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  • Deciphering mollusc shell production: the roles of genetic mechanisms through to ecology, aquaculture and biomimetics
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-07-31
    Melody S. Clark; Lloyd S. Peck; Jaison Arivalagan; Thierry Backeljau; Sophie Berland; Joao C. R. Cardoso; Carlos Caurcel; Gauthier Chapelle; Michele De Noia; Sam Dupont; Karim Gharbi; Joseph I. Hoffman; Kim S. Last; Arul Marie; Frank Melzner; Kati Michalek; James Morris; Deborah M. Power; Kirti Ramesh; Trystan Sanders; Kirsikka Sillanpää; Victoria A. Sleight; Phoebe J. Stewart‐Sinclair; Kristina Sundell;

    Most molluscs possess shells, constructed from a vast array of microstructures and architectures. The fully formed shell is composed of calcite or aragonite. These CaCO3 crystals form complex biocomposites with proteins, which although typically less than 5% of total shell mass, play significant roles in determining shell microstructure. Despite much research effort, large knowledge gaps remain in

  • Impacts of exclusion fencing on target and non‐target fauna: a global review
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-07-28
    Deane Smith; Rachel King; Benjamin L. Allen

    Exclusion fencing is a common tool used to mitigate a variety of unwanted economic losses caused by problematic wildlife. While the potential for agricultural, ecological and economic benefits of pest animal exclusion are often apparent, what is less clear are the costs and benefits to sympatric non‐target wildlife. This review examines the use of exclusion fencing in a variety of situations around

  • Temperature as a modulator of sexual selection
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    Roberto García‐Roa; Francisco Garcia‐Gonzalez; Daniel W.A. Noble; Pau Carazo

    A central question in ecology and evolution is to understand why sexual selection varies so much in strength across taxa; it has long been known that ecological factors are crucial to this. Temperature is a particularly salient abiotic ecological factor that modulates a wide range of physiological, morphological and behavioural traits, impacting individuals and populations at a global taxonomic scale

  • The topology and drivers of ant–symbiont networks across Europe
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    Thomas Parmentier; Frederik De Laender; Dries Bonte

    Intimate associations between different species drive community composition across ecosystems. Understanding the ecological and evolutionary drivers of these symbiotic associations is challenging because their structure eventually determines stability and resilience of the entire species network. Here, we compiled a detailed database on naturally occurring ant–symbiont networks in Europe to identify

  • Human disturbance has contrasting effects on niche partitioning within carnivore communities
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-07-14
    Anthony Sévêque; Louise K. Gentle; José V. López‐Bao; Richard W. Yarnell; Antonio Uzal

    Among species, coexistence is driven partly by the partitioning of available resources. The mechanisms of coexistence and competition among species have been a central topic within community ecology, with particular focus on mammalian carnivore community research. However, despite growing concern regarding the impact of humans on the behaviour of species, very little is known about the effect of humans

  • Ant‐induced evolutionary patterns in aphids
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-07-12
    Łukasz Depa; Natalia Kaszyca‐Taszakowska; Artur Taszakowski; Mariusz Kanturski

    This review investigates ant–aphid mutualism (trophobiosis), in particular focusing on evolutionary processes in aphids resulting from this interaction. This broad literature review allows us to revise existing views on certain aspects of this mutualism and provide the first timeline of its possible development over a geological timescale. We propose a new classification of ant–aphid mutualism with

  • Effective ecosystem monitoring requires a multi‐scaled approach
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-07-09
    Ben D. Sparrow; Will Edwards; Samantha E.M. Munroe; Glenda M. Wardle; Greg R. Guerin; Jean‐Francois Bastin; Beryl Morris; Rebekah Christensen; Stuart Phinn; Andrew J. Lowe

    Ecosystem monitoring is fundamental to our understanding of how ecosystem change is impacting our natural resources and is vital for developing evidence‐based policy and management. However, the different types of ecosystem monitoring, along with their recommended applications, are often poorly understood and contentious. Varying definitions and strict adherence to a specific monitoring type can inhibit

