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  • Improved genetically encoded near-infrared fluorescent calcium ion indicators for in vivo imaging
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-11-24
    Yong Qian; Danielle M. Orozco Cosio; Kiryl D. Piatkevich; Sarah Aufmkolk; Wan-Chi Su; Orhan T. Celiker; Anne Schohl; Mitchell H. Murdock; Abhi Aggarwal; Yu-Fen Chang; Paul W. Wiseman; Edward S. Ruthazer; Edward S. Boyden; Robert E. Campbell

    Near-infrared (NIR) genetically encoded calcium ion (Ca2+) indicators (GECIs) can provide advantages over visible wavelength fluorescent GECIs in terms of reduced phototoxicity, minimal spectral cross talk with visible light excitable optogenetic tools and fluorescent probes, and decreased scattering and absorption in mammalian tissues. Our previously reported NIR GECI, NIR-GECO1, has these advantages

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Climate change and disease in plant communities
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-11-24
    Jeremy J. Burdon; Jiasui Zhan

    Climate change is triggering similar effects on the incidence and severity of disease for crops in agriculture and wild plants in natural communities. The complexity of natural ecosystems, however, generates a complex array of interactions between wild plants and pathogens in marked contrast to those generated in the structural and species simplicity of most agricultural crops. Understanding the different

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Understanding how temperature shifts could impact infectious disease
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-11-24
    Jason R. Rohr; Jeremy M. Cohen

    Climate change is expected to have complex effects on infectious diseases, causing some to increase, others to decrease, and many to shift their distributions. There have been several important advances in understanding the role of climate and climate change on wildlife and human infectious disease dynamics over the past several years. This essay examines 3 major areas of advancement, which include

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Evolution and lineage dynamics of a transmissible cancer in Tasmanian devils
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-11-24
    Young Mi Kwon; Kevin Gori; Naomi Park; Nicole Potts; Kate Swift; Jinhong Wang; Maximilian R. Stammnitz; Naomi Cannell; Adrian Baez-Ortega; Sebastien Comte; Samantha Fox; Colette Harmsen; Stewart Huxtable; Menna Jones; Alexandre Kreiss; Clare Lawrence; Billie Lazenby; Sarah Peck; Ruth Pye; Gregory Woods; Mona Zimmermann; David C. Wedge; David Pemberton; Michael R. Stratton; Rodrigo Hamede; Elizabeth

    Devil facial tumour 1 (DFT1) is a transmissible cancer clone endangering the Tasmanian devil. The expansion of DFT1 across Tasmania has been documented, but little is known of its evolutionary history. We analysed genomes of 648 DFT1 tumours collected throughout the disease range between 2003 and 2018. DFT1 diverged early into five clades, three spreading widely and two failing to persist. One clade

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Building resilience to mosquito-borne diseases in the Caribbean
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-11-24
    Rachel Lowe; Sadie J. Ryan; Roché Mahon; Cedric J. Van Meerbeeck; Adrian R. Trotman; Laura-Lee G. Boodram; Mercy J. Borbor-Cordova; Anna M. Stewart-Ibarra

    Small island developing states in the Caribbean are among the most vulnerable countries on the planet to climate variability and climate change. In the last 3 decades, the Caribbean region has undergone frequent and intense heat waves, storms, floods, and droughts. This has had a detrimental impact on population health and well-being, including an increase in infectious disease outbreaks. Recent advances

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Effects of climate change on parasites and disease in estuarine and nearshore environments
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-11-24
    James E. Byers

    Information on parasites and disease in marine ecosystems lags behind terrestrial systems, increasing the challenge of predicting responses of marine host–parasite systems to climate change. However, here I examine several generalizable aspects and research priorities. First, I advocate that quantification and comparison of host and parasite thermal performance curves is a smart approach to improve

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Cortical morphology at birth reflects spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression in the fetal human brain
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Gareth Ball; Jakob Seidlitz; Jonathan O’Muircheartaigh; Ralica Dimitrova; Daphna Fenchel; Antonios Makropoulos; Daan Christiaens; Andreas Schuh; Jonathan Passerat-Palmbach; Jana Hutter; Lucilio Cordero-Grande; Emer Hughes; Anthony Price; Jo V. Hajnal; Daniel Rueckert; Emma C. Robinson; A David Edwards

    Interruption to gestation through preterm birth can significantly impact cortical development and have long-lasting adverse effects on neurodevelopmental outcome. We compared cortical morphology captured by high-resolution, multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in n = 292 healthy newborn infants (mean age at birth = 39.9 weeks) with regional patterns of gene expression in the fetal cortex across

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Structure of the Lifeact–F-actin complex
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Alexander Belyy; Felipe Merino; Oleg Sitsel; Stefan Raunser

