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  • A multilevel analytical framework for studying cultural evolution in prehistoric hunter–gatherer societies
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Valéria Romano; Sergi Lozano; Javier Fernández‐López de Pablo

    Over the past decade, a major debate has taken place on the underpinnings of cultural changes in human societies. A growing array of evidence in behavioural and evolutionary biology has revealed that social connectivity among populations and within them affects, and is affected by, culture. Yet the interplay between prehistoric hunter–gatherer social structure and cultural transmission has typically

  • Infrasonic hearing in birds: a review of audiometry and hypothesized structure–function relationships
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2020-03-31
    Jeffrey N. Zeyl; Olivier den Ouden; Christine Köppl; Jelle Assink; Jakob Christensen‐Dalsgaard; Samantha C. Patrick; Susana Clusella‐Trullas

    The perception of airborne infrasound (sounds below 20 Hz, inaudible to humans except at very high levels) has been documented in a handful of mammals and birds. While animals that produce vocalizations with infrasonic components (e.g. elephants) present conspicuous examples of potential use of infrasound in the context of communication, the extent to which airborne infrasound perception exists among

  • The genetics of evolutionary radiations
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2020-03-31
    Yamama Naciri; H. Peter Linder

    With the realization that much of the biological diversity on Earth has been generated by discrete evolutionary radiations, there has been a rapid increase in research into the biotic (key innovations) and abiotic (key environments) circumstances in which such radiations took place. Here we focus on the potential importance of population genetic structure and trait genetic architecture in explaining

  • Pathological calcification in osteoarthritis: an outcome or a disease initiator?
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2020-03-24
    Jian‐fei Yan; Wen‐pin Qin; Bo‐cheng Xiao; Qian‐qian Wan; Franklin R. Tay; Li‐na Niu; Kai Jiao

    In the progression of osteoarthritis, pathological calcification in the affected joint is an important feature. The role of these crystallites in the pathogenesis and progression of osteoarthritis is controversial; it remains unclear whether they act as a disease initiator or are present as a result of joint damage. Recent studies reported that the molecular mechanisms regulating physiological calcification

  • The ecological importance of crocodylians: towards evidence‐based justification for their conservation
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2020-03-10
    Ruchira Somaweera; James Nifong; Adam Rosenblatt; Mathew L. Brien; Xander Combrink; Ruth M. Elsey; Gordon Grigg; William E. Magnusson; Frank J. Mazzotti; Ashley Pearcy; Steven G. Platt; Matthew H. Shirley; Marisa Tellez; Jan van der Ploeg; Grahame Webb; Rom Whitaker; Bruce L. Webber

    Large‐bodied predators are well represented among the world's threatened and endangered species. A significant body of literature shows that in terrestrial and marine ecosystems large predators can play important roles in ecosystem structure and functioning. By contrast, the ecological roles and importance of large predators within freshwater ecosystems are poorly understood, constraining the design

  • Mixed company: a framework for understanding the composition and organization of mixed-species animal groups.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2020-02-25
    Eben Goodale,Hari Sridhar,Kathryn E Sieving,Priti Bangal,Gabriel J Colorado Z,Damien R Farine,Eckhard W Heymann,Harrison H Jones,Indrikis Krams,Ari E Martínez,Flavia Montaño-Centellas,Jenny Muñoz,Umesh Srinivasan,Anne Theo,Kartik Shanker

    Mixed-species animal groups (MSGs) are widely acknowledged to increase predator avoidance and foraging efficiency, among other benefits, and thereby increase participants' fitness. Diversity in MSG composition ranges from two to 70 species of very similar or completely different phenotypes. Yet consistency in organization is also observable in that one or a few species usually have disproportionate

  • Songs versus colours versus horns: what explains the diversity of sexually selected traits?
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2020-02-24
    John J. Wiens; E. Tuschhoff

    Papers on sexual selection often highlight the incredible diversity of sexually selected traits across animals. Yet, few studies have tried to explain why this diversity evolved. Animals use many different types of traits to attract mates and outcompete rivals, including colours, songs, and horns, but it remains unclear why, for example, some taxa have songs, others have colours, and others horns.

