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  • CombiANT: Antibiotic interaction testing made easy
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    Nikos Fatsis-Kavalopoulos; Roderich Roemhild; Po-Cheng Tang; Johan Kreuger; Dan I. Andersson

    Antibiotic combination therapies are important for the efficient treatment of many types of infections, including those caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Combination treatment strategies are typically used under the assumption that synergies are conserved across species and strains, even though recent results show that the combined treatment effect is determined by specific drug–strain interactions

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Diet choice: The two-factor host acceptance system of silkworm larvae
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Kana Tsuneto; Haruka Endo; Fumika Shii; Ken Sasaki; Shinji Nagata; Ryoichi Sato

    Many herbivorous insects are mono- or oligophagous, having evolved to select a limited range of host plants. They specifically identify host-plant leaves using their keen sense of taste. Plant secondary metabolites and sugars are thought to be key chemical cues that enable insects to identify host plants and evaluate their quality as food. However, the neuronal and behavioral mechanisms of host-plant

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Centrioles are amplified in cycling progenitors of olfactory sensory neurons
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-09-15
    Kaitlin Ching; Tim Stearns

    Olfaction in most animals is mediated by neurons bearing cilia that are accessible to the environment. Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in chordates usually have multiple cilia, each with a centriole at its base. OSNs differentiate from stem cells in the olfactory epithelium, and how the epithelium generates cells with many centrioles is not yet understood. We show that centrioles are amplified via

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • The World Coral Conservatory: A Noah's ark for corals to support survival of reef ecosystems
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-09-14
    Didier Zoccola; Nadia Ounais; Dominique Barthelemy; Robert Calcagno; Françoise Gaill; Stephane Henard; Ove Hoegh-Guldberg; Max Janse; Jean Jaubert; Hollie Putnam; Bernard Salvat; Christian R. Voolstra; Denis Allemand

    Global change causes widespread decline of coral reefs. In order to counter the anticipated disappearance of coral reefs by the end of this century, many initiatives are emerging, including creation of marine protected areas (MPAs), reef restoration projects, and assisted evolution initiatives. Such efforts, although critically important, are locally constrained. We propose to build a “Noah's Ark”

    更新日期:2020-09-15
  • Two unequally redundant "helper" immune receptor families mediate Arabidopsis thaliana intracellular "sensor" immune receptor functions
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-09-14
    Svenja C. Saile; Pierre Jacob; Baptiste Castel; Lance M. Jubic; Isai Salas-Gonzalez; Marcel Bäcker; Jonathan D. G. Jones; Jeffery L. Dangl; Farid El Kasmi

    Plant nucleotide-binding (NB) leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptor (NLR) proteins function as intracellular immune receptors that perceive the presence of pathogen-derived virulence proteins (effectors) to induce immune responses. The 2 major types of plant NLRs that “sense” pathogen effectors differ in their N-terminal domains: these are Toll/interleukin-1 receptor resistance (TIR) domain-containing

    更新日期:2020-09-15
  • Controlling control—A primer in open-source experimental control systems
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-09-10
    Christopher James Forman

    Biological systems are composed of countless interlocking feedback loops. Reactor control systems—such as Chi-Bio (https://chi.bio/), recently published in PLOS Biology—enable biologists to drive multiple processes within living biological samples, using a single experimental framework. Consequently, the dynamic relationships between many biological variables can be explored simultaneously in situ

    更新日期:2020-09-11
  • Delay-period activity in frontal, parietal, and occipital cortex tracks noise and biases in visual working memory
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-09-08
    Qing Yu; Matthew F. Panichello; Ying Cai; Bradley R. Postle; Timothy J. Buschman

    Working memory is imprecise, and these imprecisions can be explained by the combined influences of random diffusive error and systematic drift toward a set of stable states (“attractors”). However, the neural correlates of diffusion and drift remain unknown. Here, we investigated how delay-period activity in frontal and parietal cortex, which is known to correlate with the decline in behavioral memory

    更新日期:2020-09-08
  • In vivo antiviral host transcriptional response to SARS-CoV-2 by viral load, sex, and age
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-09-08
    Nicole A. P. Lieberman; Vikas Peddu; Hong Xie; Lasata Shrestha; Meei-Li Huang; Megan C. Mears; Maria N. Cajimat; Dennis A. Bente; Pei-Yong Shi; Francesca Bovier; Pavitra Roychoudhury; Keith R. Jerome; Anne Moscona; Matteo Porotto; Alexander L. Greninger

    Despite limited genomic diversity, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has shown a wide range of clinical manifestations in different patient populations. The mechanisms behind these host differences are still unclear. Here, we examined host response gene expression across infection status, viral load, age, and sex among shotgun RNA sequencing profiles of nasopharyngeal (NP)

    更新日期:2020-09-08
  • Leiomodin creates a leaky cap at the pointed end of actin-thin filaments
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-09-08
    Dmitri Tolkatchev; Garry E. Smith Jr.; Lauren E. Schultz; Mert Colpan; Gregory L. Helms; John R. Cort; Carol C. Gregorio; Alla S. Kostyukova

