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  • An exploration of Menzerath's law in wild mountain gorilla vocal sequences
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Stuart K. Watson; Raphaela Heesen; Daniela Hedwig; Martha M. Robbins; Simon W. Townsend

    Menzerath's law, traditionally framed as a negative relationship between the size of a structure and its constituent parts (e.g. sentences with more clauses have shorter clauses), is widespread across information-coding systems ranging from human language and the vocal and gestural sequences of primates and birds, to the building blocks of DNA, genes and proteins. Here, we analysed an extensive dataset

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Blocking mu-opioid receptors inhibits social bonding in rituals
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    S. J. Charles; M. Farias; V. van Mulukom; A. Saraswati; S. Dein; F. Watts; R. I. M. Dunbar

    Religious rituals are universal human practices that play a seminal role in community bonding. In two experiments, we tested the role of mu-opioids as the active factor fostering social bonding. We used a mu-opioid blocker (naltrexone) in two double-blind studies of rituals from different religious traditions. We found the same effect across both studies, with naltrexone leading to significantly lower

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Naturally occurring fluorescence protects the eutardigrade Paramacrobiotus sp. from ultraviolet radiation
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Harikumar R. Suma; Swathi Prakash; Sandeep M. Eswarappa

    Naturally occurring fluorescence has been observed in multiple species ranging from bacteria to birds. In macroscopic animals such as birds, fluorescence provides a visual communication signal. However, the functional significance of this phenomenon is unknown in most cases. Though photoprotection is attributed to fluorescence under ultraviolet (UV) light in some organisms, it lacks direct experimental

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Breeders are less active foragers than non-breeders in wild Damaraland mole-rats
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Yannick Francioli; Jack Thorley; Kyle Finn; Tim Clutton-Brock; Markus Zöttl

    Eusocial societies are characterized by a clear division of labour between non-breeding workers and breeding queens, and queens often do not contribute to foraging, defence and other maintenance tasks. It has been suggested that the structure and organization of social mole-rat groups resembles that of eusocial insect societies. However, the division of labour has rarely been investigated in wild mole-rats

    更新日期:2020-10-07
  • Why are the fastest runners of intermediate size? Contrasting scaling of mechanical demands and muscle supply of work and power
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    J. R. Usherwood; N. W. Gladman

    The fastest land animals are of intermediate size. Cheetah, antelope, greyhounds and racehorses have been measured running much faster than reported for elephants or elephant shrews. Can this be attributed to scaling of physical demands and explicit physiological constraints to supply? Here, we describe the scaling of mechanical work demand each stride, and the mechanical power demand each stance.

    更新日期:2020-10-07
  • Local adaptation from afar: migratory bird populations diverge in the initiation of reproductive timing while wintering in sympatry
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    S. M. Wanamaker; D. Singh; A. J. Byrd; T. M. Smiley; E. D. Ketterson

    The initiation of reproduction in many seasonally breeding animals is controlled by photoperiod and tends to be clinal: populations at higher latitudes breed later than those at lower latitudes, often reflecting a higher photoperiodic threshold. Migratory animals presumably time reproduction to match conditions at their breeding grounds, at least in part, by cues perceived on their wintering grounds

    更新日期:2020-10-07
  • Chytrid fungi shape bacterial communities on model particulate organic matter
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Cordelia Roberts; Ro Allen; Kimberley E. Bird; Michael Cunliffe

    Microbial colonization and degradation of particulate organic matter (POM) are important processes that influence the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems. Although POM is readily used by aquatic fungi and bacteria, there is a limited understanding of POM-associated interactions between these taxa, particularly for early-diverging fungal lineages. Using a model ecological system with the chitin-degrading

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Tape lures swell bycatch on a Mediterranean island harbouring illegal bird trapping
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Matteo Sebastianelli; Georgios Savva; Michaella Moysi; Alexander N. G. Kirschel