  • Adaptations to thermal stress in social insects: recent advances and future directions
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-07-06
    Rémy Perez; Serge Aron

    Thermal stress is a major driver of population declines and extinctions. Shifts in thermal regimes create new environmental conditions, leading to trait adaptation, population migration, and/or species extinction. Extensive research has examined thermal adaptations in terrestrial arthropods. However, little is known about social insects, despite their major role in ecosystems. It is only within the

  • Formation, structure, and function of extra-skeletal bones in mammals.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-04-27
    Alireza Nasoori

    This review describes the formation, structure, and function of bony compartments in antlers, horns, ossicones, osteoderm and the os penis/os clitoris (collectively referred to herein as AHOOO structures) in extant mammals. AHOOOs are extra‐skeletal bones that originate from subcutaneous (dermal) tissues in a wide variety of mammals, and this review elaborates on the co‐development of the bone and

  • Sublethal effects of contaminants on marine habitat‐forming species: a review and meta‐analysis
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Mariana Mayer‐Pinto; Janine Ledet; Tasman P. Crowe; Emma L. Johnston

    Contaminants may affect ecosystem functioning by reducing the fitness of organisms and these impacts may cascade through ecosystems, particularly if the sensitive organisms are also habitat‐forming species. Understanding how sub‐lethal effects of toxicants can affect the quality and functions of biogenic habitats is critical if we are to establish effective guidelines for protecting ecosystems. We

  • Scientists' warning on invasive alien species.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-06-25
    Petr Pyšek,Philip E Hulme,Dan Simberloff,Sven Bacher,Tim M Blackburn,James T Carlton,Wayne Dawson,Franz Essl,Llewellyn C Foxcroft,Piero Genovesi,Jonathan M Jeschke,Ingolf Kühn,Andrew M Liebhold,Nicholas E Mandrak,Laura A Meyerson,Aníbal Pauchard,Jan Pergl,Helen E Roy,Hanno Seebens,Mark van Kleunen,Montserrat Vilà,Michael J Wingfield,David M Richardson

    Biological invasions are a global consequence of an increasingly connected world and the rise in human population size. The numbers of invasive alien species – the subset of alien species that spread widely in areas where they are not native, affecting the environment or human livelihoods – are increasing. Synergies with other global changes are exacerbating current invasions and facilitating new ones

  • When one tail isn't enough: abnormal caudal regeneration in lepidosaurs and its potential ecological impacts.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-06-25
    James I Barr,Ruchira Somaweera,Stephanie S Godfrey,Michael G Gardner,Philip W Bateman

    Abnormal caudal regeneration, the production of additional tails through regeneration events, occurs in lepidosaurs as a result of incomplete autotomy or sufficient caudal wound. Despite being widely known to occur, documented events generally are limited to opportunistic single observations – hindering the understanding of the ecological importance of caudal regeneration. Here we compiled and reviewed

  • Modelling neurodegenerative diseases with 3D brain organoids.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-06-22
    Yujung Chang,Junyeop Kim,Hanseul Park,Hwan Choi,Jongpil Kim

    Neurodegenerative diseases are incurable and debilitating conditions characterized by the deterioration of brain function. Most brain disease models rely on human post‐mortem brain tissue, non‐human primate tissue, or in vitro two‐dimensional (2D) experiments. Resource limitations and the complexity of the human brain are some of the reasons that make suitable human neurodegenerative disease models

  • Skeletal resorption in bryozoans: occurrence, function and recognition.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-06-18
    Peter B Batson,Yuta Tamberg,Paul D Taylor,Dennis P Gordon,Abigail M Smith

    Skeletal resorption – the physiological removal of mineralised parts by an organism – is an important morphogenetic process in bryozoans. Reports of its occurrence and function across the phylum are patchy, however, and have not previously been synthesised. Here we show that resorption occurs routinely across a wide range of bryozoan clades, colony sizes, growth forms, ontogenetic stages, body wall