    Lifeact is a short actin-binding peptide that is used to visualize filamentous actin (F-actin) structures in live eukaryotic cells using fluorescence microscopy. However, this popular probe has been shown to alter cellular morphology by affecting the structure of the cytoskeleton. The molecular basis for such artefacts is poorly understood. Here, we determined the high-resolution structure of the Lifeact–F-actin

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • SCRINSHOT enables spatial mapping of cell states in tissue sections with single-cell resolution
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Alexandros Sountoulidis; Andreas Liontos; Hong Phuong Nguyen; Alexandra B. Firsova; Athanasios Fysikopoulos; Xiaoyan Qian; Werner Seeger; Erik Sundström; Mats Nilsson; Christos Samakovlis

    Changes in cell identities and positions underlie tissue development and disease progression. Although single-cell mRNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq) methods rapidly generate extensive lists of cell states, spatially resolved single-cell mapping presents a challenging task. We developed SCRINSHOT (Single-Cell Resolution IN Situ Hybridization On Tissues), a sensitive, multiplex RNA mapping approach. Direct

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Transmissible cancers and the evolution of sex under the Red Queen hypothesis
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-11-19
    Thomas G. Aubier; Matthias Galipaud; E. Yagmur Erten; Hanna Kokko

    The predominance of sexual reproduction in eukaryotes remains paradoxical in evolutionary theory. Of the hypotheses proposed to resolve this paradox, the ‘Red Queen hypothesis’ emphasises the potential of antagonistic interactions to cause fluctuating selection, which favours the evolution and maintenance of sex. Whereas empirical and theoretical developments have focused on host-parasite interactions

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Hippocampal cells integrate past memory and present perception for the future
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Cen Yang; Yuji Naya

    The ability to use stored information in a highly flexible manner is a defining feature of the declarative memory system. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying this flexibility are poorly understood. To address this question, we recorded single-unit activity from the hippocampus of 2 nonhuman primates performing a newly devised task requiring the monkeys to retrieve long-term item-location association

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • Budgerigars have complex sleep structure similar to that of mammals
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-11-17
    Sofija V. Canavan; Daniel Margoliash

    Birds and mammals share specialized forms of sleep including slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement sleep (REM), raising the question of why and how specialized sleep evolved. Extensive prior studies concluded that avian sleep lacked many features characteristic of mammalian sleep, and therefore that specialized sleep must have evolved independently in birds and mammals. This has been challenged

    更新日期:2020-11-17
  • Local retinoic acid signaling directs emergence of the extraocular muscle functional unit
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-11-17
    Glenda Evangelina Comai; Markéta Tesařová; Valerie Dupé; Muriel Rhinn; Pedro Vallecillo-García; Fabio da Silva; Betty Feret; Katherine Exelby; Pascal Dollé; Leif Carlsson; Brian Pryce; François Spitz; Sigmar Stricker; Tomáš Zikmund; Jozef Kaiser; James Briscoe; Andreas Schedl; Norbert B. Ghyselinck; Ronen Schweitzer; Shahragim Tajbakhsh

    Coordinated development of muscles, tendons, and their attachment sites ensures emergence of functional musculoskeletal units that are adapted to diverse anatomical demands among different species. How these different tissues are patterned and functionally assembled during embryogenesis is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the morphogenesis of extraocular muscles (EOMs), an evolutionary conserved

    更新日期:2020-11-17
  • Structural myelin defects are associated with low axonal ATP levels but rapid recovery from energy deprivation in a mouse model of spastic paraplegia
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-11-16
    Andrea Trevisiol; Kathrin Kusch; Anna M. Steyer; Ingo Gregor; Christos Nardis; Ulrike Winkler; Susanne Köhler; Alejandro Restrepo; Wiebke Möbius; Hauke B. Werner; Klaus-Armin Nave; Johannes Hirrlinger

    In several neurodegenerative disorders, axonal pathology may originate from impaired oligodendrocyte-to-axon support of energy substrates. We previously established transgenic mice that allow measuring axonal ATP levels in electrically active optic nerves. Here, we utilize this technique to explore axonal ATP dynamics in the Plpnull/y mouse model of spastic paraplegia. Optic nerves from Plpnull/y mice

    更新日期:2020-11-17
  • Find and fuse: Unsolved mysteries in sperm–egg recognition
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Enrica Bianchi; Gavin J. Wright

    Sexual reproduction is such a successful way of creating progeny with subtle genetic variations that the vast majority of eukaryotic species use it. In mammals, it involves the formation of highly specialised cells: the sperm in males and the egg in females, each carrying the genetic inheritance of an individual. The interaction of sperm and egg culminates with the fusion of their cell membranes, triggering