    Mediterranean islands provide shelter and sustenance for millions of migrating birds each year. Humans have historically exploited bird migration through hunting. In Cyprus, trapping birds during their migratory peak is considered a tradition, but has long been against the law. Illegal bird trapping is lucrative, however, with trappers using tape lures that broadcast birdsong to increase capture rates

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Extensive geographical variation in testes size and ejaculate traits in a terrestrial-breeding frog
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Tabitha S. Rudin-Bitterli; Nicola J. Mitchell; Jonathan P. Evans

    Ejaculate traits vary extensively among individuals and species, but little is known about their variation among populations of the same species. Here, we investigated patterns of intraspecific variation in male reproductive investment in the terrestrial-breeding frog Pseudophryne guentheri. Like most anurans, breeding activity in P. guentheri is cued by precipitation, and therefore the timing and

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Multivariate phenotypic divergence along an urbanization gradient
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    James S. Santangelo; L. Ruth Rivkin; Carole Advenard; Ken A. Thompson

    Evidence suggests that natural populations can evolve to better tolerate the novel environmental conditions associated with urban areas. Studies of adaptive divergence in urban areas often examine one or a few traits at a time from populations residing only at the most extreme urban and nonurban habitats. Thus, whether urbanization drives divergence in many traits simultaneously in a manner that varies

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • A shift towards the annual habit in selfing Arabidopsis lyrata
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Courtney E. Gorman; Christina Steinecke; Mark van Kleunen; Marcel E. Dorken; Marc Stift

    An annual life history is often associated with the ability to self-fertilize. However, it is unknown whether the evolution of selfing commonly precedes the evolution of annuality, or vice versa. Using a 2-year common garden experiment, we asked if the evolution of selfing in the normally perennial Arabidopsis lyrata was accompanied by a shift towards the annual habit. Despite their very recent divergence

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Treefrogs exploit temporal coherence to form perceptual objects of communication signals.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Saumya Gupta,Mark A Bee

    For many animals, navigating their environment requires an ability to organize continuous streams of sensory input into discrete ‘perceptual objects’ that correspond to physical entities in visual and auditory scenes. The human visual and auditory systems follow several Gestalt laws of perceptual organization to bind constituent features into coherent perceptual objects. A largely unexplored question

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Heliconiini butterflies can learn time-dependent reward associations.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    M Wyatt Toure,Fletcher J Young,W Owen McMillan,Stephen H Montgomery

    For many pollinators, flowers provide predictable temporal schedules of resource availability, meaning an ability to learn time-dependent information could be widely beneficial. However, this ability has only been demonstrated in a handful of species. Observations of Heliconius butterflies suggest that they may have an ability to form time-dependent foraging preferences. Heliconius are unique among

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Wait and snap: eastern snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) prey on migratory fish at road-stream crossing culverts.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Derrick Alcott,Michael Long,Theodore Castro-Santos

    There is growing evidence that culverts at road-stream crossings can increase fish density by reducing stream width and fish movement rates, making these passageways ideal predator ambush locations. In this study, we used a combination of videography and δ13C stable isotope analyses to investigate predator–prey interactions at a road-stream crossing culvert. Eastern snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina)

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • The link between selection for function and human-directed play behaviour in dogs.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Niclas Kolm,Hans Temrin,Ádám Miklósi,Enikő Kubinyi,László Zsolt Garamszegi

    Human-directed play behaviour is a distinct behavioural feature of domestic dogs. But the role that artificial selection for contemporary dog breeds has played for human-directed play behaviour remains elusive. Here, we investigate how human-directed play behaviour has evolved in relation to the selection for different functions, considering processes of shared ancestry and gene flow among the different

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Vape flavourants dull sensory perception and cause hyperactivity in developing zebrafish embryos.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Patrick T Gauthier,Alison C Holloway,Mathilakath M Vijayan

    E-cigarette use (vaping) during pregnancy has been increasing, and the potential exists for the developing brain in utero to be exposed to chemical constituents in the vape. Vapes come in over 7000 unique flavours with and without nicotine, and while nicotine is a known neurotoxicant, the effects of vape flavouring alone, in the absence of nicotine, on brain function are not well understood. Here,

