shell is composed of calcite or aragonite. These CaCO3 crystals form complex biocomposites with proteins, which although typically less than 5% of total shell mass, play significant roles in determining shell microstructure. Despite much research effort, large knowledge gaps remain in

  • Impacts of exclusion fencing on target and non-target fauna: a global review.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-07-28
    Deane Smith,Rachel King,Benjamin L Allen

    Exclusion fencing is a common tool used to mitigate a variety of unwanted economic losses caused by problematic wildlife. While the potential for agricultural, ecological and economic benefits of pest animal exclusion are often apparent, what is less clear are the costs and benefits to sympatric non‐target wildlife. This review examines the use of exclusion fencing in a variety of situations around

  • Temperature as a modulator of sexual selection.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    Roberto García-Roa,Francisco Garcia-Gonzalez,Daniel W A Noble,Pau Carazo

    A central question in ecology and evolution is to understand why sexual selection varies so much in strength across taxa; it has long been known that ecological factors are crucial to this. Temperature is a particularly salient abiotic ecological factor that modulates a wide range of physiological, morphological and behavioural traits, impacting individuals and populations at a global taxonomic scale

  • The topology and drivers of ant-symbiont networks across Europe.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    Thomas Parmentier,Frederik De Laender,Dries Bonte

    Intimate associations between different species drive community composition across ecosystems. Understanding the ecological and evolutionary drivers of these symbiotic associations is challenging because their structure eventually determines stability and resilience of the entire species network. Here, we compiled a detailed database on naturally occurring ant–symbiont networks in Europe to identify

  • Human disturbance has contrasting effects on niche partitioning within carnivore communities.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-07-14
    Anthony Sévêque,Louise K Gentle,José V López-Bao,Richard W Yarnell,Antonio Uzal

    Among species, coexistence is driven partly by the partitioning of available resources. The mechanisms of coexistence and competition among species have been a central topic within community ecology, with particular focus on mammalian carnivore community research. However, despite growing concern regarding the impact of humans on the behaviour of species, very little is known about the effect of humans

  • Ant-induced evolutionary patterns in aphids.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-07-12
    Łukasz Depa,Natalia Kaszyca-Taszakowska,Artur Taszakowski,Mariusz Kanturski

    This review investigates ant–aphid mutualism (trophobiosis), in particular focusing on evolutionary processes in aphids resulting from this interaction. This broad literature review allows us to revise existing views on certain aspects of this mutualism and provide the first timeline of its possible development over a geological timescale. We propose a new classification of ant–aphid mutualism with

  • Effective ecosystem monitoring requires a multi-scaled approach.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-07-09
    Ben D Sparrow,Will Edwards,Samantha E M Munroe,Glenda M Wardle,Greg R Guerin,Jean-Francois Bastin,Beryl Morris,Rebekah Christensen,Stuart Phinn,Andrew J Lowe

    Ecosystem monitoring is fundamental to our understanding of how ecosystem change is impacting our natural resources and is vital for developing evidence‐based policy and management. However, the different types of ecosystem monitoring, along with their recommended applications, are often poorly understood and contentious. Varying definitions and strict adherence to a specific monitoring type can inhibit

  • Adaptations to thermal stress in social insects: recent advances and future directions
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-07-06
    Rémy Perez; Serge Aron

    Thermal stress is a major driver of population declines and extinctions. Shifts in thermal regimes create new environmental conditions, leading to trait adaptation, population migration, and/or species extinction. Extensive research has examined thermal adaptations in terrestrial arthropods. However, little is known about social insects, despite their major role in ecosystems. It is only within the

  • Sublethal effects of contaminants on marine habitat-forming species: a review and meta-analysis.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Mariana Mayer-Pinto,Janine Ledet,Tasman P Crowe,Emma L Johnston

    Contaminants may affect ecosystem functioning by reducing the fitness of organisms and these impacts may cascade through ecosystems, particularly if the sensitive organisms are also habitat‐forming species. Understanding how sub‐lethal effects of toxicants can affect the quality and functions of biogenic habitats is critical if we are to establish effective guidelines for protecting ecosystems. We

  • Scientists' warning on invasive alien species.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-06-25
    Petr Pyšek,Philip E Hulme,Dan Simberloff,Sven Bacher,Tim M Blackburn,James T Carlton,Wayne Dawson,Franz Essl,Llewellyn C Foxcroft,Piero Genovesi,Jonathan M Jeschke,Ingolf Kühn,Andrew M Liebhold,Nicholas E Mandrak,Laura A Meyerson,Aníbal Pauchard,Jan Pergl,Helen E Roy,Hanno Seebens,Mark van Kleunen,Montserrat Vilà,Michael J Wingfield,David M Richardson