    Improper lengths of actin-thin filaments are associated with altered contractile activity and lethal myopathies. Leiomodin, a member of the tropomodulin family of proteins, is critical in thin filament assembly and maintenance; however, its role is under dispute. Using nuclear magnetic resonance data and molecular dynamics simulations, we generated the first atomic structural model of the binding interface

    更新日期:2020-09-08
  • Selective enhancement of low-gamma activity by tACS improves phonemic processing and reading accuracy in dyslexia
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-09-08
    Silvia Marchesotti; Johanna Nicolle; Isabelle Merlet; Luc H. Arnal; John P. Donoghue; Anne-Lise Giraud

    The phonological deficit in dyslexia is associated with altered low-gamma oscillatory function in left auditory cortex, but a causal relationship between oscillatory function and phonemic processing has never been established. After confirming a deficit at 30 Hz with electroencephalography (EEG), we applied 20 minutes of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) to transiently restore this

    更新日期:2020-09-08
  • Porphyromonas gingivalis promotes progression of esophageal squamous cell cancer via TGFβ-dependent Smad/YAP/TAZ signaling.
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-09-04
    Yi-Jun Qi,Ye-Lin Jiao,Pan Chen,Jin-Yu Kong,Bian-Li Gu,Ke Liu,Dan-Dan Feng,Ya-Fei Zhu,Hao-Jie Ruan,Zi-Jun Lan,Qi-Wei Liu,You-Jia Mi,Xiang-Qian Guo,Ming Wang,Gao-Feng Liang,Richard J Lamont,Huizhi Wang,Fu-You Zhou,Xiao-Shan Feng,She-Gan Gao

    Microbial dysbiosis in the upper digestive tract is linked to an increased risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Overabundance of Porphyromonas gingivalis is associated with shorter survival of ESCC patients. We investigated the molecular mechanisms driving aggressive progression of ESCC by P. gingivalis. Intracellular invasion of P. gingivalis potentiated proliferation, migration, invasion

    更新日期:2020-09-05
  • Isolation of antigen-specific, disulphide-rich knob domain peptides from bovine antibodies.
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-09-04
    Alex Macpherson,Anthony Scott-Tucker,Anastasios Spiliotopoulos,Catherine Simpson,Justin Staniforth,Adam Hold,James Snowden,Leah Manning,Jean van den Elsen,Alastair D G Lawson

    As a novel alternative to established surface display or combinatorial chemistry approaches for the discovery of therapeutic peptides, we present a method for the isolation of small, cysteine-rich domains from bovine antibody ultralong complementarity-determining regions (CDRs). We show for the first time that isolated bovine antibody knob domains can function as autonomous entities by binding antigen

    更新日期:2020-09-05
  • Histamine-induced biphasic activation of RhoA allows for persistent RhoA signaling.
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-09-03
    Jason Z Zhang,Andy H Nguyen,Shigeki Miyamoto,Joan Heller Brown,Andrew D McCulloch,Jin Zhang

    The small GTPase RhoA is a central signaling enzyme that is involved in various cellular processes such as cytoskeletal dynamics, transcription, and cell cycle progression. Many signal transduction pathways activate RhoA—for instance, Gαq-coupled Histamine 1 Receptor signaling via Gαq-dependent activation of RhoGEFs such as p63. Although multiple upstream regulators of RhoA have been identified, the

    更新日期:2020-09-05
  • Spastin depletion increases tubulin polyglutamylation and impairs kinesin-mediated neuronal transport, leading to working and associative memory deficits.
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-08-31
    André T Lopes,Torben J Hausrat,Frank F Heisler,Kira V Gromova,Franco L Lombino,Timo Fischer,Laura Ruschkies,Petra Breiden,Edda Thies,Irm Hermans-Borgmeyer,Michaela Schweizer,Jürgen R Schwarz,Christian Lohr,Matthias Kneussel

    Mutations in the gene encoding the microtubule-severing protein spastin (spastic paraplegia 4 [SPG4]) cause hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), associated with neurodegeneration, spasticity, and motor impairment. Complicated forms (complicated HSP [cHSP]) further include cognitive deficits and dementia; however, the etiology and dysfunctional mechanisms of cHSP have remained unknown. Here, we report

    更新日期:2020-08-31
  • Estimating the risk of species interaction loss in mutualistic communities.
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-08-31
    Benno I Simmons,Hannah S Wauchope,Tatsuya Amano,Lynn V Dicks,William J Sutherland,Vasilis Dakos

    Interactions between species generate the functions on which ecosystems and humans depend. However, we lack an understanding of the risk that interaction loss poses to ecological communities. Here, we quantify the risk of interaction loss for 4,330 species interactions from 41 empirical pollination and seed dispersal networks across 6 continents. We estimate risk as a function of interaction vulnerability

    更新日期:2020-08-31
  • Recommendations for future university pandemic responses: What the first COVID-19 shutdown taught us.
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    Carolyn Coyne,Jimmy D Ballard,Ira J Blader