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Just kidding: the evolutionary roots of playful teasing.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Johanna Eckert,Sasha L Winkler,Erica A Cartmill

    Accounts of teasing have a long history in psychological and sociological research, yet teasing itself is vastly underdeveloped as a topic of study. As a phenomenon that moves along the border between aggression and play, teasing presents an opportunity to investigate key foundations of social and mental life. Developmental studies suggest that preverbal human infants already playfully tease their

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • A little damping goes a long way: a simulation study of how damping influences task-level stability in running.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Steve Heim,Matthew Millard,Charlotte Le Mouel,Alexander Badri-Spröwitz

    It is currently unclear if damping plays a functional role in legged locomotion, and simple models often do not include damping terms. We present a new model with a damping term that is isolated from other parameters: that is, the damping term can be adjusted without retuning other model parameters for nominal motion. We systematically compare how increased damping affects stability in the face of

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Individual and age-related variation of cellular brain composition in a squamate reptile.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Kristina Kverková,Alexandra Polonyiová,Lukáš Kubička,Pavel Němec

    Within-species variation in the number of neurons, other brain cells and their allocation to different brain parts is poorly studied. Here, we assess these numbers in a squamate reptile, the Madagascar ground gecko (Paroedura picta). We examined adults from two captive populations and three age groups within one population. Even though reptiles exhibit extensive adult neurogenesis, intrapopulation

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Generational shift in the migratory common noctule bat: first-year males lead the way to hibernacula at higher latitudes.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    K A Kravchenko,A S Vlaschenko,L S Lehnert,A Courtiol,C C Voigt

    Many migratory species have shifted their geographic distribution in response to climate change, yet the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood, particularly for mammals. We hypothesized that generational shifts are underlying the observed colonization of hibernation sites further north in a migratory bat, the common noctule (Nyctalus noctula). To evaluate our hypothesis, we collected long-term

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Group-level patterns emerge from individual speed as revealed by an extremely social robotic fish.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Jolle W Jolles,Nils Weimar,Tim Landgraf,Pawel Romanczuk,Jens Krause,David Bierbach

    Understanding the emergence of collective behaviour has long been a key research focus in the natural sciences. Besides the fundamental role of social interaction rules, a combination of theoretical and empirical work indicates individual speed may be a key process that drives the collective behaviour of animal groups. Socially induced changes in speed by interacting animals make it difficult to isolate

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • How socio-ecological factors influence the differentiation of social relationships: an integrated conceptual framework.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Liza R Moscovice,Cédric Sueur,Filippo Aureli

    The extent of differentiation of social relationships within groups is a means to assess social complexity, with greater differentiation indicating greater social complexity. Socio-ecological factors are likely to influence social complexity, but no attempt has been made to explain the differentiation of social relationships using multiple socio-ecological factors. Here, we propose a conceptual framework

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Evolution of behavioural resistance in host-pathogen systems.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Caroline R Amoroso,Janis Antonovics

    Behavioural resistance to parasites is widespread in animals, yet little is known about the evolutionary dynamics that have shaped these strategies. We show that theory developed for the evolution of physiological parasite resistance can only be applied to behavioural resistance under limited circumstances. We find that accounting explicitly for the behavioural processes, including the detectability

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • High mitochondrial mutation rates in Silene are associated with nuclear-mediated changes in mitochondrial physiology.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Ryan J Weaver,Gina Carrion,Rachel Nix,Gerald P Maeda,Samantha Rabinowitz,Erik N K Iverson,Kiley Thueson,Justin C Havird

    Mitochondrial (mt) respiration depends on proteins encoded both by the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. Variation in mt-DNA mutation rates exists across eukaryotes, although the functional consequences of elevated mt mutation rates in some lineages remain underexplored. In the angiosperm genus Silene, closely related, ecologically similar species have either ‘fast' or ‘slow' mt-DNA mutation rates