    更新日期:2020-11-15
  • Nucleotide de novo synthesis increases breast cancer stemness and metastasis via cGMP-PKG-MAPK signaling pathway
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Yajing Lv; Xiaoshuang Wang; Xiaoyu Li; Guangwei Xu; Yuting Bai; Jiayi Wu; Yongjun Piao; Yi Shi; Rong Xiang; Longlong Wang

    Metabolic reprogramming to fulfill the biosynthetic and bioenergetic demands of cancer cells has aroused great interest in recent years. However, metabolic reprogramming for cancer metastasis has not been well elucidated. Here, we screened a subpopulation of breast cancer cells with highly metastatic capacity to the lung in mice and investigated the metabolic alternations by analyzing the metabolome

    更新日期:2020-11-15
  • The M-current works in tandem with the persistent sodium current to set the speed of locomotion
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Jérémy Verneuil; Cécile Brocard; Virginie Trouplin; Laurent Villard; Julie Peyronnet-Roux; Frédéric Brocard

    The central pattern generator (CPG) for locomotion is a set of pacemaker neurons endowed with inherent bursting driven by the persistent sodium current (INaP). How they proceed to regulate the locomotor rhythm remained unknown. Here, in neonatal rodents, we identified a persistent potassium current critical in regulating pacemakers and locomotion speed. This current recapitulates features of the M-current

    更新日期:2020-11-15
  • Unifying the mechanism of mitotic exit control in a spatiotemporal logical model
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-11-12
    Rowan S. M. Howell; Cinzia Klemm; Peter H. Thorpe; Attila Csikász-Nagy

    The transition from mitosis into the first gap phase of the cell cycle in budding yeast is controlled by the Mitotic Exit Network (MEN). The network interprets spatiotemporal cues about the progression of mitosis and ensures that release of Cdc14 phosphatase occurs only after completion of key mitotic events. The MEN has been studied intensively; however, a unified understanding of how localisation

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • Computational imaging during video game playing shows dynamic synchronization of cortical and subcortical networks of emotions
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-11-12
    Joana Leitão; Ben Meuleman; Dimitri Van De Ville; Patrik Vuilleumier

    Emotions are multifaceted phenomena affecting mind, body, and behavior. Previous studies sought to link particular emotion categories (e.g., fear) or dimensions (e.g., valence) to specific brain substrates but generally found distributed and overlapping activation patterns across various emotions. In contrast, distributed patterns accord with multi-componential theories whereby emotions emerge from

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • Superspreading events in the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2: Opportunities for interventions and control
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-11-12
    Benjamin M. Althouse; Edward A. Wenger; Joel C. Miller; Samuel V. Scarpino; Antoine Allard; Laurent Hébert-Dufresne; Hao Hu

    Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease, has moved rapidly around the globe, infecting millions and killing hundreds of thousands. The basic reproduction number, which has been widely used—appropriately and less appropriately—to characterize the transmissibility of the virus, hides the fact that transmission

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • NOX5-induced uncoupling of endothelial NO synthase is a causal mechanism and theragnostic target of an age-related hypertension endotype
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-11-10
    Mahmoud H. Elbatreek; Sepideh Sadegh; Elisa Anastasi; Emre Guney; Cristian Nogales; Tim Kacprowski; Ahmed A. Hassan; Andreas Teubner; Po-Hsun Huang; Chien-Yi Hsu; Paul M. H. Schiffers; Ger M. Janssen; Pamela W. M. Kleikers; Anil Wipat; Jan Baumbach; Jo G. R. De Mey; Harald H. H. W. Schmidt

    Hypertension is the most important cause of death and disability in the elderly. In 9 out of 10 cases, the molecular cause, however, is unknown. One mechanistic hypothesis involves impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation through reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Indeed, ROS forming NADPH oxidase (Nox) genes associate with hypertension, yet target validation has been negative. We re-investigate

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Temporal coding of echo spectral shape in the bat auditory cortex
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-11-10
    Silvio Macias; Kushal Bakshi; Francisco Garcia-Rosales; Julio C. Hechavarria; Michael Smotherman

    Echolocating bats rely upon spectral interference patterns in echoes to reconstruct fine details of a reflecting object’s shape. However, the acoustic modulations required to do this are extremely brief, raising questions about how their auditory cortex encodes and processes such rapid and fine spectrotemporal details. Here, we tested the hypothesis that biosonar target shape representation in the

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Monitor for COVID-19 vaccine resistance evolution during clinical trials
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-11-09
    David A. Kennedy; Andrew F. Read

    Although less common than the evolution of antimicrobial drug resistance, vaccine resistance can and has evolved. How likely is it that COVID-19 vaccines currently in development will be undermined by viral evolution? We argue that this can be determined by repurposing samples that are already being collected as part of clinical trials. Such information would be useful for prioritizing investment among