    The SARS-CoV-2 epidemic challenged universities and other academic institutions to rapidly adapt to urgent and life-threatening situations. It forced most institutions to shut down nearly every aspect of their research and educational enterprises. In doing so, university leaders were thrust into unchartered waters and forced them to make unprecedented decisions. Successes and failures along the way

    更新日期:2020-08-28
  • Cortical tracking of speech in noise accounts for reading strategies in children
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-08-26
    Florian Destoky; Julie Bertels; Maxime Niesen; Vincent Wens; Marc Vander Ghinst; Jacqueline Leybaert; Marie Lallier; Robin A. A. Ince; Joachim Gross; Xavier De Tiège; Mathieu Bourguignon

    Humans’ propensity to acquire literacy relates to several factors, including the ability to understand speech in noise (SiN). Still, the nature of the relation between reading and SiN perception abilities remains poorly understood. Here, we dissect the interplay between (1) reading abilities, (2) classical behavioral predictors of reading (phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid automatized

    更新日期:2020-08-28
  • Glycan cross-feeding supports mutualism between Fusobacterium and the vaginal microbiota
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-08-25
    Kavita Agarwal; Lloyd S. Robinson; Somya Aggarwal; Lynne R. Foster; Ariel Hernandez-Leyva; Hueylie Lin; Brett A. Tortelli; Valerie P. O’Brien; Liza Miller; Andrew L. Kau; Hilary Reno; Nicole M. Gilbert; Warren G. Lewis; Amanda L. Lewis

    Women with bacterial vaginosis (BV), an imbalance of the vaginal microbiome, are more likely to be colonized by potential pathogens such as Fusobacterium nucleatum, a bacterium linked with intrauterine infection and preterm birth. However, the conditions and mechanisms supporting pathogen colonization during vaginal dysbiosis remain obscure. We demonstrate that sialidase activity, a diagnostic feature

    更新日期:2020-08-26
  • Choosing fast and simply: Construction of preferences by starlings through parallel option valuation.
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-08-24
    Tiago Monteiro,Marco Vasconcelos,Alex Kacelnik

    The integration of normative and descriptive analyses of decision processes in humans struggles with the fact that measuring preferences by different procedures yields different rankings and that humans appear irrationally impulsive (namely, show maladaptive preference for immediacy). Failure of procedure invariance has led to the widespread hypothesis that preferences are constructed “on the spot”

    更新日期:2020-08-25
  • Metabolic excretion associated with nutrient–growth dysregulation promotes the rapid evolution of an overt metabolic defect
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-08-24
    Robin Green; Sonal; Lin Wang; Samuel F. M. Hart; Wenyun Lu; David Skelding; Justin C. Burton; Hanbing Mi; Aric Capel; Hung Alex Chen; Aaron Lin; Arvind R. Subramaniam; Joshua D. Rabinowitz; Wenying Shou

    In eukaryotes, conserved mechanisms ensure that cell growth is coordinated with nutrient availability. Overactive growth during nutrient limitation (“nutrient–growth dysregulation”) can lead to rapid cell death. Here, we demonstrate that cells can adapt to nutrient–growth dysregulation by evolving major metabolic defects. Specifically, when yeast lysine-auxotrophic mutant lys− encountered lysine limitation

    更新日期:2020-08-25
  • Real-time public health communication of local SARS-CoV-2 genomic epidemiology
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-08-21
    Chaney C. Kalinich; Cole G. Jensen; Peter Neugebauer; Mary E. Petrone; Mario Peña-Hernández; Isabel M. Ott; Anne L. Wyllie; Tara Alpert; Chantal B. F. Vogels; Joseph R. Fauver; Nathan D. Grubaugh; Anderson F. Brito

    Genomic epidemiology can provide a unique, real-time understanding of SARS-CoV-2 transmission patterns. Yet the potential for genomic analyses to guide local policy and community-based behavioral decisions is limited because they are often oriented towards specially trained scientists and conducted on a national or global scale. Here, we propose a new paradigm: Phylogenetic analyses performed on a

    更新日期:2020-08-23
  • Chemogenetic attenuation of neuronal activity in the entorhinal cortex reduces Aβ and tau pathology in the hippocampus
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-08-21
    Gustavo A. Rodriguez; Geoffrey M. Barrett; Karen E. Duff; S. Abid Hussaini

    High levels of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide have been shown to disrupt neuronal function and induce hyperexcitability, but it is unclear what effects Aβ-associated hyperexcitability may have on tauopathy pathogenesis or propagation in vivo. Using a novel transgenic mouse line to model the impact of human APP (hAPP)/Aβ accumulation on tauopathy in the entorhinal cortex–hippocampal (EC-HIPP) network

    更新日期:2020-08-23
  • Klf5 down-regulation induces vascular senescence through eIF5a depletion and mitochondrial fission
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-08-20
    Dong Ma; Bin Zheng; He-liang Liu; Yong-bo Zhao; Xiao Liu; Xin-hua Zhang; Qiang Li; Wei-bo Shi; Toru Suzuki; Jin-kun Wen