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Extreme and variable torpor among high-elevation Andean hummingbird species.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Blair O Wolf,Andrew E McKechnie,C Jonathan Schmitt,Zenon J Czenze,Andrew B Johnson,Christopher C Witt

    Torpor is thought to be particularly important for small endotherms occupying cold environments and with limited fat reserves to fuel metabolism, yet among birds deep torpor is both rare and variable in extent. We investigated torpor in hummingbirds at approximately 3800 m.a.s.l. in the tropical Andes by monitoring body temperature (Tb) in 26 individuals of six species held captive overnight and experiencing

    更新日期:2020-09-09
  • No, you go first: phenotype and social context affect house sparrow neophobia.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-09-02
    T R Kelly,M G Kimball,K R Stansberry,C R Lattin

    Novel object trials are commonly used to assess aversion to novelty (neophobia), and previous work has shown neophobia can be influenced by the social environment, but whether the altered behaviour persists afterwards (social learning) is largely unknown in wild animals. We assessed house sparrow (Passer domesticus) novel object responses before, during and after being paired with a conspecific of

    更新日期:2020-09-02
  • Zygomorphic flowers have fewer potential pollinator species.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-09-02
    Jeremy B Yoder,Giancarlo Gomez,Colin J Carlson

    Botanists have long identified bilaterally symmetrical (zygomorphic) flowers with more specialized pollination interactions than radially symmetrical (actinomorphic) flowers. Zygomorphic flowers facilitate more precise contact with pollinators, guide pollinator behaviour and exclude less effective pollinators. However, whether zygomorphic flowers are actually visited by a smaller subset of available

    更新日期:2020-09-02
  • Salinity tolerance and geographical origin predict global alien amphipod invasions.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-09-02
    Ross N Cuthbert,Syrmalenia G Kotronaki,Jaimie T A Dick,Elizabeta Briski

    Invasive alien species are driving global biodiversity loss, compromising ecosystem function and service provision, and human, animal and plant health. Habitat characteristics and geographical origin may predict invasion success, and in aquatic environments could be mediated principally by salinity tolerance. Crustacean invaders are causing global problems and we urgently require better predictive

    更新日期:2020-09-02
  • Accelerated landings in stingless bees are triggered by visual threshold cues.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-08-26
    Pierre Tichit,Isabel Alves-Dos-Santos,Marie Dacke,Emily Baird

    Most flying animals rely primarily on visual cues to coordinate and control their trajectory when landing. Studies of visually guided landing typically involve animals that decrease their speed before touchdown. Here, we investigate the control strategy of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona depilis, which instead accelerates when landing on its narrow hive entrance. By presenting artificial targets that

    更新日期:2020-08-26
  • Group living facilitates the evolution of duets in barbets.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-08-26
    Masayo Soma,Henrik Brumm

    The duets of birds have intrigued biologists for a long time, yet much remains unknown about the evolution of these striking collective displays. This is partly because previous studies on duet evolution have been biased to songbirds and neglected other bird groups. In songbirds, the absence of migration has been found to predict the occurrence of duetting, indirectlysupporting the idea that duet communication

    更新日期:2020-08-26
  • On the vital role of enamel prism interfaces and graded properties in human tooth survival.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-08-26
    Oscar Borrero-Lopez,Paul J Constantino,Mark B Bush,Brian R Lawn

    Teeth of omnivores face a formidable evolutionary challenge: how to protect against fracture and abrasive wear caused by the wide variety of foods they process. It is hypothesized that this challenge is met in part by adaptations in enamel microstructure. The low-crowned teeth of humans and some other omnivorous mammals exhibit multiple fissures running longitudinally along the outer enamel walls,

    更新日期:2020-08-26
  • A paraphyletic 'Silesauridae' as an alternative hypothesis for the initial radiation of ornithischian dinosaurs.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-08-26
    Rodrigo Temp Müller,Maurício Silva Garcia