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Common ground: The foundation of interdisciplinary research on bat disease emergence
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-11-09
    Rebekah C. Kading; Tigga Kingston

    Human perturbation of natural systems is accelerating the emergence of infectious diseases, mandating integration of disease and ecological research. Bats have been associated with recent zoonoses, but our bibliometric analysis of coauthor relationships identified a separation of bat ecologists and infectious disease researchers with few cross-disciplinary relationships. Of 5,645 papers, true interdisciplinary

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • A network medicine approach to investigation and population-based validation of disease manifestations and drug repurposing for COVID-19
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-11-06
    Yadi Zhou; Yuan Hou; Jiayu Shen; Reena Mehra; Asha Kallianpur; Daniel A. Culver; Michaela U. Gack; Samar Farha; Joe Zein; Suzy Comhair; Claudio Fiocchi; Thaddeus Stappenbeck; Timothy Chan; Charis Eng; Jae U. Jung; Lara Jehi; Serpil Erzurum; Feixiong Cheng

    The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has led to unprecedented social and economic consequences. The risk of morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19 increases dramatically in the presence of coexisting medical conditions, while the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Furthermore, there are no approved therapies

    更新日期:2020-11-09
  • TOP1α, UPF1, and TTG2 regulate seed size in a parental dosage–dependent manner
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-11-06
    Chengxiang Li; Ximing Gong; Bin Zhang; Zhe Liang; Chui Eng Wong; Benjamin Yen How See; Hao Yu

    Cues of maternal and paternal origins interact to control seed development, and the underlying molecular mechanisms are still far from clear. Here, we show that TOPOISOMERASE Iα (TOP1α), UP-FRAMESHIFT SUPPRESSOR 1 (UPF1), and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA2 (TTG2) gametophytically, biparentally regulate seed size in Arabidopsis. TOP1α and UPF1 are mainly expressed in antipodal cells, and loss of their function

    更新日期:2020-11-09
  • Task-related activity in human visual cortex
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-11-06
    Zvi N. Roth; Minyoung Ryoo; Elisha P. Merriam

    The brain exhibits widespread endogenous responses in the absence of visual stimuli, even at the earliest stages of visual cortical processing. Such responses have been studied in monkeys using optical imaging with a limited field of view over visual cortex. Here, we used functional MRI (fMRI) in human participants to study the link between arousal and endogenous responses in visual cortex. The response

    更新日期:2020-11-09
  • Rational design of highly potent broad-spectrum enterovirus inhibitors targeting the nonstructural protein 2C
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-11-06
    Lisa Bauer; Roberto Manganaro; Birgit Zonsics; Daniel L. Hurdiss; Marleen Zwaagstra; Tim Donselaar; Naemi G. E. Welter; Regina G. D. M. van Kleef; Moira Lorenzo Lopez; Federica Bevilacqua; Thamidur Raman; Salvatore Ferla; Marcella Bassetto; Johan Neyts; Jeroen R. P. M. Strating; Remco H. S. Westerink; Andrea Brancale; Frank J. M. van Kuppeveld

    There is a great need for antiviral drugs to treat enterovirus (EV) and rhinovirus (RV) infections, which can be severe and occasionally life-threatening. The conserved nonstructural protein 2C, which is an AAA+ ATPase, is a promising target for drug development. Here, we present a structure-activity relationship study of a previously identified compound that targets the 2C protein of EV-A71 and several

    更新日期:2020-11-09
  • SiCTeC: An inexpensive, easily assembled Peltier device for rapid temperature shifting during single-cell imaging
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-11-06
    Benjamin D. Knapp; Lillian Zhu; Kerwyn Casey Huang

    Single-cell imaging, combined with recent advances in image analysis and microfluidic technologies, have enabled fundamental discoveries of cellular responses to chemical perturbations that are often obscured by traditional liquid-culture experiments. Temperature is an environmental variable well known to impact growth and to elicit specific stress responses at extreme values; it is often used as a

    更新日期:2020-11-09
  • The noncoding small RNA SsrA is released by Vibrio fischeri and modulates critical host responses
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-11-03
    Silvia Moriano-Gutierrez; Clotilde Bongrand; Tara Essock-Burns; Leo Wu; Margaret J. McFall-Ngai; Edward G. Ruby

    The regulatory noncoding small RNAs (sRNAs) of bacteria are key elements influencing gene expression; however, there has been little evidence that beneficial bacteria use these molecules to communicate with their animal hosts. We report here that the bacterial sRNA SsrA plays an essential role in the light-organ symbiosis between Vibrio fischeri and the squid Euprymna scolopes. The symbionts load SsrA