    Although dysregulation of mitochondrial dynamics has been linked to cellular senescence, which contributes to advanced age-related disorders, it is unclear how Krüppel-like factor 5 (Klf5), an essential transcriptional factor of cardiovascular remodeling, mediates the link between mitochondrial dynamics and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) senescence. Here, we show that Klf5 down-regulation in VSMCs

    更新日期:2020-08-20
  • Quantitative cytogenetics reveals molecular stoichiometry and longitudinal organization of meiotic chromosome axes and loops
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-08-19
    Alexander Woglar; Kei Yamaya; Baptiste Roelens; Alistair Boettiger; Simone Köhler; Anne M. Villeneuve

    During meiosis, chromosomes adopt a specialized organization involving assembly of a cohesin-based axis along their lengths, with DNA loops emanating from this axis. We applied novel, quantitative, and widely applicable cytogenetic strategies to elucidate the molecular bases of this organization using Caenorhabditis elegans. Analyses of wild-type (WT) chromosomes and de novo circular minichromosomes

    更新日期:2020-08-20
  • Strigolactone signaling regulates specialized metabolism in tobacco stems and interactions with stem-feeding herbivores
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-08-18
    Suhua Li; Youngsung Joo; Dechang Cao; Ran Li; Gisuk Lee; Rayko Halitschke; Gundega Baldwin; Ian T. Baldwin; Ming Wang

    Plants are attacked by herbivores, which often specialize on different tissues, and in response, have evolved sophisticated resistance strategies that involve different types of chemical defenses frequently targeted to different tissues. Most known phytohormones have been implicated in regulating these defenses, with jasmonates (JAs) playing a pivotal role in complex regulatory networks of signaling

    更新日期:2020-08-19
  • Combining antibiotics with antivirulence compounds can have synergistic effects and reverse selection for antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-08-18
    Chiara Rezzoagli; Martina Archetti; Ingrid Mignot; Michael Baumgartner; Rolf Kümmerli

    Antibiotics are losing efficacy due to the rapid evolution and spread of resistance. Treatments targeting bacterial virulence factors have been considered as alternatives because they target virulence instead of pathogen viability, and should therefore exert weaker selection for resistance than conventional antibiotics. However, antivirulence treatments rarely clear infections, which compromises their

    更新日期:2020-08-19
  • Decelerated dinosaur skull evolution with the origin of birds
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-08-18
    Ryan N. Felice; Akinobu Watanabe; Andrew R. Cuff; Michael Hanson; Bhart-Anjan S. Bhullar; Emily R. Rayfield; Lawrence M. Witmer; Mark A. Norell; Anjali Goswami

    The evolutionary radiation of birds has produced incredible morphological variation, including a huge range of skull form and function. Investigating how this variation arose with respect to non-avian dinosaurs is key to understanding how birds achieved their remarkable success after the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event. Using a high-dimensional geometric morphometric approach, we quantified the

    更新日期:2020-08-19
  • A comparison of humans and baboons suggests germline mutation rates do not track cell divisions
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-08-17
    Felix L. Wu; Alva I. Strand; Laura A. Cox; Carole Ober; Jeffrey D. Wall; Priya Moorjani; Molly Przeworski

    In humans, most germline mutations are inherited from the father. This observation has been widely interpreted as reflecting the replication errors that accrue during spermatogenesis. If so, the male bias in mutation should be substantially lower in a closely related species with similar rates of spermatogonial stem cell divisions but a shorter mean age of reproduction. To test this hypothesis, we

    更新日期:2020-08-18
  • Extent and context dependence of pleiotropy revealed by high-throughput single-cell phenotyping
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-08-17
    Kerry A. Geiler-Samerotte; Shuang Li; Charalampos Lazaris; Austin Taylor; Naomi Ziv; Chelsea Ramjeawan; Annalise B. Paaby; Mark L. Siegal

    Pleiotropy—when a single mutation affects multiple traits—is a controversial topic with far-reaching implications. Pleiotropy plays a central role in debates about how complex traits evolve and whether biological systems are modular or are organized such that every gene has the potential to affect many traits. Pleiotropy is also critical to initiatives in evolutionary medicine that seek to trap infectious

    更新日期:2020-08-18
  • Ratiometric quorum sensing governs the trade-off between bacterial vertical and horizontal antibiotic resistance propagation.
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-08-14
    Alvaro Banderas,Arthur Carcano,Elisa Sia,Shuang Li,Ariel B Lindner

    Plasmid-mediated horizontal gene transfer of antibiotic resistance and virulence in pathogenic bacteria underlies a major public health issue. Understanding how, in the absence of antibiotic-mediated selection, plasmid-bearing cells avoid being outnumbered by plasmid-free cells is key to developing counterstrategies. Here, we quantified the induction of the plasmidial sex pheromone pathway of Enterococcus