    Whereas ornithischian dinosaurs are well known from Jurassic and Cretaceous deposits, deciphering the origin and early evolution of the group remains one of the hardest challenges for palaeontologists. So far, there are no unequivocal records of ornithischians from Triassic beds. Here, we present an alternative evolutionary hypothesis that suggests consideration of traditional ‘silesaurids' as a group

    更新日期:2020-08-26
  • Predation of the giant Miocene caiman Purussaurus on a mylodontid ground sloth in the wetlands of proto-Amazonia.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-08-26
    François Pujos,Rodolfo Salas-Gismondi

    Thirteen million years ago in South America, the Pebas Mega-Wetland System sheltered multi-taxon crocodylian assemblages, with the giant caiman Purussaurus as the top predator. In these Miocene swamps where reptiles and mammals coexisted, evidence of their agonistic interactions is extremely rare. Here, we report a tibia of the mylodontid sloth Pseudoprepotherium bearing 46 predation tooth marks. The

    更新日期:2020-08-26
  • Combined-evidence analyses of ultraconserved elements and morphological data: an empirical example in iguanian lizards.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-08-26
    Simon G Scarpetta

    Genomic datasets generated by next-generation sequencing are increasingly prevalent in phylogenetics, but morphological data are required to phylogenetically place fossils, corroborate molecular hypotheses and date phylogenies. Combined-evidence analyses provide an integrative assessment of tree topology. However, no attempt has been made to simultaneously analyse next-generation genomic datasets and

    更新日期:2020-08-26
  • Retraction: Behaviour, morphology and microhabitat use: what drives individual niche variation?
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-08-26
    Raul Costa-Pereira,Jonathan Pruitt

    更新日期:2020-08-26
  • Dispersal and migration have contrasting effects on butterfly flight morphology and reproduction.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-08-19
    Vaishali Bhaumik,Krushnamegh Kunte

    Movement may fundamentally alter morphology and reproductive states in insects. In long-distance migrants, reproductive diapause is associated with trade-offs between diverse life-history traits such as flight morphology and lifespan. However, many non-diapausing insects engage in shorter resource-driven dispersals. How diapause and other reproductive states alter flight morphology in migrating versus

    更新日期:2020-08-19
  • Identification of a queen pheromone mediating the rearing of adult sexuals in the pharaoh ant Monomorium pharaonis.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-08-19
    Ricardo Caliari Oliveira,Jonas Warson,David Sillam-Dussès,Beatriz Herrera-Malaver,Kevin Verstrepen,Jocelyn G Millar,Tom Wenseleers

    The division of labour between reproductive queens and mostly sterile workers is among the defining characteristics of social insects. Queen-produced chemical signals advertising her presence and fertility status, i.e. queen pheromones, are normally used to assert the queen's reproductive dominance in the colony. Most queen pheromones identified to date are chemicals that stop the daughter workers

    更新日期:2020-08-19
  • Indirect genetic control of migration in a salmonid fish.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-08-19
    Suzanne J Kelson,Stephanie M Carlson,Michael R Miller

    Migration is a complex trait that often has genetic underpinnings. However, it is unclear if migratory behaviour itself is inherited (direct genetic control), or if the decision to migrate is instead the outcome of a set of physiological traits (indirect genetic control). For steelhead/rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), migration is strongly linked to a large genomic region across their range. Here

    更新日期:2020-08-19
  • Functional redundancy in natural pico-phytoplankton communities depends on temperature and biogeography.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-08-19
    Duyi Zhong,Luisa Listmann,Maria-Elisabetta Santelia,C-Elisa Schaum

    Biodiversity affects ecosystem function, and how this relationship will change in a warming world is a major and well-examined question in ecology. Yet, it remains understudied for pico-phytoplankton communities, which contribute to carbon cycles and aquatic food webs year-round. Observational studies show a link between phytoplankton community diversity and ecosystem stability, but there is only scarce