    更新日期:2020-11-04
  • Hippocampal neurons with stable excitatory connectivity become part of neuronal representations
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-11-03
    Tim P. Castello-Waldow; Ghabiba Weston; Alessandro F. Ulivi; Alireza Chenani; Yonatan Loewenstein; Alon Chen; Alessio Attardo

    Experiences are represented in the brain by patterns of neuronal activity. Ensembles of neurons representing experience undergo activity-dependent plasticity and are important for learning and recall. They are thus considered cellular engrams of memory. Yet, the cellular events that bias neurons to become part of a neuronal representation are largely unknown. In rodents, turnover of structural connectivity

    更新日期:2020-11-04
  • Independent representations of self-motion and object location in barrel cortex output
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-11-03
    Jonathan Andrew Cheung; Phillip Maire; Jinho Kim; Kiana Lee; Garrett Flynn; Samuel Andrew Hires

    During active tactile exploration, the dynamic patterns of touch are transduced to electrical signals and transformed by the brain into a mental representation of the object under investigation. This transformation from sensation to perception is thought to be a major function of the mammalian cortex. In primary somatosensory cortex (S1) of mice, layer 5 (L5) pyramidal neurons are major outputs to

    更新日期:2020-11-04
  • Aequorea’s secrets revealed: New fluorescent proteins with unique properties for bioimaging and biosensing
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Gerard G. Lambert; Hadrien Depernet; Guillaume Gotthard; Darrin T. Schultz; Isabelle Navizet; Talley Lambert; Stephen R. Adams; Albertina Torreblanca-Zanca; Meihua Chu; Daphne S. Bindels; Vincent Levesque; Jennifer Nero Moffatt; Anya Salih; Antoine Royant; Nathan C. Shaner

    Using mRNA sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly, we identified, cloned, and characterized 9 previously undiscovered fluorescent protein (FP) homologs from Aequorea victoria and a related Aequorea species, with most sequences highly divergent from A. victoria green fluorescent protein (avGFP). Among these FPs are the brightest green fluorescent protein (GFP) homolog yet characterized and a

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • Ribosome biogenesis is a downstream effector of the oncogenic U2AF1-S34F mutation
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Abdalla Akef; Kathy McGraw; Steven D. Cappell; Daniel R. Larson

    U2 Small Nuclear RNA Auxiliary Factor 1 (U2AF1) forms a heterodimeric complex with U2AF2 that is primarily responsible for 3ʹ splice site selection. U2AF1 mutations have been identified in most cancers but are prevalent in Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) and Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), and the most common mutation is a missense substitution of serine-34 to phenylalanine (S34F). The U2AF heterodimer

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • Membrane progesterone receptor induces meiosis in Xenopus oocytes through endocytosis into signaling endosomes and interaction with APPL1 and Akt2
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Nancy Nader; Maya Dib; Rawad Hodeify; Raphael Courjaret; Asha Elmi; Ayat S. Hammad; Raja Dey; Xin-Yun Huang; Khaled Machaca

    The steroid hormone progesterone (P4) mediates many physiological processes through either nuclear receptors that modulate gene expression or membrane P4 receptors (mPRs) that mediate nongenomic signaling. mPR signaling remains poorly understood. Here we show that the topology of mPRβ is similar to adiponectin receptors and opposite to that of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Using Xenopus oocyte

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • Integrating when and what information in the left parietal lobule allows language rule generalization
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Joan Orpella; Pablo Ripollés; Manuela Ruzzoli; Julià L. Amengual; Alicia Callejas; Anna Martinez-Alvarez; Salvador Soto-Faraco; Ruth de Diego-Balaguer

    A crucial aspect when learning a language is discovering the rules that govern how words are combined in order to convey meanings. Because rules are characterized by sequential co-occurrences between elements (e.g., “These cupcakes are unbelievable”), tracking the statistical relationships between these elements is fundamental. However, purely bottom-up statistical learning alone cannot fully account

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • Many, but not all, lineage-specific genes can be explained by homology detection failure
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Caroline M. Weisman; Andrew W. Murray; Sean R. Eddy

    Genes for which homologs can be detected only in a limited group of evolutionarily related species, called “lineage-specific genes,” are pervasive: Essentially every lineage has them, and they often comprise a sizable fraction of the group’s total genes. Lineage-specific genes are often interpreted as “novel” genes, representing genetic novelty born anew within that lineage. Here, we develop a simple

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • Differences in structure and hibernation mechanism highlight diversification of the microsporidian ribosome
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-10-30
    Kai Ehrenbolger; Nathan Jespersen; Himanshu Sharma; Yuliya Y. Sokolova; Yuri S. Tokarev; Charles R. Vossbrinck; Jonas Barandun