    更新日期:2020-08-15
  • Rapid evolution of the primate larynx?
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-08-11
    Daniel L Bowling,Jacob C Dunn,Jeroen B Smaers,Maxime Garcia,Asha Sato,Georg Hantke,Stephan Handschuh,Sabine Dengg,Max Kerney,Andrew C Kitchener,Michaela Gumpenberger,W Tecumseh Fitch

    Tissue vibrations in the larynx produce most sounds that comprise vocal communication in mammals. Larynx morphology is thus predicted to be a key target for selection, particularly in species with highly developed vocal communication systems. Here, we present a novel database of digitally modeled scanned larynges from 55 different mammalian species, representing a wide range of body sizes in the primate

    更新日期:2020-08-12
  • CaMKII controls neuromodulation via neuropeptide gene expression and axonal targeting of neuropeptide vesicles.
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    Alessandro Moro,Geeske M van Woerden,Ruud F Toonen,Matthijs Verhage

    Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) regulates synaptic plasticity in multiple ways, supposedly including the secretion of neuromodulators like brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Here, we show that neuromodulator secretion is indeed reduced in mouse α- and βCaMKII-deficient (αβCaMKII double-knockout [DKO]) hippocampal neurons. However, this was not due to reduced secretion efficiency

    更新日期:2020-08-11
  • The right temporoparietal junction enables delay of gratification by allowing decision makers to focus on future events.
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    Alexander Soutschek,Marius Moisa,Christian C Ruff,Philippe N Tobler

    Studies of neural processes underlying delay of gratification usually focus on prefrontal networks related to curbing affective impulses. Here, we provide evidence for an alternative mechanism that facilitates delaying gratification by mental orientation towards the future. Combining continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) with functional neuroimaging, we tested how the right temporoparietal junction

    更新日期:2020-08-11
  • Cryo-EM structure of the human concentrative nucleoside transporter CNT3.
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    Yanxia Zhou,Lianghuan Liao,Chen Wang,Jialu Li,Pengliang Chi,Qingjie Xiao,Qingting Liu,Li Guo,Linfeng Sun,Dong Deng

    Concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNTs), members of the solute carrier (SLC) 28 transporter family, facilitate the salvage of nucleosides and therapeutic nucleoside derivatives across the plasma membrane. Despite decades of investigation, the structures of human CNTs remain unknown. We determined the cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of human CNT (hCNT) 3 at an overall resolution

    更新日期:2020-08-11
  • Integrative illustration for coronavirus outreach.
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-08-06
    David S Goodsell,Maria Voigt,Christine Zardecki,Stephen K Burley

    Two illustrations integrate current knowledge about severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronaviruses and their life cycle. They have been widely used in education and outreach through free distribution as part of a coronavirus-related resource at Protein Data Bank (PDB)-101, the education portal of the RCSB PDB. Scientific sources for creation of the illustrations and examples of dissemination

    更新日期:2020-08-06
  • Radiation causes tissue damage by dysregulating inflammasome-gasdermin D signaling in both host and transplanted cells.
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-08-06
    Jianqiu Xiao,Chun Wang,Juo-Chin Yao,Yael Alippe,Tong Yang,Dustin Kress,Kai Sun,Kourtney L Kostecki,Joseph B Monahan,Deborah J Veis,Yousef Abu-Amer,Daniel C Link,Gabriel Mbalaviele

    Radiotherapy is a commonly used conditioning regimen for bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Cytotoxicity limits the use of this life-saving therapy, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. Here, we use the syngeneic mouse BMT model to test the hypothesis that lethal radiation damages tissues, thereby unleashing signals that indiscriminately activate the inflammasome pathways in host and

    更新日期:2020-08-06
  • Dynamic centriolar localization of Polo and Centrobin in early mitosis primes centrosome asymmetry.
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-08-06
    Emmanuel Gallaud,Anjana Ramdas Nair,Nicole Horsley,Arnaud Monnard,Priyanka Singh,Tri Thanh Pham,David Salvador Garcia,Alexia Ferrand,Clemens Cabernard

    Centrosomes, the main microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) of metazoan cells, contain an older “mother” and a younger “daughter” centriole. Stem cells either inherit the mother or daughter-centriole-containing centrosome, providing a possible mechanism for biased delivery of cell fate determinants. However, the mechanisms regulating centrosome asymmetry and biased centrosome segregation are unclear

    更新日期:2020-08-06
  • Heritable gene expression variability and stochasticity govern clonal heterogeneity in circadian period.
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-08-03
    K L Nikhil,Sandra Korge,Achim Kramer

    A ubiquitous feature of the circadian clock across life forms is its organization as a network of cellular oscillators, with individual cellular oscillators within the network often exhibiting considerable heterogeneity in their intrinsic periods. The interaction of coupling and heterogeneity in circadian clock networks is hypothesized to influence clock’s entrainability, but our knowledge of mechanisms

    更新日期:2020-08-04
  • Cell-substrate adhesion drives Scar/WAVE activation and phosphorylation by a Ste20-family kinase, which controls pseudopod lifetime.
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-08-03
    Shashi Prakash Singh,Peter A Thomason,Sergio Lilla,Matthias Schaks,Qing Tang,Bruce L Goode,Laura M Machesky,Klemens Rottner,Robert H Insall