    更新日期:2020-08-19
  • Sucking or lapping: facultative feeding mechanisms in honeybees (Apis mellifera).
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-08-12
    Jiangkun Wei,Zixin Huo,Stanislav N Gorb,Alejandro Rico-Guevara,Zhigang Wu,Jianing Wu

    Nectarivorous insects generally adopt suction or lapping to extract nectar from flowers and it is believed that each species exhibits one specific feeding pattern. In recent literature, large groups of nectarivores are classified as either ‘suction feeders', imbibing nectar through their proboscis, or ‘lappers', using viscous dipping. Honeybees (Apis mellifera) are the well-known lappers by virtue

    更新日期:2020-08-12
  • Asexual and sexual reproduction are two separate developmental pathways in a Termitomyces species.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-08-12
    Sabine M E Vreeburg,Norbert C A de Ruijter,Bas J Zwaan,Rafael R da Costa,Michael Poulsen,Duur K Aanen

    Although mutualistic symbioses per definition are beneficial for interacting species, conflict may arise if partners reproduce independently. We address how this reproductive conflict is regulated in the obligate mutualistic symbiosis between fungus-growing termites and Termitomyces fungi. Even though the termites and their fungal symbiont disperse independently to establish new colonies, dispersal

    更新日期:2020-08-12
  • Is repeatability of metabolic rate influenced by social separation? A test with a teleost fish.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-08-12
    Yan Huang,Shijian Fu,Steven J Cooke,Jigang Xia

    更新日期:2020-08-12
  • The long-range echo scene of the sperm whale biosonar.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    Pernille Tønnesen,Cláudia Oliveira,Mark Johnson,Peter Teglberg Madsen

    Sperm whales use their gigantic nose to produce the most powerful sounds in the animal kingdom, presumably to echolocate deep-sea prey at long ranges and possibly to debilitate prey. To test these hypotheses, we deployed sound recording tags (DTAG-4) on the tip of the nose of three sperm whales. One of these recordings yielded over 6000 echo streams from organisms detected up to 144 m ahead of the

    更新日期:2020-08-05
  • Artificial mass loading disrupts stable social order in pigeon dominance hierarchies.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    Steven J Portugal,James R Usherwood,Craig R White,Daniel W E Sankey,Alan M Wilson

    Dominance hierarchies confer benefits to group members by decreasing the incidences of physical conflict, but may result in certain lower ranked individuals consistently missing out on access to resources. Here, we report a linear dominance hierarchy remaining stable over time in a closed population of birds. We show that this stability can be disrupted, however, by the artificial mass loading of birds

    更新日期:2020-08-05
  • Lateralization correlates with individual differences in inhibitory control in zebrafish.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    Tyrone Lucon-Xiccato,Giulia Montalbano,Marco Dadda,Cristiano Bertolucci

    Individual fitness often depends on the ability to inhibit behaviours not adapted to a given situation. However, inhibitory control can vary greatly between individuals of the same species. We investigated a mechanism that might maintain this variability in zebrafish (Danio rerio). We demonstrate that inhibitory control correlates with cerebral lateralization, the tendency to process information with

    更新日期:2020-08-05
  • Ectoparasite extinction in simplified lizard assemblages during experimental island invasion.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    Christian L Cox,Sean Alexander,Brianna Casement,Albert K Chung,John David Curlis,Zachariah Degon,Madeline Dubois,Cleo Falvey,Zackary A Graham,Edita Folfas,Maria A Gallegos Koyner,Lauren K Neel,Daniel J Nicholson,Dylan J Padilla Perez,Xochitl Ortiz-Ross,Adam A Rosso,Quinn Taylor,Timothy J Thurman,Claire E Williams,W Owen McMillan,Michael L Logan

    Introduced species can become invasive, damaging ecosystems and disrupting economies through explosive population growth. One mechanism underlying population expansion in invasive populations is ‘enemy release’, whereby the invader experiences relaxation of agonistic interactions with other species, including parasites. However, direct observational evidence of release from parasitism during invasion