    Assembling and powering ribosomes are energy-intensive processes requiring fine-tuned cellular control mechanisms. In organisms operating under strict nutrient limitations, such as pathogenic microsporidia, conservation of energy via ribosomal hibernation and recycling is critical. The mechanisms by which hibernation is achieved in microsporidia, however, remain poorly understood. Here, we present

    更新日期:2020-11-02
  • Multiple systems in macaques for tracking prediction errors and other types of surprise
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-10-30
    Jan Grohn; Urs Schüffelgen; Franz-Xaver Neubert; Alessandro Bongioanni; Lennart Verhagen; Jerome Sallet; Nils Kolling; Matthew F. S. Rushworth

    Animals learn from the past to make predictions. These predictions are adjusted after prediction errors (PEs), i.e., after surprising events. Generally, most reward PE models learn the average expected amount of reward. However, here we demonstrate the existence of distinct mechanisms for detecting other types of surprising events. Six macaques learned to respond to visual stimuli to receive varying

    更新日期:2020-11-02
  • Expanding conservation culturomics and iEcology from terrestrial to aquatic realms
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-10-29
    Ivan Jarić; Uri Roll; Robert Arlinghaus; Jonathan Belmaker; Yan Chen; Victor China; Karel Douda; Franz Essl; Sonja C. Jähnig; Jonathan M. Jeschke; Gregor Kalinkat; Lukáš Kalous; Richard Ladle; Robert J. Lennox; Rui Rosa; Valerio Sbragaglia; Kate Sherren; Marek Šmejkal; Andrea Soriano-Redondo; Allan T. Souza; Christian Wolter; Ricardo A. Correia

    The ongoing digital revolution in the age of big data is opening new research opportunities. Culturomics and iEcology, two emerging research areas based on the analysis of online data resources, can provide novel scientific insights and inform conservation and management efforts. To date, culturomics and iEcology have been applied primarily in the terrestrial realm. Here, we advocate for expanding

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Modeling flexible behavior in childhood to adulthood shows age-dependent learning mechanisms and less optimal learning in autism in each age group
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-10-27
    Daisy Crawley; Lei Zhang; Emily J. H. Jones; Jumana Ahmad; Bethany Oakley; Antonia San José Cáceres; Tony Charman; Jan K. Buitelaar; Declan G. M. Murphy; Christopher Chatham; Hanneke den Ouden; Eva Loth; the EU-AIMS LEAP group

    Flexible behavior is critical for everyday decision-making and has been implicated in restricted, repetitive behaviors (RRB) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, how flexible behavior changes developmentally in ASD remains largely unknown. Here, we used a developmental approach and examined flexible behavior on a probabilistic reversal learning task in 572 children, adolescents, and adults (ASD

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Sequence heterochrony led to a gain of functionality in an immature stage of the central complex: A fly–beetle insight
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    Max S. Farnworth; Kolja N. Eckermann; Gregor Bucher

    Animal behavior is guided by the brain. Therefore, adaptations of brain structure and function are essential for animal survival, and each species differs in such adaptations. The brain of one individual may even differ between life stages, for instance, as adaptation to the divergent needs of larval and adult life of holometabolous insects. All such differences emerge during development, but the cellular

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Entraining neurons via noninvasive electric stimulation improves cognition
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-10-22
    Mircea van der Plas; Simon Hanslmayr

    Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS) is a method that injects rhythmic currents into the human brain via electrodes attached to the scalp of a participant. This technique allows researchers to control naturally occurring brain rhythms and study their causal relevance for cognition. Recent findings, however, cast doubts on the effectiveness of tACS to stimulate the brain and its mode

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Interphase-arrested Drosophila embryos activate zygotic gene expression and initiate mid-blastula transition events at a low nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-10-22
    Isaac J. T. Strong; Xiaoyun Lei; Fang Chen; Kai Yuan; Patrick H. O’Farrell

    Externally deposited eggs begin development with an immense cytoplasm and a single overwhelmed nucleus. Rapid mitotic cycles restore normality as the ratio of nuclei to cytoplasm (N/C) increases. A threshold N/C has been widely proposed to activate zygotic genome transcription and onset of morphogenesis at the mid-blastula transition (MBT). To test whether a threshold N/C is required for these events

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Neural speech restoration at the cocktail party: Auditory cortex recovers masked speech of both attended and ignored speakers
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-10-22
    Christian Brodbeck; Alex Jiao; L. Elliot Hong; Jonathan Z. Simon

    Humans are remarkably skilled at listening to one speaker out of an acoustic mixture of several speech sources. Two speakers are easily segregated, even without binaural cues, but the neural mechanisms underlying this ability are not well understood. One possibility is that early cortical processing performs a spectrotemporal decomposition of the acoustic mixture, allowing the attended speech to be