  • The ecosystem services provided by social insects: traits, management tools and knowledge gaps.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-06-11
    Luciana Elizalde,Marina Arbetman,Xavier Arnan,Paul Eggleton,Inara R Leal,María Natalia Lescano,Agustín Saez,Victoria Werenkraut,Gabriela I Pirk

    Social insects, i.e. ants, bees, wasps and termites, are key components of ecological communities, and are important ecosystem services (ESs) providers. Here, we review the literature in order to (i ) analyse the particular traits of social insects that make them good suppliers of ESs; (ii ) compile and assess management strategies that improve the services provided by social insects; and (iii ) detect

  • Coevolution of body size and metabolic rate in vertebrates: a life-history perspective.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-06-10
    Jan Kozłowski,Marek Konarzewski,Marcin Czarnoleski

    Despite many decades of research, the allometric scaling of metabolic rates (MRs) remains poorly understood. Here, we argue that scaling exponents of these allometries do not themselves mirror one universal law of nature but instead statistically approximate the non‐linearity of the relationship between MR and body mass. This ‘statistical’ view must be replaced with the life‐history perspective that

  • A review of the critics of invasion biology.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-06-09
    Marcelo H Cassini

    Herein, I review existing criticisms of the field of invasion biology. Firstly, I identifiy problems of conceptual weaknesses, including disagreements regarding: (i ) definitions of invasive, impact, and pristine conditions, and (ii ) ecological assumptions such as species equilibrium, niche saturation, and climax communities. Secondly, I discuss methodological problems include the misuse of correlations

  • Amphicarpic plants: definition, ecology, geographic distribution, systematics, life history, evolution and use in agriculture.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-05-28
    Keliang Zhang,Jerry M Baskin,Carol C Baskin,Gregory P Cheplick,Xuejun Yang,Zhenying Huang

    Although most plants produce all of their fruits (seeds) aboveground, amphicarpic species produce fruits (seeds) both above‐ and belowground. Our primary aims were to determine the number of reported amphicarpic species and their taxonomic, geographic, life form and phylogenetic distribution, to evaluate differences in the life history of plants derived from aerial and subterranean seeds, to discuss

  • The 'biomineralization toolkit' and the origin of animal skeletons.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-05-23
    Duncan J E Murdock

    Biomineralized skeletons are widespread in animals, and their origins can be traced to the latest Ediacaran or early Cambrian fossil record, in virtually all animal groups. The origin of animal skeletons is inextricably linked with the diversification of animal body plans and the dramatic changes in ecology and geosphere-biosphere interactions across the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition. This apparent

  • Relaxed predation theory: size, sex and brains matter.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-05-22
    Megan C Edwards,Julia M Hoy,Sean I FitzGibbon,Peter J Murray

    Australia's wildlife is being considerably impacted by introduced mammalian predators such as cats (Felis catus), dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), and foxes (Vulpes vulpes). This is often attributed to native wildlife being naïve to these introduced predators. A systematic review of the literature reveals that native metatherians (body mass range 0.02-25 kg) do not recognise, and show relaxed antipredator

  • Camouflage in predators.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-05-14
    Matilda Q R Pembury Smith,Graeme D Ruxton

    Camouflage - adaptations that prevent detection and/or recognition - is a key example of evolution by natural selection, making it a primary focus in evolutionary ecology and animal behaviour. Most work has focused on camouflage as an anti-predator adaptation. However, predators also display specific colours, patterns and behaviours that reduce visual detection or recognition to facilitate predation

  • Exosome-mediated effects and applications in inflammatory bowel disease.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-05-14
    Dickson K W Ocansey,Li Zhang,Yifei Wang,Yongmin Yan,Hui Qian,Xu Zhang,Wenrong Xu,Fei Mao

    Gut mucosal barriers, including chemical and physical barriers, spatially separate the gut microbiota from the host immune system to prevent unwanted immune responses that could lead to intestinal inflammation. In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), there is mucosal barrier dysfunction coupled with immune dysregulation and dysbiosis. The discovery of exosomes as regulators of vital functions in both

  • A comprehensive hypothesis on the migration of European glass eels (Anguilla anguilla).
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-05-13
    Alessandro Cresci