  • Phospholipase D as a key modulator of cancer progression.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2020-02-19
    Yuanfa Yao,Xinyi Wang,Hanbing Li,Jiannan Fan,Xiaohan Qian,Hong Li,Yingke Xu

    The phospholipase D (PLD) family has a ubiquitous expression in cells. PLD isoforms (PLDs) and their hydrolysate phosphatidic acid (PA) have been demonstrated to engage in multiple stages of cancer progression. Aberrant expression of PLDs, especially PLD1 and PLD2, has been detected in various cancers. Inhibition or elimination of PLDs activity has been shown to reduce tumour growth and metastasis

  • Estuarine fish and tetrapod evolution: insights from a Late Devonian (Famennian) Gondwanan estuarine lake and a southern African Holocene equivalent.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    Robert W Gess,Alan K Whitfield

    The Waterloo Farm lagerstätte in South Africa provides a uniquely well-preserved record of a Latest Devonian estuarine ecosystem. Ecological evidence from it is reviewed, contextualised, and compared with that available from the analogous Swartvlei estuarine lake, with a particular emphasis on their piscean inhabitants. Although the taxonomic affinities of the estuarine species are temporally very

  • Deer, wolves, and people: costs, benefits and challenges of living together.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2020-02-11
    Jean-Louis Martin,Simon Chamaillé-Jammes,Donald M Waller

    Human-driven species annihilations loom as a major crisis. However the recovery of deer and wolf populations in many parts of the northern hemisphere has resulted in conflicts and controversies rather than in relief. Both species interact in complex ways with their environment, each other, and humans. We review these interactions in the context of the ecological and human costs and benefits associated

  • Prospects for incorporation of epigenetic biomarkers in human health and environmental risk assessment of chemicals.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2020-02-11
    Guilherme Jeremias,Fernando J M Gonçalves,Joana L Pereira,Jana Asselman

    Epigenetic mechanisms have gained relevance in human health and environmental studies, due to their pivotal role in disease, gene × environment interactions and adaptation to environmental change and/or contamination. Epigenetic mechanisms are highly responsive to external stimuli and a wide range of chemicals has been shown to determine specific epigenetic patterns in several organisms. Furthermore

  • Insect responses to heat: physiological mechanisms, evolution and ecological implications in a warming world.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2020-02-08
    Daniel González-Tokman,Alex Córdoba-Aguilar,Wesley Dáttilo,Andrés Lira-Noriega,Rosa A Sánchez-Guillén,Fabricio Villalobos

    Surviving changing climate conditions is particularly difficult for organisms such as insects that depend on environmental temperature to regulate their physiological functions. Insects are extremely threatened by global warming, since many do not have enough physiological tolerance even to survive continuous exposure to the current maximum temperatures experienced in their habitats. Here, we review

  • Key novelties in the evolution of the aquatic colonial phylum Bryozoa: evidence from soft body morphology.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2020-02-07
    Thomas F Schwaha,Andrew N Ostrovsky,Andreas Wanninger

    Molecular techniques are currently the leading tools for reconstructing phylogenetic relationships, but our understanding of ancestral, plesiomorphic and apomorphic characters requires the study of the morphology of extant forms for testing these phylogenies and for reconstructing character evolution. This review highlights the potential of soft body morphology for inferring the evolution and phylogeny

  • Cellular calcium and redox regulation: the mediator of vertebrate environmental sex determination?
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2020-02-06
    Meghan A Castelli,Sarah L Whiteley,Arthur Georges,Clare E Holleley

    Many reptiles and some fish determine offspring sex by environmental cues such as incubation temperature. The mechanism by which environmental signals are captured and transduced into specific sexual phenotypes has remained unexplained for over 50 years. Indeed, environmental sex determination (ESD) has been viewed as an intractable problem because sex determination is influenced by a myriad of genes

  • The Zn2+ and Ca2+ -binding S100B and S100A1 proteins: beyond the myths.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2020-02-06
    Jacques Baudier,Jean Christophe Deloulme,Gary S Shaw

    The S100 genes encode a conserved group of 21 vertebrate-specific EF-hand calcium-binding proteins. Since their discovery in 1965, S100 proteins have remained enigmatic in terms of their cellular functions. In this review, we summarize the calcium- and zinc-binding properties of the dimeric S100B and S100A1 proteins and highlight data that shed new light on the extracellular and intracellular regulation

  • Designing mate choice experiments.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Liam R Dougherty

    The important role that mate choice plays in the lives of animals is matched by the large and active research field dedicated to studying it. Researchers work on a wide range of species and behaviours, and so the experimental approaches used to measure animal mate choice are highly variable. Importantly, these differences are often not purely cosmetic; they can strongly influence the measurement of