    更新日期:2020-08-05
  • Fingers zipped up or baby mittens? Two main tetrapod strategies to return to the sea.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    Marta S Fernández,Evangelos Vlachos,Mónica R Buono,Lucia Alzugaray,Lisandro Campos,Juliana Sterli,Yanina Herrera,Florencia Paolucci

    The application of network methodology in anatomical structures offers new insights on the connectivity pattern of skull bones, skeletal elements and their muscles. Anatomical networks helped to improve our understanding of the water-to-land transition and how the pectoral fins were transformed into limbs via their modular disintegration. Here, we apply the same methodology to tetrapods secondarily

    更新日期:2020-08-05
  • Bark water vapour conductance is associated with drought performance in tropical trees.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    Brett T Wolfe

    Bark water vapour conductance (gbark) is a rarely considered functional trait. However, for the few tree species measured to date, it appears high enough to create stem water deficits associated with mortality during droughts, when access to water is limited. I tested whether gbark correlates with stem water deficit during drought conditions in two datasets of tropical trees: one of saplings in forest

    更新日期:2020-08-05
  • Who goes there? Social surveillance as a response to intergroup conflict in a primitive termite
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Faye J. Thompson; Kingsley L. Hunt; Kallum Wright; Rebeca B. Rosengaus; Erin L. Cole; Graham Birch; Avery L. Maune; Michael A. Cant

    Intergroup conflict has been suggested as a major force shaping the evolution of social behaviour in animal groups. A long-standing hypothesis is that groups at risk of attack by rivals should become more socially cohesive, to increase resilience or protect against future attack. However, it is usually unclear how cohesive behaviours (such as grooming or social contacts) function in intergroup conflict

    更新日期:2020-07-29
  • Importance of the hippocampus for the learning of route fidelity in homing pigeons
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Anna Gagliardo; Enrica Pollonara; Giovanni Casini; Maria Grazia Rossino; Martin Wikelski; Verner P. Bingman

    The avian hippocampal formation (HF) is thought to regulate map-like memory representations of visual landmarks/landscape features and has more recently been suggested to be similarly important for the perceptual integration of landmarks/landscapes. Aspects of spatial memory and perception likely combine to support the now well-documented ability of homing pigeons to learn to retrace the same route

    更新日期:2020-07-29
  • An experimental test of parasite adaptation to common versus rare host genotypes
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Amanda K. Gibson; P. Signe White; McKenna J. Penley; Jacobus C. de Roode; Levi T. Morran

    A core hypothesis in coevolutionary theory proposes that parasites adapt to specifically infect common host genotypes. Under this hypothesis, parasites function as agents of negative frequency-dependent selection, favouring rare host genotypes. This parasite-mediated advantage of rarity is key to the idea that parasites maintain genetic variation and select for outcrossing in host populations. Here

    更新日期:2020-07-29
  • Inference in road ecology research: what we know versus what we think we know.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-07-22
    Fernanda Z Teixeira,Trina Rytwinski,Lenore Fahrig

    Roads and traffic impacts on wildlife populations are well documented. Three major mechanisms can cause them: reduced connectivity, increased mortality and reduced habitat quality. Researchers commonly recommend mitigation based on the mechanism they deem responsible. We reviewed the 2012–2016 literature to evaluate authors' inferences, to determine whether they explicitly acknowledge all possible

    更新日期:2020-07-22
  • The nuclear envelope: LINCing tissue mechanics to genome regulation in cardiac and skeletal muscle.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Rachel Piccus,Daniel Brayson

    Regulation of the genome is viewed through the prism of gene expression, DNA replication and DNA repair as controlled through transcription, chromatin compartmentalisation and recruitment of repair factors by enzymes such as DNA polymerases, ligases, acetylases, methylases and cyclin-dependent kinases. However, recent advances in the field of muscle cell physiology have also shown a compelling role