    The European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is a catadromous fish that spawns in the Sargasso Sea. As larvae, eels cross the Atlantic Ocean and reach the continental slope of Europe, where they metamorphose into post-larval glass eels. These reach the continent, where some enter fresh water, some remain in marine waters, and others move between fresh and marine waters. After 5-25 years, as adult silver eels

  • A part-dependent account of biological individuality: why holobionts are individuals and ecosystems simultaneously.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-05-13
    Javier Suárez,Adrian Stencel

    Given one conception of biological individuality (evolutionary, physiological, etc.), can a holobiont - that is the host + its symbiotic (mutualistic, commensalist and parasitic) microbiome - be simultaneously a biological individual and an ecological community? Herein, we support this possibility by arguing that the notion of biological individuality is part-dependent. In our account, the individuality

  • The role of the microbiome in the neurobiology of social behaviour.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-05-07
    Amar Sarkar,Siobhán Harty,Katerina V-A Johnson,Andrew H Moeller,Rachel N Carmody,Soili M Lehto,Susan E Erdman,Robin I M Dunbar,Philip W J Burnet

    Microbes colonise all multicellular life, and the gut microbiome has been shown to influence a range of host physiological and behavioural phenotypes. One of the most intriguing and least understood of these influences lies in the domain of the microbiome's interactions with host social behaviour, with new evidence revealing that the gut microbiome makes important contributions to animal sociality

  • The evolution and physiology of male pregnancy in syngnathid fishes.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-05-05
    Camilla M Whittington,Christopher R Friesen

    The seahorses, pipefishes and seadragons (Syngnathidae) are among the few vertebrates in which pregnant males incubate developing embryos. Syngnathids are popular in studies of sexual selection, sex-role reversal, and reproductive trade-offs, and are now emerging as valuable comparative models for the study of the biology and evolution of reproductive complexity. These fish offer the opportunity to

  • Magnitude and direction of parasite-induced phenotypic alterations: a meta-analysis in acanthocephalans.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-04-27
    Marion Fayard,François-Xavier Dechaume-Moncharmont,Rémi Wattier,Marie-Jeanne Perrot-Minnot

    Several parasite species have the ability to modify their host's phenotype to their own advantage thereby increasing the probability of transmission from one host to another. This phenomenon of host manipulation is interpreted as the expression of a parasite extended phenotype. Manipulative parasites generally affect multiple phenotypic traits in their hosts, although both the extent and adaptive significance

  • Innovation in chimpanzees
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-04-19
    Elisa Bandini; Rachel A. Harrison

    The study of innovation in non‐human animals (henceforth: animals) has recently gained momentum across fields including primatology, animal behaviour and cultural evolution. Examining the rate of innovations, and the cognitive mechanisms driving these innovations across species, can provide insights into the evolution of human culture. Especially relevant to the study of human culture is one of our

  • Fungal evolution: cellular, genomic and metabolic complexity.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-04-17
    Miguel A Naranjo-Ortiz,Toni Gabaldón

    The question of how phenotypic and genomic complexity are inter-related and how they are shaped through evolution is a central question in biology that historically has been approached from the perspective of animals and plants. In recent years, however, fungi have emerged as a promising alternative system to address such questions. Key to their ecological success, fungi present a broad and diverse

  • Movement‐mediated community assembly and coexistence
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-04-20
    Ulrike E. Schlägel; Volker Grimm; Niels Blaum; Pierluigi Colangeli; Melanie Dammhahn; Jana A. Eccard; Sebastian L. Hausmann; Antje Herde; Heribert Hofer; Jasmin Joshi; Stephanie Kramer‐Schadt; Magdalena Litwin; Sissi D. Lozada‐Gobilard; Marina E. H. Müller; Thomas Müller; Ran Nathan; Jana S. Petermann; Karin Pirhofer‐Walzl; Viktoriia Radchuk; Matthias C. Rillig; Manuel Roeleke; Merlin Schäfer; Cédric