    The Scar/WAVE complex is the principal catalyst of pseudopod and lamellipod formation. Here we show that Scar/WAVE’s proline-rich domain is polyphosphorylated after the complex is activated. Blocking Scar/WAVE activation stops phosphorylation in both Dictyostelium and mammalian cells, implying that phosphorylation modulates pseudopods after they have been formed, rather than controlling whether they

    更新日期:2020-08-04
  • Selfing mutants link Ku proteins to mating type determination in Tetrahymena.
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-08-03
    I-Ting Lin,Meng-Chao Yao

    Recognition of self and nonself is important for outcrossing organisms, and different mating types establish the barrier against self-mating. In the unicellular ciliate T. thermophila, mating type determination requires complex DNA rearrangements at a single mat locus during conjugation to produce a type-specific gene pair (MTA and MTB) for 1 of 7 possible mating types. Surprisingly, we found that

    更新日期:2020-08-04
  • Down-regulation of a cytokine secreted from peripheral fat bodies improves visual attention while reducing sleep in Drosophila.
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-08-03
    Deniz Ertekin,Leonie Kirszenblat,Richard Faville,Bruno van Swinderen

    Sleep is vital for survival. Yet under environmentally challenging conditions, such as starvation, animals suppress their need for sleep. Interestingly, starvation-induced sleep loss does not evoke a subsequent sleep rebound. Little is known about how starvation-induced sleep deprivation differs from other types of sleep loss, or why some sleep functions become dispensable during starvation. Here,

    更新日期:2020-08-04
  • Zinc protection of fertilized eggs is an ancient feature of sexual reproduction in animals.
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-07-31
    Katherine L Wozniak,Rachel E Bainbridge,Dominique W Summerville,Maiwase Tembo,Wesley A Phelps,Monica L Sauer,Bennett W Wisner,Madelyn E Czekalski,Srikavya Pasumarthy,Meghan L Hanson,Melania B Linderman,Catherine H Luu,Madison E Boehm,Steven M Sanders,Katherine M Buckley,Daniel J Bain,Matthew L Nicotra,Miler T Lee,Anne E Carlson

    One of the earliest and most prevalent barriers to successful reproduction is polyspermy, or fertilization of an egg by multiple sperm. To prevent these supernumerary fertilizations, eggs have evolved multiple mechanisms. It has recently been proposed that zinc released by mammalian eggs at fertilization may block additional sperm from entering. Here, we demonstrate that eggs from amphibia and teleost

    更新日期:2020-08-01
  • Longitudinal connections and the organization of the temporal cortex in macaques, great apes, and humans.
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-07-31
    Lea Roumazeilles,Nicole Eichert,Katherine L Bryant,Davide Folloni,Jerome Sallet,Suhas Vijayakumar,Sean Foxley,Benjamin C Tendler,Saad Jbabdi,Colin Reveley,Lennart Verhagen,Lori B Dershowitz,Martin Guthrie,Edmund Flach,Karla L Miller,Rogier B Mars

    The temporal association cortex is considered a primate specialization and is involved in complex behaviors, with some, such as language, particularly characteristic of humans. The emergence of these behaviors has been linked to major differences in temporal lobe white matter in humans compared with monkeys. It is unknown, however, how the organization of the temporal lobe differs across several anthropoid

    更新日期:2020-08-01
  • 5-Formylcytosine landscapes of human preimplantation embryos at single-cell resolution.
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-07-30
    Yun Gao,Lin Li,Peng Yuan,Fan Zhai,Yixin Ren,Liying Yan,Rong Li,Ying Lian,Xiaohui Zhu,Xinglong Wu,Kehkooi Kee,Lu Wen,Jie Qiao,Fuchou Tang

    Epigenetic dynamics, such as DNA methylation and chromatin accessibility, have been extensively explored in human preimplantation embryos. However, the active demethylation process during this crucial period remains largely unexplored. In this study, we use single-cell chemical-labeling-enabled C-to-T conversion sequencing (CLEVER-seq) to quantify the DNA 5-formylcytosine (5fC) levels of human preimplantation

    更新日期:2020-07-31
  • In situ characterisation and manipulation of biological systems with Chi.Bio.
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-07-30
    Harrison Steel,Robert Habgood,Ciarán L Kelly,Antonis Papachristodoulou

    The precision and repeatability of in vivo biological studies is predicated upon methods for isolating a targeted subsystem from external sources of noise and variability. However, in many experimental frameworks, this is made challenging by nonstatic environments during host cell growth, as well as variability introduced by manual sampling and measurement protocols. To address these challenges, we

    更新日期:2020-07-31
  • Should a viral genome stay in the host cell or leave? A quantitative dynamics study of how hepatitis C virus deals with this dilemma.
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-07-30
    Shoya Iwanami,Kosaku Kitagawa,Hirofumi Ohashi,Yusuke Asai,Kaho Shionoya,Wakana Saso,Kazane Nishioka,Hisashi Inaba,Shinji Nakaoka,Takaji Wakita,Odo Diekmann,Shingo Iwami,Koichi Watashi