    Biological invasions are a global consequence of an increasingly connected world and the rise in human population size. The numbers of invasive alien species – the subset of alien species that spread widely in areas where they are not native, affecting the environment or human livelihoods – are increasing. Synergies with other global changes are exacerbating current invasions and facilitating new ones

  • When one tail isn't enough: abnormal caudal regeneration in lepidosaurs and its potential ecological impacts.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-06-25
    James I Barr,Ruchira Somaweera,Stephanie S Godfrey,Michael G Gardner,Philip W Bateman

    Abnormal caudal regeneration, the production of additional tails through regeneration events, occurs in lepidosaurs as a result of incomplete autotomy or sufficient caudal wound. Despite being widely known to occur, documented events generally are limited to opportunistic single observations – hindering the understanding of the ecological importance of caudal regeneration. Here we compiled and reviewed

  • Modelling neurodegenerative diseases with 3D brain organoids.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-06-22
    Yujung Chang,Junyeop Kim,Hanseul Park,Hwan Choi,Jongpil Kim

    Neurodegenerative diseases are incurable and debilitating conditions characterized by the deterioration of brain function. Most brain disease models rely on human post‐mortem brain tissue, non‐human primate tissue, or in vitro two‐dimensional (2D) experiments. Resource limitations and the complexity of the human brain are some of the reasons that make suitable human neurodegenerative disease models

  • Skeletal resorption in bryozoans: occurrence, function and recognition.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-06-18
    Peter B Batson,Yuta Tamberg,Paul D Taylor,Dennis P Gordon,Abigail M Smith

    Skeletal resorption – the physiological removal of mineralised parts by an organism – is an important morphogenetic process in bryozoans. Reports of its occurrence and function across the phylum are patchy, however, and have not previously been synthesised. Here we show that resorption occurs routinely across a wide range of bryozoan clades, colony sizes, growth forms, ontogenetic stages, body wall

  • The ecosystem services provided by social insects: traits, management tools and knowledge gaps.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-06-11
    Luciana Elizalde,Marina Arbetman,Xavier Arnan,Paul Eggleton,Inara R Leal,María Natalia Lescano,Agustín Saez,Victoria Werenkraut,Gabriela I Pirk

    Social insects, i.e. ants, bees, wasps and termites, are key components of ecological communities, and are important ecosystem services (ESs) providers. Here, we review the literature in order to (i) analyse the particular traits of social insects that make them good suppliers of ESs; (ii) compile and assess management strategies that improve the services provided by social insects; and (iii) detect

  • Coevolution of body size and metabolic rate in vertebrates: a life-history perspective.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-06-10
    Jan Kozłowski,Marek Konarzewski,Marcin Czarnoleski

    Despite many decades of research, the allometric scaling of metabolic rates (MRs) remains poorly understood. Here, we argue that scaling exponents of these allometries do not themselves mirror one universal law of nature but instead statistically approximate the non‐linearity of the relationship between MR and body mass. This ‘statistical’ view must be replaced with the life‐history perspective that

  • A review of the critics of invasion biology.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-06-09
    Marcelo H Cassini

    Herein, I review existing criticisms of the field of invasion biology. Firstly, I identifiy problems of conceptual weaknesses, including disagreements regarding: (i) definitions of invasive, impact, and pristine conditions, and (ii) ecological assumptions such as species equilibrium, niche saturation, and climax communities. Secondly, I discuss methodological problems include the misuse of correlations

  • Amphicarpic plants: definition, ecology, geographic distribution, systematics, life history, evolution and use in agriculture.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-05-28
    Keliang Zhang,Jerry M Baskin,Carol C Baskin,Gregory P Cheplick,Xuejun Yang,Zhenying Huang

    Although most plants produce all of their fruits (seeds) aboveground, amphicarpic species produce fruits (seeds) both above‐ and belowground. Our primary aims were to determine the number of reported amphicarpic species and their taxonomic, geographic, life form and phylogenetic distribution, to evaluate differences in the life history of plants derived from aerial and subterranean seeds, to discuss

  • The 'biomineralization toolkit' and the origin of animal skeletons.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-05-23
    Duncan J E Murdock

    Biomineralized skeletons are widespread in animals, and their origins can be traced to the latest Ediacaran or early Cambrian fossil record, in virtually all animal groups. The origin of animal skeletons is inextricably linked with the diversification of animal body plans and the dramatic changes in ecology and geosphere–biosphere interactions across the Ediacaran–Cambrian transition. This apparent

  • Relaxed predation theory: size, sex and brains matter.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-05-22
    Megan C Edwards,Julia M Hoy,Sean I FitzGibbon,Peter J Murray

    Australia's wildlife is being considerably impacted by introduced mammalian predators such as cats (Felis catus), dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), and foxes (Vulpes vulpes). This is often attributed to native wildlife being naïve to these introduced predators. A systematic review of the literature reveals that native metatherians (body mass range 0.02-25 kg) do not recognise, and show relaxed antipredator