  • Mitochondrial behaviour, morphology, and animal performance.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Kyle B Heine,Wendy R Hood

    We have a limited understanding of the proximate mechanisms that are responsible for the development of variation in animal performance and life-history strategies. Provided that components of an organism's successful life history - for example, mate competition, gestation, lactation, etc. - are energetically demanding, increased energy production within mitochondria is likely the foundation from which

  • Identifying mechanisms of genetic differentiation among populations in vagile species: historical factors dominate genetic differentiation in seabirds.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Anicee J Lombal,James E O'dwyer,Vicki Friesen,Eric J Woehler,Christopher P Burridge

    Elucidating the factors underlying the origin and maintenance of genetic variation among populations is crucial for our understanding of their ecology and evolution, and also to help identify conservation priorities. While intrinsic movement has been hypothesized as the major determinant of population genetic structuring in abundant vagile species, growing evidence indicates that vagility does not

  • Are we overestimating risk of enteric pathogen spillover from wild birds to humans?
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2020-01-31
    Olivia M Smith,William E Snyder,Jeb P Owen

    Enteric illnesses remain the second largest source of communicable diseases worldwide, and wild birds are suspected sources for human infection. This has led to efforts to reduce pathogen spillover through deterrence of wildlife and removal of wildlife habitat, particularly within farming systems, which can compromise conservation efforts and the ecosystem services wild birds provide. Further, Salmonella

  • Neuroendocrinology and neurobiology of sebaceous glands.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Richard W Clayton,Ewan A Langan,David M Ansell,Ivo J H M de Vos,Klaus Göbel,Marlon R Schneider,Mauro Picardo,Xinhong Lim,Maurice A M van Steensel,Ralf Paus

    The nervous system communicates with peripheral tissues through nerve fibres and the systemic release of hypothalamic and pituitary neurohormones. Communication between the nervous system and the largest human organ, skin, has traditionally received little attention. In particular, the neuro-regulation of sebaceous glands (SGs), a major skin appendage, is rarely considered. Yet, it is clear that the

  • Development and evolution of the tetrapod skull-neck boundary.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Hillary C Maddin,Nadine Piekarski,Robert R Reisz,James Hanken

    The origin and evolution of the vertebrate skull have been topics of intense study for more than two centuries. Whereas early theories of skull origin, such as the influential vertebral theory, have been largely refuted with respect to the anterior (pre-otic) region of the skull, the posterior (post-otic) region is known to be derived from the anteriormost paraxial segments, i.e. the somites. Here

  • Ant-termite interactions: an important but under-explored ecological linkage.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2019-12-25
    Jiri Tuma,Paul Eggleton,Tom M Fayle

    Animal interactions play an important role in understanding ecological processes. The nature and intensity of these interactions can shape the impacts of organisms on their environment. Because ants and termites, with their high biomass and range of ecological functions, have considerable effects on their environment, the interaction between them is important for ecosystem processes. Although the manner

  • 5' untranslated regions: the next regulatory sequence in yeast synthetic biology.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Yatti De Nijs,Sofie L De Maeseneire,Wim K Soetaert

    When developing industrial biotechnology processes, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast or brewer's yeast) is a popular choice as a microbial host. Many tools have been developed in the fields of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering to introduce heterologous pathways and tune their expression in yeast. Such tools mainly focus on controlling transcription, whereas post-transcriptional regulation

  • Cardiovascular shunting in vertebrates: a practical integration of competing hypotheses.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Warren Burggren,Renato Filogonio,Tobias Wang

    This review explores the long-standing question: 'Why do cardiovascular shunts occur?' An historical perspective is provided on previous research into cardiac shunts in vertebrates that continues to shape current views. Cardiac shunts and when they occur is then described for vertebrates. Nearly 20 different functional reasons have been proposed as specific causes of shunts, ranging from energy conservation

  • The origins of gestures and language: history, current advances and proposed theories.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Jacques Prieur,Stéphanie Barbu,Catherine Blois-Heulin,Alban Lemasson

    Investigating in depth the mechanisms underlying human and non-human primate intentional communication systems (involving gestures, vocalisations, facial expressions and eye behaviours) can shed light on the evolutionary roots of language. Reports on non-human primates, particularly great apes, suggest that gestural communication would have been a crucial prerequisite for the emergence of language

  • A niche perspective on the range expansion of symbionts.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Alexandre Mestre,Robert Poulin,Joaquín Hortal

    Range expansion results from complex eco-evolutionary processes where range dynamics and niche shifts interact in a novel physical space and/or environment, with scale playing a major role. Obligate symbionts (i.e. organisms permanently living on hosts) differ from free-living organisms in that they depend on strong biotic interactions with their hosts which alter their niche and spatial dynamics.