    Virus proliferation involves gene replication inside infected cells and transmission to new target cells. Once positive-strand RNA virus has infected a cell, the viral genome serves as a template for copying (“stay-strategy”) or is packaged into a progeny virion that will be released extracellularly (“leave-strategy”). The balance between genome replication and virion release determines virus production

    更新日期:2020-07-31
  • Low availability of code in ecology: A call for urgent action.
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-07-28
    Antica Culina,Ilona van den Berg,Simon Evans,Alfredo Sánchez-Tójar

    Access to analytical code is essential for transparent and reproducible research. We review the state of code availability in ecology using a random sample of 346 nonmolecular articles published between 2015 and 2019 under mandatory or encouraged code-sharing policies. Our results call for urgent action to increase code availability: only 27% of eligible articles were accompanied by code. In contrast

    更新日期:2020-07-29
  • Accumulation of storage proteins in plant seeds is mediated by amyloid formation.
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-07-23
    Kirill S Antonets,Mikhail V Belousov,Anna I Sulatskaya,Maria E Belousova,Anastasiia O Kosolapova,Maksim I Sulatsky,Elena A Andreeva,Pavel A Zykin,Yury V Malovichko,Oksana Y Shtark,Anna N Lykholay,Kirill V Volkov,Irina M Kuznetsova,Konstantin K Turoverov,Elena Y Kochetkova,Alexander G Bobylev,Konstantin S Usachev,Oleg N Demidov,Igor A Tikhonovich,Anton A Nizhnikov

    Amyloids are protein aggregates with a highly ordered spatial structure giving them unique physicochemical properties. Different amyloids not only participate in the development of numerous incurable diseases but control vital functions in archaea, bacteria and eukarya. Plants are a poorly studied systematic group in the field of amyloid biology. Amyloid properties have not yet been demonstrated for

    更新日期:2020-07-24
  • Nanog safeguards early embryogenesis against global activation of maternal β-catenin activity by interfering with TCF factors.
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-07-23
    Mudan He,Ru Zhang,Shengbo Jiao,Fenghua Zhang,Ding Ye,Houpeng Wang,Yonghua Sun

    Maternal β-catenin activity is essential and critical for dorsal induction and its dorsal activation has been thoroughly studied. However, how the maternal β-catenin activity is suppressed in the nondorsal cells remains poorly understood. Nanog is known to play a central role for maintenance of the pluripotency and maternal -zygotic transition (MZT). Here, we reveal a novel role of Nanog as a strong

    更新日期:2020-07-24
  • Experimental-numerical method for calculating bending moments in swimming fish shows that fish larvae control undulatory swimming with simple actuation.
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-07-22
    Cees J Voesenek,Gen Li,Florian T Muijres,Johan L van Leeuwen

    Most fish swim with body undulations that result from fluid–structure interactions between the fish’s internal tissues and the surrounding water. Gaining insight into these complex fluid–structure interactions is essential to understand how fish swim. To this end, we developed a dedicated experimental–numerical inverse dynamics approach to calculate the lateral bending moment distributions for a large-amplitude

    更新日期:2020-07-23
  • Phase separation of Arabidopsis EMB1579 controls transcription, mRNA splicing, and development.
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-07-21
    Yiling Zhang,Zhankun Li,Naizhi Chen,Yao Huang,Shanjin Huang

    Tight regulation of gene transcription and mRNA splicing is essential for plant growth and development. Here we demonstrate that a plant-specific protein, EMBRYO DEFECTIVE 1579 (EMB1579), controls multiple growth and developmental processes in Arabidopsis. We demonstrate that EMB1579 forms liquid-like condensates both in vitro and in vivo, and the formation of normal-sized EMB1579 condensates is crucial

    更新日期:2020-07-22
  • Structure and function of yeast Lso2 and human CCDC124 bound to hibernating ribosomes.
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    Jennifer N Wells,Robert Buschauer,Timur Mackens-Kiani,Katharina Best,Hanna Kratzat,Otto Berninghausen,Thomas Becker,Wendy Gilbert,Jingdong Cheng,Roland Beckmann

    Cells adjust to nutrient deprivation by reversible translational shutdown. This is accompanied by maintaining inactive ribosomes in a hibernation state, in which they are bound by proteins with inhibitory and protective functions. In eukaryotes, such a function was attributed to suppressor of target of Myb protein 1 (Stm1; SERPINE1 mRNA-binding protein 1 [SERBP1] in mammals), and recently, late-annotated

    更新日期:2020-07-21
  • Proteome-wide identification of HSP70/HSC70 chaperone clients in human cells.
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    Seung W Ryu,Rose Stewart,D Chase Pectol,Nicolette A Ender,Oshadi Wimalarathne,Ji-Hoon Lee,Carlos P Zanini,Antony Harvey,Jon M Huibregtse,Peter Mueller,Tanya T Paull