    更新日期:2020-07-20
  • Disparities in the analysis of morphological disparity.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Thomas Guillerme,Natalie Cooper,Stephen L Brusatte,Katie E Davis,Andrew L Jackson,Sylvain Gerber,Anjali Goswami,Kevin Healy,Melanie J Hopkins,Marc E H Jones,Graeme T Lloyd,Joseph E O'Reilly,Abi Pate,Mark N Puttick,Emily J Rayfield,Erin E Saupe,Emma Sherratt,Graham J Slater,Vera Weisbecker,Gavin H Thomas,Philip C J Donoghue

    Analyses of morphological disparity have been used to characterize and investigate the evolution of variation in the anatomy, function and ecology of organisms since the 1980s. While a diversity of methods have been employed, it is unclear whether they provide equivalent insights. Here, we review the most commonly used approaches for characterizing and analysing morphological disparity, all of which

    更新日期:2020-07-20
  • The power of odour cues in shaping fine-scale search patterns of foraging mammalian herbivores.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-07-15
    Cristian Gabriel Orlando,Ashley Tews,Peter Banks,Clare McArthur

    Foraging by mammalian herbivores has profound impacts on natural and modified landscapes, yet we know little about how they find food, limiting our ability to predict and manage their influence. Mathematical models show that foragers exploiting odour cues outperform a random walk strategy. However, discovering how free-ranging foragers exploit odours in real, complex landscapes has proven elusive because

    更新日期:2020-07-20
  • Immune-challenged vampire bats produce fewer contact calls.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-07-15
    Sebastian Stockmaier,Daniel I Bolnick,Rachel A Page,Darija Josic,Gerald G Carter

    Vocalizations are an important means to facilitate social interactions, but vocal communication may be affected by infections. While such effects have been shown for mate-attraction calls, other vocalizations that facilitate social contact have received less attention. When isolated, vampire bats produce contact calls that attract highly associated groupmates. Here, we test the effect of an immune

    更新日期:2020-07-20
  • Smaller brained cliff swallows are more likely to die during harsh weather.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-07-15
    Gigi S Wagnon,Charles R Brown

    The cognitive-buffer hypothesis proposes that more harsh and unpredictable environments favour animals with larger brains and resulting greater cognitive skills. Comparisons across taxa have supported the hypothesis, but it has rarely been tested within a species. We measured brain size, as inferred from head dimensions, for 1141 cliff swallow specimens collected in western Nebraska, 1982–2018. Cliff

    更新日期:2020-07-20
  • The dawn of social bonds: what is the role of shared experiences in non-human animals?
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-07-15
    Laura Busia,Matteo Griggio

    Group-living animals can develop social bonds. Social bonds can be considered a type of social relationship characterized by frequent and consistent affiliative (non-reproductive) interactions. Social bonds with conspecifics bring many advantages, also in terms of direct fitness. A characteristic of social bonds is that they need time to develop. Several studies on humans have emphasized the fact that

    更新日期:2020-07-20
  • Acoustic allometry and vocal learning in mammals.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Maxime Garcia,Andrea Ravignani

    Acoustic allometry is the study of how animal vocalizations reflect their body size. A key aim of this research is to identify outliers to acoustic allometry principles and pinpoint the evolutionary origins of such outliers. A parallel strand of research investigates species capable of vocal learning, the experience-driven ability to produce novel vocal signals through imitation or modification of

    更新日期:2020-07-20
  • It's in the loop: shared sub-surface foot kinematics in birds and other dinosaurs shed light on a new dimension of fossil track diversity.
    Biol. Lett. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Morgan L Turner,Peter L Falkingham,Stephen M Gatesy

    The feet of ground-dwelling birds retain many features of their dinosaurian ancestry. Experiments with living species offer insights into the complex interplay among anatomy, kinematics and substrate during the formation of Mesozoic footprints. However, a key aspect of the track-making process, sub-surface foot movement, is hindered by substrate opacity. Here, we use biplanar X-rays to image guineafowl

    更新日期:2020-07-20
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