  • Calmodulin-mediated events during the life cycle of the amoebozoan Dictyostelium discoideum.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Danton H O'Day,Sabateeshan Mathavarajah,Michael A Myre,Robert J Huber

    This review focusses on the functions of intracellular and extracellular calmodulin, its target proteins and their binding proteins during the asexual life cycle of Dictyostelium discoideum. Calmodulin is a primary regulatory protein of calcium signal transduction that functions throughout all stages. During growth, it mediates autophagy, the cell cycle, folic acid chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and other

  • Fungal functional ecology: bringing a trait-based approach to plant-associated fungi.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Amy E Zanne,Kessy Abarenkov,Michelle E Afkhami,Carlos A Aguilar-Trigueros,Scott Bates,Jennifer M Bhatnagar,Posy E Busby,Natalie Christian,William K Cornwell,Thomas W Crowther,Habacuc Flores-Moreno,Dimitrios Floudas,Romina Gazis,David Hibbett,Peter Kennedy,Daniel L Lindner,Daniel S Maynard,Amy M Milo,Rolf Henrik Nilsson,Jeff Powell,Mark Schildhauer,Jonathan Schilling,Kathleen K Treseder

    Fungi play many essential roles in ecosystems. They facilitate plant access to nutrients and water, serve as decay agents that cycle carbon and nutrients through the soil, water and atmosphere, and are major regulators of macro-organismal populations. Although technological advances are improving the detection and identification of fungi, there still exist key gaps in our ecological knowledge of this

  • How do herbivorous insects respond to drought stress in trees?
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Claire Gely,Susan G W Laurance,Nigel E Stork

    Increased frequency and severity of drought, as a result of climate change, is expected to drive critical changes in plant-insect interactions that may elevate rates of tree mortality. The mechanisms that link water stress in plants to insect performance are not well understood. Here, we build on previous reviews and develop a framework that incorporates the severity and longevity of drought and captures

  • The ecology of chronic wasting disease in wildlife.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Luis E Escobar,Sandra Pritzkow,Steven N Winter,Daniel A Grear,Megan S Kirchgessner,Ernesto Dominguez-Villegas,Gustavo Machado,A Townsend Peterson,Claudio Soto

    Prions are misfolded infectious proteins responsible for a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases termed transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion diseases. Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) is the prion disease with the highest spillover potential, affecting at least seven Cervidae (deer) species. The zoonotic potential of CWD is inconclusive and cannot be ruled out. A risk of infection for

  • Post-ejaculatory modifications to sperm (PEMS).
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2019-11-18
    Scott Pitnick,Mariana F Wolfner,Steve Dorus

    Mammalian sperm must spend a minimum period of time within a female reproductive tract to achieve the capacity to fertilize oocytes. This phenomenon, termed sperm 'capacitation', was discovered nearly seven decades ago and opened a window into the complexities of sperm-female interaction. Capacitation is most commonly used to refer to a specific combination of processes that are believed to be widespread

  • The palaeobiology of belemnites - foundation for the interpretation of rostrum geochemistry.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    René Hoffmann,Kevin Stevens

    Belemnites are an extinct group of Mesozoic coleoid cephalopods with a fossil record ranging from the early Late Triassic [about 240 million years ago (Mya)] to the Cretaceous/Palaeogene boundary (65 Mya). Belemnites were widely distributed, highly abundant and diverse, and an important component of Mesozoic marine food webs. Their internal shells, specifically their low-Mg calcite rostra, have been

  • Towards an integrative understanding of soil biodiversity.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    Madhav P Thakur,Helen R P Phillips,Ulrich Brose,Franciska T De Vries,Patrick Lavelle,Michel Loreau,Jerome Mathieu,Christian Mulder,Wim H Van der Putten,Matthias C Rillig,David A Wardle,Elizabeth M Bach,Marie L C Bartz,Joanne M Bennett,Maria J I Briones,George Brown,Thibaud Decaëns,Nico Eisenhauer,Olga Ferlian,Carlos António Guerra,Birgitta König-Ries,Alberto Orgiazzi,Kelly S Ramirez,David J Russell