    Organismal movement is ubiquitous and facilitates important ecological mechanisms that drive community and metacommunity composition and hence biodiversity. In most existing ecological theories and models in biodiversity research, movement is represented simplistically, ignoring the behavioural basis of movement and consequently the variation in behaviour at species and individual levels. However,

  • Using value of information to prioritize research needs for migratory bird management under climate change: a case study using federal land acquisition in the United States.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-04-17
    Clark S Rushing,Madeleine Rubenstein,James E Lyons,Michael C Runge

    In response to global habitat loss, many governmental and non‐governmental organizations have implemented land acquisition programs to protect critical habitats permanently for priority species. The ability of these protected areas to meet future management objectives may be compromised if the effects of climate change are not considered in acquisition decisions. Unfortunately, the effects of climate

  • Minimizing animal welfare harms associated with predation management in agro-ecosystems.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-04-17
    Benjamin L Allen,Jordan O Hampton

    The impacts of wild predators on livestock are a common source of human–wildlife conflict globally, and predators are subject to population control for this reason in many situations. Animal welfare is one of many important considerations affecting decisions about predation management. Recent studies discussing animal welfare in this context have presented arguments emphasizing the importance of avoiding

  • A multilevel analytical framework for studying cultural evolution in prehistoric hunter–gatherer societies
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Valéria Romano; Sergi Lozano; Javier Fernández‐López de Pablo

    Over the past decade, a major debate has taken place on the underpinnings of cultural changes in human societies. A growing array of evidence in behavioural and evolutionary biology has revealed that social connectivity among populations and within them affects, and is affected by, culture. Yet the interplay between prehistoric hunter–gatherer social structure and cultural transmission has typically

  • Infrasonic hearing in birds: a review of audiometry and hypothesized structure–function relationships
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-03-31
    Jeffrey N. Zeyl; Olivier den Ouden; Christine Köppl; Jelle Assink; Jakob Christensen‐Dalsgaard; Samantha C. Patrick; Susana Clusella‐Trullas

    The perception of airborne infrasound (sounds below 20 Hz, inaudible to humans except at very high levels) has been documented in a handful of mammals and birds. While animals that produce vocalizations with infrasonic components (e.g. elephants) present conspicuous examples of potential use of infrasound in the context of communication, the extent to which airborne infrasound perception exists among

  • The genetics of evolutionary radiations
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-03-31
    Yamama Naciri; H. Peter Linder

    With the realization that much of the biological diversity on Earth has been generated by discrete evolutionary radiations, there has been a rapid increase in research into the biotic (key innovations) and abiotic (key environments) circumstances in which such radiations took place. Here we focus on the potential importance of population genetic structure and trait genetic architecture in explaining

  • Pathological calcification in osteoarthritis: an outcome or a disease initiator?
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-03-24
    Jian-Fei Yan,Wen-Pin Qin,Bo-Cheng Xiao,Qian-Qian Wan,Franklin R Tay,Li-Na Niu,Kai Jiao

    In the progression of osteoarthritis, pathological calcification in the affected joint is an important feature. The role of these crystallites in the pathogenesis and progression of osteoarthritis is controversial; it remains unclear whether they act as a disease initiator or are present as a result of joint damage. Recent studies reported that the molecular mechanisms regulating physiological calcification

  • The ecological importance of crocodylians: towards evidence‐based justification for their conservation
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-03-10
    Ruchira Somaweera; James Nifong; Adam Rosenblatt; Mathew L. Brien; Xander Combrink; Ruth M. Elsey; Gordon Grigg; William E. Magnusson; Frank J. Mazzotti; Ashley Pearcy; Steven G. Platt; Matthew H. Shirley; Marisa Tellez; Jan van der Ploeg; Grahame Webb; Rom Whitaker; Bruce L. Webber

    Large‐bodied predators are well represented among the world's threatened and endangered species. A significant body of literature shows that in terrestrial and marine ecosystems large predators can play important roles in ecosystem structure and functioning. By contrast, the ecological roles and importance of large predators within freshwater ecosystems are poorly understood, constraining the design