  • Camouflage in predators.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-05-14
    Matilda Q R Pembury Smith,Graeme D Ruxton

    Camouflage – adaptations that prevent detection and/or recognition – is a key example of evolution by natural selection, making it a primary focus in evolutionary ecology and animal behaviour. Most work has focused on camouflage as an anti‐predator adaptation. However, predators also display specific colours, patterns and behaviours that reduce visual detection or recognition to facilitate predation

  • Exosome-mediated effects and applications in inflammatory bowel disease.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-05-14
    Dickson K W Ocansey,Li Zhang,Yifei Wang,Yongmin Yan,Hui Qian,Xu Zhang,Wenrong Xu,Fei Mao

    Gut mucosal barriers, including chemical and physical barriers, spatially separate the gut microbiota from the host immune system to prevent unwanted immune responses that could lead to intestinal inflammation. In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), there is mucosal barrier dysfunction coupled with immune dysregulation and dysbiosis. The discovery of exosomes as regulators of vital functions in both

  • A comprehensive hypothesis on the migration of European glass eels (Anguilla anguilla).
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-05-13
    Alessandro Cresci

    The European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is a catadromous fish that spawns in the Sargasso Sea. As larvae, eels cross the Atlantic Ocean and reach the continental slope of Europe, where they metamorphose into post‐larval glass eels. These reach the continent, where some enter fresh water, some remain in marine waters, and others move between fresh and marine waters. After 5–25 years, as adult silver eels

  • A part-dependent account of biological individuality: why holobionts are individuals and ecosystems simultaneously.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-05-13
    Javier Suárez,Adrian Stencel

    Given one conception of biological individuality (evolutionary, physiological, etc.), can a holobiont – that is the host + its symbiotic (mutualistic, commensalist and parasitic) microbiome – be simultaneously a biological individual and an ecological community? Herein, we support this possibility by arguing that the notion of biological individuality is part‐dependent. In our account, the individuality

  • The role of the microbiome in the neurobiology of social behaviour.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-05-07
    Amar Sarkar,Siobhán Harty,Katerina V-A Johnson,Andrew H Moeller,Rachel N Carmody,Soili M Lehto,Susan E Erdman,Robin I M Dunbar,Philip W J Burnet

    Microbes colonise all multicellular life, and the gut microbiome has been shown to influence a range of host physiological and behavioural phenotypes. One of the most intriguing and least understood of these influences lies in the domain of the microbiome's interactions with host social behaviour, with new evidence revealing that the gut microbiome makes important contributions to animal sociality

  • The evolution and physiology of male pregnancy in syngnathid fishes.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-05-05
    Camilla M Whittington,Christopher R Friesen

    The seahorses, pipefishes and seadragons (Syngnathidae) are among the few vertebrates in which pregnant males incubate developing embryos. Syngnathids are popular in studies of sexual selection, sex‐role reversal, and reproductive trade‐offs, and are now emerging as valuable comparative models for the study of the biology and evolution of reproductive complexity. These fish offer the opportunity to

  • Magnitude and direction of parasite-induced phenotypic alterations: a meta-analysis in acanthocephalans.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-04-27
    Marion Fayard,François-Xavier Dechaume-Moncharmont,Rémi Wattier,Marie-Jeanne Perrot-Minnot

    Several parasite species have the ability to modify their host's phenotype to their own advantage thereby increasing the probability of transmission from one host to another. This phenomenon of host manipulation is interpreted as the expression of a parasite extended phenotype. Manipulative parasites generally affect multiple phenotypic traits in their hosts, although both the extent and adaptive significance

  • Formation, structure, and function of extra-skeletal bones in mammals.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-04-27
    Alireza Nasoori

    This review describes the formation, structure, and function of bony compartments in antlers, horns, ossicones, osteoderm and the os penis/os clitoris (collectively referred to herein as AHOOO structures) in extant mammals. AHOOOs are extra‐skeletal bones that originate from subcutaneous (dermal) tissues in a wide variety of mammals, and this review elaborates on the co‐development of the bone and

  • Movement-mediated community assembly and coexistence.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-04-20
    Ulrike E Schlägel,Volker Grimm,Niels Blaum,Pierluigi Colangeli,Melanie Dammhahn,Jana A Eccard,Sebastian L Hausmann,Antje Herde,Heribert Hofer,Jasmin Joshi,Stephanie Kramer-Schadt,Magdalena Litwin,Sissi D Lozada-Gobilard,Marina E H Müller,Thomas Müller,Ran Nathan,Jana S Petermann,Karin Pirhofer-Walzl,Viktoriia Radchuk,Matthias C Rillig,Manuel Roeleke,Merlin Schäfer,Cédric Scherer,Gabriele Schiro,Carolin