    Soil is one of the most biodiverse terrestrial habitats. Yet, we lack an integrative conceptual framework for understanding the patterns and mechanisms driving soil biodiversity. One of the underlying reasons for our poor understanding of soil biodiversity patterns relates to whether key biodiversity theories (historically developed for aboveground and aquatic organisms) are applicable to patterns

  • The fossil record of spiders revisited: implications for calibrating trees and evidence for a major faunal turnover since the Mesozoic.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Ivan L F Magalhaes,Guilherme H F Azevedo,Peter Michalik,Martín J Ramírez

    Studies in evolutionary biology and biogeography increasingly rely on the estimation of dated phylogenetic trees using molecular clocks. In turn, the calibration of such clocks is critically dependent on external evidence (i.e. fossils) anchoring the ages of particular nodes to known absolute ages. In recent years, a plethora of new fossil spiders, especially from the Mesozoic, have been described

  • The transportome of the malaria parasite.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Rowena E Martin

    Membrane transport proteins, also known as transporters, control the movement of ions, nutrients, metabolites, and waste products across the membranes of a cell and are central to its biology. Proteins of this type also serve as drug targets and are key players in the phenomenon of drug resistance. The malaria parasite has a relatively reduced transportome, with only approximately 2.5% of its genes

  • Microglia in neuropathology caused by protozoan parasites.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Katherine Figarella,Hartwig Wolburg,Olga Garaschuk,Michael Duszenko

    Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) is the most severe consequence of some parasitic infections. Protozoal infections comprise a group of diseases that together affect billions of people worldwide and, according to the World Health Organization, are responsible for more than 500000 deaths annually. They include African and American trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis

  • The genetic script of metastasis.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2019-10-30
    Goodwin G Jinesh,Andrew S Brohl

    Metastasis is a pivotal event that changes the course of cancers from benign and treatable to malignant and difficult to treat, resulting in the demise of patients. Understanding the genetic control of metastasis is thus crucial to develop efficient and sustainable targeted therapies. Here we discuss the alterations in epigenetic mechanisms, transcription, chromosomal instability, chromosome imprinting

  • Natural selection in mimicry.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2019-10-30
    Bruce Anderson,Marinus L de Jager

    Biological mimicry has served as a salient example of natural selection for over a century, providing us with a dazzling array of very different examples across many unrelated taxa. We provide a conceptual framework that brings together apparently disparate examples of mimicry in a single model for the purpose of comparing how natural selection affects models, mimics and signal receivers across different

  • Fungal evolution: diversity, taxonomy and phylogeny of the Fungi
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2019-10-29
    Miguel A. Naranjo‐Ortiz; Toni Gabaldón

    The fungal kingdom comprises a hyperdiverse clade of heterotrophic eukaryotes characterized by the presence of a chitinous cell wall, the loss of phagotrophic capabilities and cell organizations that range from completely unicellular monopolar organisms to highly complex syncitial filaments that may form macroscopic structures. Fungi emerged as a ‘Third Kingdom’, embracing organisms that were outside

  • The Handicap Principle: how an erroneous hypothesis became a scientific principle.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2019-10-23
    Dustin J Penn,Szabolcs Számadó

    The most widely cited explanation for the evolution of reliable signals is Zahavi's so-called Handicap Principle, which proposes that signals are honest because they are costly to produce. Here we provide a critical review of the Handicap Principle and its theoretical development. We explain why this idea is erroneous, and how it nevertheless became widely accepted as the leading explanation for honest

  • Effects of plant diversity on soil carbon in diverse ecosystems: a global meta-analysis.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2019-10-18
    Xinli Chen,Han Y H Chen,Chen Chen,Zilong Ma,Eric B Searle,Zaipeng Yu,Zhiqun Huang

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is a valuable resource for mediating global climate change and securing food production. Despite an alarming rate of global plant diversity loss, uncertainties concerning the effects of plant diversity on SOC remain, because plant diversity not only stimulates litter inputs via increased productivity, thus enhancing SOC, but also stimulates microbial respiration, thus reducing

  • New insight into sortilin in controlling lipid metabolism and the risk of atherogenesis.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2019-10-18
    Xin Su,Daoquan Peng

    Dyslipidemia, including increased plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride, and decreased plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, has been considered a key factor associated with a series of health problems grouped together as metabolic syndrome. Worldwide, dyslipidemia has become a pressing issue, together