  • Mixed company: a framework for understanding the composition and organization of mixed-species animal groups.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-02-25
    Eben Goodale,Hari Sridhar,Kathryn E Sieving,Priti Bangal,Gabriel J Colorado Z,Damien R Farine,Eckhard W Heymann,Harrison H Jones,Indrikis Krams,Ari E Martínez,Flavia Montaño-Centellas,Jenny Muñoz,Umesh Srinivasan,Anne Theo,Kartik Shanker

    Mixed‐species animal groups (MSGs) are widely acknowledged to increase predator avoidance and foraging efficiency, among other benefits, and thereby increase participants' fitness. Diversity in MSG composition ranges from two to 70 species of very similar or completely different phenotypes. Yet consistency in organization is also observable in that one or a few species usually have disproportionate

  • Songs versus colours versus horns: what explains the diversity of sexually selected traits?
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-02-24
    John J Wiens,E Tuschhoff

    Papers on sexual selection often highlight the incredible diversity of sexually selected traits across animals. Yet, few studies have tried to explain why this diversity evolved. Animals use many different types of traits to attract mates and outcompete rivals, including colours, songs, and horns, but it remains unclear why, for example, some taxa have songs, others have colours, and others horns.

  • Phospholipase D as a key modulator of cancer progression.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-02-19
    Yuanfa Yao,Xinyi Wang,Hanbing Li,Jiannan Fan,Xiaohan Qian,Hong Li,Yingke Xu

    The phospholipase D (PLD) family has a ubiquitous expression in cells. PLD isoforms (PLDs) and their hydrolysate phosphatidic acid (PA) have been demonstrated to engage in multiple stages of cancer progression. Aberrant expression of PLDs, especially PLD1 and PLD2, has been detected in various cancers. Inhibition or elimination of PLDs activity has been shown to reduce tumour growth and metastasis

  • Estuarine fish and tetrapod evolution: insights from a Late Devonian (Famennian) Gondwanan estuarine lake and a southern African Holocene equivalent.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    Robert W Gess,Alan K Whitfield

    The Waterloo Farm lagerstätte in South Africa provides a uniquely well‐preserved record of a Latest Devonian estuarine ecosystem. Ecological evidence from it is reviewed, contextualised, and compared with that available from the analogous Swartvlei estuarine lake, with a particular emphasis on their piscean inhabitants. Although the taxonomic affinities of the estuarine species are temporally very

  • Deer, wolves, and people: costs, benefits and challenges of living together.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-02-11
    Jean-Louis Martin,Simon Chamaillé-Jammes,Donald M Waller

    Human-driven species annihilations loom as a major crisis. However the recovery of deer and wolf populations in many parts of the northern hemisphere has resulted in conflicts and controversies rather than in relief. Both species interact in complex ways with their environment, each other, and humans. We review these interactions in the context of the ecological and human costs and benefits associated

  • Prospects for incorporation of epigenetic biomarkers in human health and environmental risk assessment of chemicals.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-02-11
    Guilherme Jeremias,Fernando J M Gonçalves,Joana L Pereira,Jana Asselman

    Epigenetic mechanisms have gained relevance in human health and environmental studies, due to their pivotal role in disease, gene × environment interactions and adaptation to environmental change and/or contamination. Epigenetic mechanisms are highly responsive to external stimuli and a wide range of chemicals has been shown to determine specific epigenetic patterns in several organisms. Furthermore

  • Insect responses to heat: physiological mechanisms, evolution and ecological implications in a warming world.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-02-08
    Daniel González-Tokman,Alex Córdoba-Aguilar,Wesley Dáttilo,Andrés Lira-Noriega,Rosa A Sánchez-Guillén,Fabricio Villalobos

    Surviving changing climate conditions is particularly difficult for organisms such as insects that depend on environmental temperature to regulate their physiological functions. Insects are extremely threatened by global warming, since many do not have enough physiological tolerance even to survive continuous exposure to the current maximum temperatures experienced in their habitats. Here, we review

  • Key novelties in the evolution of the aquatic colonial phylum Bryozoa: evidence from soft body morphology.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-02-07
    Thomas F Schwaha,Andrew N Ostrovsky,Andreas Wanninger