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Frequency-dependent selection can forecast evolution in Streptococcus pneumoniae
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-10-22
    Taj Azarian; Pamela P. Martinez; Brian J. Arnold; Xueting Qiu; Lindsay R. Grant; Jukka Corander; Christophe Fraser; Nicholas J. Croucher; Laura L. Hammitt; Raymond Reid; Mathuram Santosham; Robert C. Weatherholtz; Stephen D. Bentley; Katherine L. O’Brien; Marc Lipsitch; William P. Hanage

    Predicting how pathogen populations will change over time is challenging. Such has been the case with Streptococcus pneumoniae, an important human pathogen, and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), which target only a fraction of the strains in the population. Here, we use the frequencies of accessory genes to predict changes in the pneumococcal population after vaccination, hypothesizing that

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Neurobiological origins of individual differences in mathematical ability
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-10-22
    Michael A. Skeide; Katharina Wehrmann; Zahra Emami; Holger Kirsten; Annette M. Hartmann; Dan Rujescu; Legascreen Consortium

    Mathematical ability is heritable and related to several genes expressing proteins in the brain. It is unknown, however, which intermediate neural phenotypes could explain how these genes relate to mathematical ability. Here, we examined genetic effects on cerebral cortical volume of 3–6-year-old children without mathematical training to predict mathematical ability in school at 7–9 years of age. To

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Gradient of tactile properties in the rat whisker pad
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-10-22
    Erez Gugig; Hariom Sharma; Rony Azouz

    The array of vibrissae on a rat’s face is the first stage in a high-resolution tactile sensing system. Progressing from rostral to caudal in any vibrissae row results in an increase in whisker length and thickness. This may, in turn, provide a systematic map of separate tactile channels governed by the mechanical properties of the whiskers. To examine whether this map is expressed in a location-dependent

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Visual detection is locked to the internal dynamics of cortico-motor control
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-10-20
    Alice Tomassini; Eric Maris; Pauline Hilt; Luciano Fadiga; Alessandro D’Ausilio

    Movements overtly sample sensory information, making sensory analysis an active-sensing process. In this study, we show that visual information sampling is not just locked to the (overt) movement dynamics but to the internal (covert) dynamics of cortico-motor control. We asked human participants to perform continuous isometric contraction while detecting unrelated and unpredictable near-threshold visual

    更新日期:2020-10-20
  • A novel function for CDK2 activity at meiotic crossover sites
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Nathan Palmer; S. Zakiah A. Talib; Priti Singh; Christine M. F. Goh; Kui Liu; John C. Schimenti; Philipp Kaldis

    Genetic diversity in offspring is induced by meiotic recombination, which is initiated between homologs at >200 sites originating from meiotic double-strand breaks (DSBs). Of this initial pool, only 1–2 DSBs per homolog pair will be designated to form meiotic crossovers (COs), where reciprocal genetic exchange occurs between parental chromosomes. Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) is known to localize

    更新日期:2020-10-19
  • The COVID-19 response illustrates that traditional academic reward structures and metrics do not reflect crucial contributions to modern science
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-10-16
    Adam J. Kucharski; Sebastian Funk; Rosalind M. Eggo

    The COVID-19 pandemic has motivated many open and collaborative analytical research projects with real-world impact. However, despite their value, such activities are generally overlooked by traditional academic metrics. Science is ultimately improved by analytical work, whether ensuring reproducible and well-documented code to accompany papers, developing and maintaining flexible tools, sharing and

    更新日期:2020-10-17
  • Adaptive evolution shapes the present-day distribution of the thermal sensitivity of population growth rate
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-10-16
    Dimitrios—Georgios Kontopoulos; Thomas P. Smith; Timothy G. Barraclough; Samraat Pawar

    Developing a thorough understanding of how ectotherm physiology adapts to different thermal environments is of crucial importance, especially in the face of global climate change. A key aspect of an organism’s thermal performance curve (TPC)—the relationship between fitness-related trait performance and temperature—is its thermal sensitivity, i.e., the rate at which trait values increase with temperature

    更新日期:2020-10-17
  • A functional context for heterogeneity of the circadian clock in cells
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Martha Merrow; Mary Harrington

    Characterization of circadian systems at the organism level—a top-down approach—has led to definition of unifying properties, a hallmark of the science of chronobiology. The next challenge is to use a bottom-up approach to show how the molecular workings of the cellular circadian clock work as building blocks of those properties. We review new studies, including a recently published PLOS Biology paper

    更新日期:2020-10-14
  • High-throughput mapping of the phage resistance landscape in E. coli
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-10-13
    Vivek K. Mutalik; Benjamin A. Adler; Harneet S. Rishi; Denish Piya; Crystal Zhong; Britt Koskella; Elizabeth M. Kutter; Richard Calendar; Pavel S. Novichkov; Morgan N. Price; Adam M. Deutschbauer; Adam P. Arkin