  • Communicative roots of complex sociality and cognition.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2019-10-14
    Anna I Roberts,Sam G B Roberts

    Mammals living in more complex social groups typically have large brains for their body size and many researchers have proposed that the primary driver of the increase in brain size through primate and hominin evolution was the selection pressures associated with sociality. Many mammals, and especially primates, use flexible signals that show a high degree of voluntary control and these signals may

  • Patterns and variation in the mammal parasite-glucocorticoid relationship.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2019-10-13
    Charlotte Defolie,Thomas Merkling,Claudia Fichtel

    Parasites are ubiquitous and can strongly affect their hosts through mechanisms such as behavioural changes, increased energetic costs and/or immunomodulation. When parasites are detrimental to their hosts, they should act as physiological stressors and elicit the release of glucocorticoids. Alternatively, previously elevated glucocorticoid levels could facilitate parasite infection due to neuroimmunomodulation

  • Frugivory and seed dispersal by chelonians: a review and synthesis.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2019-10-13
    Wilfredo Falcón,Don Moll,Dennis M Hansen

    In recent years, it has become clear that frugivory and seed dispersal (FSD) by turtles and tortoises is much more common than previously thought. We here review published and unpublished records of chelonian FSD, and assess the role of chelonians as seed dispersers, from individual species to the community level. We first discuss the distribution of chelonian FSD and the characteristics of the fruit

  • The deforestation of Easter Island.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Valentí Rull

    Easter Island deforestation has traditionally been viewed as an abrupt island-wide event caused by the prehistoric Rapanui civilization, which precipitated its own cultural collapse. This view emerges from early palaeoecological analyses of lake sediments, which showed a sudden and total replacement of palm pollen by grass pollen shortly after Polynesian settlement (800-1200 CE). However, further palaeoecological

  • An ecological framework of neophobia: from cells to organisms to populations.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Adam L Crane,Grant E Brown,Douglas P Chivers,Maud C O Ferrari

    Neophobia is the fear of novel stimuli or situations. This phenotype has recently received much ecological attention, primarily in the context of decision making. Here, we explore neophobia across biological levels of organisation, first describing types of neophobia among animals and the underlying causes of neophobia, highlighting high levels of risk and uncertainty as key drivers. We place neophobia

  • Recent advances in amniote palaeocolour reconstruction and a framework for future research.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2019-09-19
    Arindam Roy,Michael Pittman,Evan T Saitta,Thomas G Kaye,Xing Xu

    Preserved melanin pigments have been discovered in fossilised integumentary appendages of several amniote lineages (fishes, frogs, snakes, marine reptiles, non-avialan dinosaurs, birds, and mammals) excavated from lagerstätten across the globe. Melanisation is a leading factor in organic integument preservation in these fossils. Melanin in extant vertebrates is typically stored in rod- to sphere-shaped

  • Ecosystem services provided by armadillos.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2019-08-25
    Thiago F Rodrigues,Aline M B Mantellatto,Mariella Superina,Adriano G Chiarello

    Awareness of the natural ecological processes provided by organisms that benefit human well-being has significantly progressed towards the goal of making conservation a mainstream value. Identifying different services and the species that provide them is a vital first step for the management and maintenance of these so-called ecosystem services. Herein, we specifically address the armadillos, which

  • Human protein paucimannosylation: cues from the eukaryotic kingdoms.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2019-08-14
    Harry C Tjondro,Ian Loke,Sayantani Chatterjee,Morten Thaysen-Andersen

    Paucimannosidic proteins (PMPs) are bioactive glycoproteins carrying truncated α- or β-mannosyl-terminating asparagine (N)-linked glycans widely reported across the eukaryotic domain. Our understanding of human PMPs remains limited, despite findings documenting their existence and association with human disease glycobiology. This review comprehensively surveys the structures, biosynthetic routes and

  • Quantifying the contribution of immigration to population dynamics: a review of methods, evidence and perspectives in birds and mammals.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2019-08-05
    Alexandre Millon,Xavier Lambin,Sébastien Devillard,Michael Schaub

    The demography of a population is often reduced to the apparent (or local) survival of individuals and their realised fecundity within a study area defined according to logistical constraints rather than landscape features. Such demographics are then used to infer whether a local population contributes positively to population dynamics across a wider landscape context. Such a simplistic approach ignores