    Molecular techniques are currently the leading tools for reconstructing phylogenetic relationships, but our understanding of ancestral, plesiomorphic and apomorphic characters requires the study of the morphology of extant forms for testing these phylogenies and for reconstructing character evolution. This review highlights the potential of soft body morphology for inferring the evolution and phylogeny

  • Cellular calcium and redox regulation: the mediator of vertebrate environmental sex determination?
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-02-06
    Meghan A Castelli,Sarah L Whiteley,Arthur Georges,Clare E Holleley

    Many reptiles and some fish determine offspring sex by environmental cues such as incubation temperature. The mechanism by which environmental signals are captured and transduced into specific sexual phenotypes has remained unexplained for over 50 years. Indeed, environmental sex determination (ESD) has been viewed as an intractable problem because sex determination is influenced by a myriad of genes

  • The Zn2+ and Ca2+ -binding S100B and S100A1 proteins: beyond the myths.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-02-06
    Jacques Baudier,Jean Christophe Deloulme,Gary S Shaw

    The S100 genes encode a conserved group of 21 vertebrate-specific EF-hand calcium-binding proteins. Since their discovery in 1965, S100 proteins have remained enigmatic in terms of their cellular functions. In this review, we summarize the calcium- and zinc-binding properties of the dimeric S100B and S100A1 proteins and highlight data that shed new light on the extracellular and intracellular regulation

  • Designing mate choice experiments.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Liam R Dougherty

    The important role that mate choice plays in the lives of animals is matched by the large and active research field dedicated to studying it. Researchers work on a wide range of species and behaviours, and so the experimental approaches used to measure animal mate choice are highly variable. Importantly, these differences are often not purely cosmetic; they can strongly influence the measurement of

  • Mitochondrial behaviour, morphology, and animal performance.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Kyle B Heine,Wendy R Hood

    We have a limited understanding of the proximate mechanisms that are responsible for the development of variation in animal performance and life-history strategies. Provided that components of an organism's successful life history - for example, mate competition, gestation, lactation, etc. - are energetically demanding, increased energy production within mitochondria is likely the foundation from which

  • Identifying mechanisms of genetic differentiation among populations in vagile species: historical factors dominate genetic differentiation in seabirds.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Anicee J Lombal,James E O'dwyer,Vicki Friesen,Eric J Woehler,Christopher P Burridge

    Elucidating the factors underlying the origin and maintenance of genetic variation among populations is crucial for our understanding of their ecology and evolution, and also to help identify conservation priorities. While intrinsic movement has been hypothesized as the major determinant of population genetic structuring in abundant vagile species, growing evidence indicates that vagility does not

  • Are we overestimating risk of enteric pathogen spillover from wild birds to humans?
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-01-31
    Olivia M Smith,William E Snyder,Jeb P Owen

    Enteric illnesses remain the second largest source of communicable diseases worldwide, and wild birds are suspected sources for human infection. This has led to efforts to reduce pathogen spillover through deterrence of wildlife and removal of wildlife habitat, particularly within farming systems, which can compromise conservation efforts and the ecosystem services wild birds provide. Further, Salmonella

  • Neuroendocrinology and neurobiology of sebaceous glands.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Richard W Clayton,Ewan A Langan,David M Ansell,Ivo J H M de Vos,Klaus Göbel,Marlon R Schneider,Mauro Picardo,Xinhong Lim,Maurice A M van Steensel,Ralf Paus

    The nervous system communicates with peripheral tissues through nerve fibres and the systemic release of hypothalamic and pituitary neurohormones. Communication between the nervous system and the largest human organ, skin, has traditionally received little attention. In particular, the neuro-regulation of sebaceous glands (SGs), a major skin appendage, is rarely considered. Yet, it is clear that the

  • Development and evolution of the tetrapod skull-neck boundary.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Hillary C Maddin,Nadine Piekarski,Robert R Reisz,James Hanken