    The 70 kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) family of chaperones are the front line of protection from stress-induced misfolding and aggregation of polypeptides in most organisms and are responsible for promoting the stability, folding, and degradation of clients to maintain cellular protein homeostasis. Here, we demonstrate quantitative identification of HSP70 and 71 kDa heat shock cognate (HSC70) clients

    更新日期:2020-07-21
  • FCHSD2 controls oncogenic ERK1/2 signaling outcome by regulating endocytic trafficking.
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Guan-Yu Xiao,Sandra L Schmid

    The evolution of transformed cancer cells into metastatic tumors is, in part, driven by altered intracellular signaling downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). The surface levels and activity of RTKs are governed mainly through clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), endosomal recycling, or degradation. In turn, oncogenic signaling downstream of RTKs can reciprocally regulate endocytic trafficking

    更新日期:2020-07-20
  • The Hong Kong Principles for assessing researchers: Fostering research integrity.
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-07-16
    David Moher,Lex Bouter,Sabine Kleinert,Paul Glasziou,Mai Har Sham,Virginia Barbour,Anne-Marie Coriat,Nicole Foeger,Ulrich Dirnagl

    For knowledge to benefit research and society, it must be trustworthy. Trustworthy research is robust, rigorous, and transparent at all stages of design, execution, and reporting. Assessment of researchers still rarely includes considerations related to trustworthiness, rigor, and transparency. We have developed the Hong Kong Principles (HKPs) as part of the 6th World Conference on Research Integrity

    更新日期:2020-07-17
  • Mechanosensitivity is an essential component of phototransduction in vertebrate rods.
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-07-15
    Ulisse Bocchero,Fabio Falleroni,Simone Mortal,Yunzhen Li,Dan Cojoc,Trevor Lamb,Vincent Torre

    Photoreceptors are specialized cells devoted to the transduction of the incoming visual signals. Rods are able also to shed from their tip old disks and to synthesize at the base of the outer segment (OS) new disks. By combining electrophysiology, optical tweezers (OTs), and biochemistry, we investigate mechanosensitivity in the rods of Xenopus laevis, and we show that 1) mechanosensitive channels

    更新日期:2020-07-16
  • Age-related accumulation of de novo mitochondrial mutations in mammalian oocytes and somatic tissues.
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-07-15
    Barbara Arbeithuber,James Hester,Marzia A Cremona,Nicholas Stoler,Arslan Zaidi,Bonnie Higgins,Kate Anthony,Francesca Chiaromonte,Francisco J Diaz,Kateryna D Makova

    Mutations create genetic variation for other evolutionary forces to operate on and cause numerous genetic diseases. Nevertheless, how de novo mutations arise remains poorly understood. Progress in the area is hindered by the fact that error rates of conventional sequencing technologies (1 in 100 or 1,000 base pairs) are several orders of magnitude higher than de novo mutation rates (1 in 10,000,000

    更新日期:2020-07-16
  • The pregnant myometrium is epigenetically activated at contractility-driving gene loci prior to the onset of labor in mice.
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-07-15
    Virlana M Shchuka,Luis E Abatti,Huayun Hou,Nawrah Khader,Anna Dorogin,Michael D Wilson,Oksana Shynlova,Jennifer A Mitchell

    During gestation, uterine smooth muscle cells transition from a state of quiescence to one of contractility, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this transition at a genomic level are not well-known. To better understand these events, we evaluated the epigenetic landscape of the mouse myometrium during the pregnant, laboring, and postpartum stages. We generated gestational time point–specific enrichment

    更新日期:2020-07-16
  • PiVR: An affordable and versatile closed-loop platform to study unrestrained sensorimotor behavior.
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-07-14
    David Tadres,Matthieu Louis

    Tools enabling closed-loop experiments are crucial to delineate causal relationships between the activity of genetically labeled neurons and specific behaviors. We developed the Raspberry Pi Virtual Reality (PiVR) system to conduct closed-loop optogenetic stimulation of neural functions in unrestrained animals. PiVR is an experimental platform that operates at high temporal resolution (70 Hz) with

    更新日期:2020-07-15
  • Reporting animal research: Explanation and elaboration for the ARRIVE guidelines 2.0.
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-07-14
    Nathalie Percie du Sert,Amrita Ahluwalia,Sabina Alam,Marc T Avey,Monya Baker,William J Browne,Alejandra Clark,Innes C Cuthill,Ulrich Dirnagl,Michael Emerson,Paul Garner,Stephen T Holgate,David W Howells,Viki Hurst,Natasha A Karp,Stanley E Lazic,Katie Lidster,Catriona J MacCallum,Malcolm Macleod,Esther J Pearl,Ole H Petersen,Frances Rawle,Penny Reynolds,Kieron Rooney,Emily S Sena,Shai D Silberberg,Thomas

    Improving the reproducibility of biomedical research is a major challenge. Transparent and accurate reporting is vital to this process; it allows readers to assess the reliability of the findings and repeat or build upon the work of other researchers. The ARRIVE guidelines (Animal Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments) were developed in 2010 to help authors and journals identify the minimum information

    更新日期:2020-07-15