  • Sesamoids in tetrapods: the origin of new skeletal morphologies.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2019-07-29
    Virginia Abdala,Miriam C Vera,Lucila I Amador,Gabriela Fontanarrosa,Jessica Fratani,María L Ponssa

    Along with supernumerary bones, sesamoids, defined as any organized intratendinous/intraligamentous structure, including those composed of fibrocartilage, adjacent to an articulation or joint, have been frequently considered as enigmatic structures associated with the joints of the skeletal system of vertebrates. This review allows us to propose a dynamic model to account for part of skeletal phenotypic

  • The time frame of home-range studies: from function to utilization.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2019-07-25
    Guillaume Péron

    As technological and statistical innovations open new avenues in movement ecology, I review the fundamental implications of the time frame of home-range studies, with the aim of associating terminologies consistently with research objectives and methodologies. There is a fundamental distinction between (a) extrapolations of stationary distributions, associated with long time scales and aiming at asymptotic

  • Mechanisms of the Ase1/PRC1/MAP65 family in central spindle assembly.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2019-07-25
    Zhen-Yu She,Ya-Lan Wei,Yang Lin,Yue-Ling Li,Ming-Hui Lu

    During cytokinesis, the organization of the spindle midzone and chromosome segregation is controlled by the central spindle, a microtubule cytoskeleton containing kinesin motors and non-motor microtubule-associated proteins. The anaphase spindle elongation 1/protein regulator of cytokinesis 1/microtubule associated protein 65 (Ase1/PRC1/MAP65) family of microtubule-bundling proteins are key regulators

  • Beyond trophic morphology: stable isotopes reveal ubiquitous versatility in marine turtle trophic ecology.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2019-07-24
    Christine Figgener,Joseph Bernardo,Pamela T Plotkin

    The idea that interspecific variation in trophic morphology among closely related species effectively permits resource partitioning has driven research on ecological radiation since Darwin first described variation in beak morphology among Geospiza. Marine turtles comprise an ecological radiation in which interspecific differences in trophic morphology have similarly been implicated as a pathway to

  • Fire as a key driver of Earth's biodiversity.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2019-07-12
    Tianhua He,Byron B Lamont,Juli G Pausas

    Many terrestrial ecosystems are fire prone, such that their composition and structure are largely due to their fire regime. Regions subject to regular fire have exceptionally high levels of species richness and endemism, and fire has been proposed as a major driver of their diversity, within the context of climate, resource availability and environmental heterogeneity. However, current fire-management

  • On how risk and group size interact to influence vigilance.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2019-07-03
    Guy Beauchamp

    Vigilance allows animals to monitor their surroundings for signs of danger associated with predators or rivals. As vigilance is costly, models predict that it should increase when the risk posed by predators or rivals increases. In addition, vigilance is expected to decrease in larger groups that provide more safety against predators. Risk and group size are thus two key determinants of vigilance.

  • Mycorrhizal types differ in ecophysiology and alter plant nutrition and soil processes.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2019-07-03
    Leho Tedersoo,Mohammad Bahram

    Mycorrhizal fungi benefit plants by improved mineral nutrition and protection against stress, yet information about fundamental differences among mycorrhizal types in fungi and trees and their relative importance in biogeochemical processes is only beginning to accumulate. We critically review and synthesize the ecophysiological differences in ectomycorrhizal, ericoid mycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal

  • The vascular protective role of oestradiol: a focus on postmenopausal oestradiol deficiency and aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2019-07-01
    Shruthi S Ramesh,Rita Christopher,Bhagavatula Indira Devi,Dhananjaya I Bhat

    The steroid hormone, oestradiol, has pleiotropic functions. The protective effects of oestradiol are attributed to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-atherogenic, anti-apoptotic, vasodilatory activities and regulation of micro RNA. Oestradiol upregulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene expression and increases the production of nitric oxide, an important vasodilator. It suppresses the

  • Can't see the colony for the bees: behavioural perspectives of biological individuality.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.288) Pub Date : 2019-07-01
    Jules Smith-Ferguson,Madeleine Beekman

    The question 'what is an individual' does not often arise in studies within the field of behavioural ecology. Generally behavioural ecologists do not think about what makes an individual because they tend to use intuitive working concepts of individuality. Rarely do they explicitly mention how individuality affects their experimental design and interpretation of results. By contrast, the concept of

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全球疫情及响应:BMC Medicine专题征稿