    The origin and evolution of the vertebrate skull have been topics of intense study for more than two centuries. Whereas early theories of skull origin, such as the influential vertebral theory, have been largely refuted with respect to the anterior (pre-otic) region of the skull, the posterior (post-otic) region is known to be derived from the anteriormost paraxial segments, i.e. the somites. Here

  • Ant-termite interactions: an important but under-explored ecological linkage.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2019-12-25
    Jiri Tuma,Paul Eggleton,Tom M Fayle

    Animal interactions play an important role in understanding ecological processes. The nature and intensity of these interactions can shape the impacts of organisms on their environment. Because ants and termites, with their high biomass and range of ecological functions, have considerable effects on their environment, the interaction between them is important for ecosystem processes. Although the manner

  • 5' untranslated regions: the next regulatory sequence in yeast synthetic biology.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Yatti De Nijs,Sofie L De Maeseneire,Wim K Soetaert

    When developing industrial biotechnology processes, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast or brewer's yeast) is a popular choice as a microbial host. Many tools have been developed in the fields of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering to introduce heterologous pathways and tune their expression in yeast. Such tools mainly focus on controlling transcription, whereas post-transcriptional regulation

  • Cardiovascular shunting in vertebrates: a practical integration of competing hypotheses.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Warren Burggren,Renato Filogonio,Tobias Wang

    This review explores the long-standing question: 'Why do cardiovascular shunts occur?' An historical perspective is provided on previous research into cardiac shunts in vertebrates that continues to shape current views. Cardiac shunts and when they occur is then described for vertebrates. Nearly 20 different functional reasons have been proposed as specific causes of shunts, ranging from energy conservation

  • The origins of gestures and language: history, current advances and proposed theories.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Jacques Prieur,Stéphanie Barbu,Catherine Blois-Heulin,Alban Lemasson

    Investigating in depth the mechanisms underlying human and non-human primate intentional communication systems (involving gestures, vocalisations, facial expressions and eye behaviours) can shed light on the evolutionary roots of language. Reports on non-human primates, particularly great apes, suggest that gestural communication would have been a crucial prerequisite for the emergence of language

  • A niche perspective on the range expansion of symbionts.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Alexandre Mestre,Robert Poulin,Joaquín Hortal

    Range expansion results from complex eco-evolutionary processes where range dynamics and niche shifts interact in a novel physical space and/or environment, with scale playing a major role. Obligate symbionts (i.e. organisms permanently living on hosts) differ from free-living organisms in that they depend on strong biotic interactions with their hosts which alter their niche and spatial dynamics.

  • Calmodulin-mediated events during the life cycle of the amoebozoan Dictyostelium discoideum.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Danton H O'Day,Sabateeshan Mathavarajah,Michael A Myre,Robert J Huber

    This review focusses on the functions of intracellular and extracellular calmodulin, its target proteins and their binding proteins during the asexual life cycle of Dictyostelium discoideum. Calmodulin is a primary regulatory protein of calcium signal transduction that functions throughout all stages. During growth, it mediates autophagy, the cell cycle, folic acid chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and other

  • Fungal functional ecology: bringing a trait-based approach to plant-associated fungi.
    Biol. Rev. (IF 10.701) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Amy E Zanne,Kessy Abarenkov,Michelle E Afkhami,Carlos A Aguilar-Trigueros,Scott Bates,Jennifer M Bhatnagar,Posy E Busby,Natalie Christian,William K Cornwell,Thomas W Crowther,Habacuc Flores-Moreno,Dimitrios Floudas,Romina Gazis,David Hibbett,Peter Kennedy,Daniel L Lindner,Daniel S Maynard,Amy M Milo,Rolf Henrik Nilsson,Jeff Powell,Mark Schildhauer,Jonathan Schilling,Kathleen K Treseder

    Fungi play many essential roles in ecosystems. They facilitate plant access to nutrients and water, serve as decay agents that cycle carbon and nutrients through the soil, water and atmosphere, and are major regulators of macro-organismal populations. Although technological advances are improving the detection and identification of fungi, there still exist key gaps in our ecological knowledge of this

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