    Organismal movement is ubiquitous and facilitates important ecological mechanisms that drive community and metacommunity composition and hence biodiversity. In most existing ecological theories and models in biodiversity research, movement is represented simplistically, ignoring the behavioural basis of movement and consequently the variation in behaviour at species and individual levels. However,

  • Innovation in chimpanzees
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-04-19
    Elisa Bandini, Rachel A. Harrison

    The study of innovation in non‐human animals (henceforth: animals) has recently gained momentum across fields including primatology, animal behaviour and cultural evolution. Examining the rate of innovations, and the cognitive mechanisms driving these innovations across species, can provide insights into the evolution of human culture. Especially relevant to the study of human culture is one of our

  • Fungal evolution: cellular, genomic and metabolic complexity.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-04-17
    Miguel A Naranjo-Ortiz,Toni Gabaldón

    The question of how phenotypic and genomic complexity are inter‐related and how they are shaped through evolution is a central question in biology that historically has been approached from the perspective of animals and plants. In recent years, however, fungi have emerged as a promising alternative system to address such questions. Key to their ecological success, fungi present a broad and diverse

  • Using value of information to prioritize research needs for migratory bird management under climate change: a case study using federal land acquisition in the United States.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-04-17
    Clark S Rushing,Madeleine Rubenstein,James E Lyons,Michael C Runge

    In response to global habitat loss, many governmental and non‐governmental organizations have implemented land acquisition programs to protect critical habitats permanently for priority species. The ability of these protected areas to meet future management objectives may be compromised if the effects of climate change are not considered in acquisition decisions. Unfortunately, the effects of climate

  • Minimizing animal welfare harms associated with predation management in agro-ecosystems.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-04-17
    Benjamin L Allen,Jordan O Hampton

    The impacts of wild predators on livestock are a common source of human–wildlife conflict globally, and predators are subject to population control for this reason in many situations. Animal welfare is one of many important considerations affecting decisions about predation management. Recent studies discussing animal welfare in this context have presented arguments emphasizing the importance of avoiding

  • A multilevel analytical framework for studying cultural evolution in prehistoric hunter-gatherer societies.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Valéria Romano,Sergi Lozano,Javier Fernández-López de Pablo

    Over the past decade, a major debate has taken place on the underpinnings of cultural changes in human societies. A growing array of evidence in behavioural and evolutionary biology has revealed that social connectivity among populations and within them affects, and is affected by, culture. Yet the interplay between prehistoric hunter–gatherer social structure and cultural transmission has typically

  • Infrasonic hearing in birds: a review of audiometry and hypothesized structure-function relationships.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-03-31
    Jeffrey N Zeyl,Olivier den Ouden,Christine Köppl,Jelle Assink,Jakob Christensen-Dalsgaard,Samantha C Patrick,Susana Clusella-Trullas

    The perception of airborne infrasound (sounds below 20 Hz, inaudible to humans except at very high levels) has been documented in a handful of mammals and birds. While animals that produce vocalizations with infrasonic components (e.g. elephants) present conspicuous examples of potential use of infrasound in the context of communication, the extent to which airborne infrasound perception exists among

  • The genetics of evolutionary radiations.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-03-31
    Yamama Naciri,H Peter Linder

    With the realization that much of the biological diversity on Earth has been generated by discrete evolutionary radiations, there has been a rapid increase in research into the biotic (key innovations) and abiotic (key environments) circumstances in which such radiations took place. Here we focus on the potential importance of population genetic structure and trait genetic architecture in explaining

  • Pathological calcification in osteoarthritis: an outcome or a disease initiator?
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-03-24
    Jian-Fei Yan,Wen-Pin Qin,Bo-Cheng Xiao,Qian-Qian Wan,Franklin R Tay,Li-Na Niu,Kai Jiao

    In the progression of osteoarthritis, pathological calcification in the affected joint is an important feature. The role of these crystallites in the pathogenesis and progression of osteoarthritis is controversial; it remains unclear whether they act as a disease initiator or are present as a result of joint damage. Recent studies reported that the molecular mechanisms regulating physiological calcification

  • The ecological importance of crocodylians: towards evidence-based justification for their conservation.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-03-10
    Ruchira Somaweera,James Nifong,Adam Rosenblatt,Mathew L Brien,Xander Combrink,Ruth M Elsey,Gordon Grigg,William E Magnusson,Frank J Mazzotti,Ashley Pearcy,Steven G Platt,Matthew H Shirley,Marisa Tellez,Jan van der Ploeg,Grahame Webb,Rom Whitaker,Bruce L Webber

    Large‐bodied predators are well represented among the world's threatened and endangered species. A significant body of literature shows that in terrestrial and marine ecosystems large predators can play important roles in ecosystem structure and functioning. By contrast, the ecological roles and importance of large predators within freshwater ecosystems are poorly understood, constraining the design

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