    Bacteriophages (phages) are critical players in the dynamics and function of microbial communities and drive processes as diverse as global biogeochemical cycles and human health. Phages tend to be predators finely tuned to attack specific hosts, even down to the strain level, which in turn defend themselves using an array of mechanisms. However, to date, efforts to rapidly and comprehensively identify

    更新日期:2020-10-13
  • Neural activity during a simple reaching task in macaques is counter to gating and rebound in basal ganglia–thalamic communication
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-10-13
    Bettina C. Schwab; Daisuke Kase; Andrew Zimnik; Robert Rosenbaum; Marcello G. Codianni; Jonathan E. Rubin; Robert S. Turner

    Task-related activity in the ventral thalamus, a major target of basal ganglia output, is often assumed to be permitted or triggered by changes in basal ganglia activity through gating- or rebound-like mechanisms. To test those hypotheses, we sampled single-unit activity from connected basal ganglia output and thalamic nuclei (globus pallidus-internus [GPi] and ventrolateral anterior nucleus [VLa])

    更新日期:2020-10-13
  • Optimising risk-based surveillance for early detection of invasive plant pathogens
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-10-12
    Alexander J. Mastin; Timothy R. Gottwald; Frank van den Bosch; Nik J. Cunniffe; Stephen Parnell

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) of plants continue to devastate ecosystems and livelihoods worldwide. Effective management requires surveillance to detect epidemics at an early stage. However, despite the increasing use of risk-based surveillance programs in plant health, it remains unclear how best to target surveillance resources to achieve this. We combine a spatially explicit model of pathogen

    更新日期:2020-10-12
  • Pharmacological evidence for the implication of noradrenaline in effort
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-10-12
    Nicolas Borderies; Pauline Bornert; Sophie Gilardeau; Sebastien Bouret

    The trade-off between effort and reward is one of the main determinants of behavior, and its alteration is at the heart of major disorders such as depression or Parkinson’s disease. Monoaminergic neuromodulators are thought to play a key role in this trade-off, but their relative contribution remains unclear. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) performed a choice task requiring a trade-off between the

    更新日期:2020-10-12
  • Network analysis of transcriptomic diversity amongst resident tissue macrophages and dendritic cells in the mouse mononuclear phagocyte system
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-10-08
    Kim M. Summers; Stephen J. Bush; David A. Hume

    The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) is a family of cells including progenitors, circulating blood monocytes, resident tissue macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs) present in every tissue in the body. To test the relationships between markers and transcriptomic diversity in the MPS, we collected from National Center for Biotechnology Information Gene Expression Omnibus (NCBI-GEO) a total of 466

    更新日期:2020-10-11
  • Detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA by multiplex RT-qPCR
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Eriko Kudo; Benjamin Israelow; Chantal B. F. Vogels; Peiwen Lu; Anne L. Wyllie; Maria Tokuyama; Arvind Venkataraman; Doug E. Brackney; Isabel M. Ott; Mary E. Petrone; Rebecca Earnest; Sarah Lapidus; M. Catherine Muenker; Adam J. Moore; Arnau Casanovas-Massana; Yale IMPACT Research Team; Saad B. Omer; Charles S. Dela Cruz; Shelli F. Farhadian; Albert I. Ko; Nathan D. Grubaugh; Akiko Iwasaki

    The current quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) assay recommended for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing in the United States requires analysis of 3 genomic targets per sample: 2 viral and 1 host. To simplify testing and reduce the volume of required reagents, we devised a multiplex RT-qPCR assay to detect SARS-CoV-2 in a single reaction. We used existing

    更新日期:2020-10-07
  • Notch dimerization and gene dosage are important for normal heart development, intestinal stem cell maintenance, and splenic marginal zone B-cell homeostasis during mite infestation
    PLOS Biol. (IF 7.076) Pub Date : 2020-10-05
    Francis M. Kobia; Kristina Preusse; Quanhui Dai; Nicholas Weaver; Matthew R. Hass; Praneet Chaturvedi; Sarah J. Stein; Warren S. Pear; Zhenyu Yuan; Rhett A. Kovall; Yi Kuang; Natanel Eafergen; David Sprinzak; Brian Gebelein; Eric W. Brunskill; Raphael Kopan

    Cooperative DNA binding is a key feature of transcriptional regulation. Here we examined the role of cooperativity in Notch signaling by CRISPR-mediated engineering of mice in which neither Notch1 nor Notch2 can homo- or heterodimerize, essential for cooperative binding to sequence-paired sites (SPS) located near many Notch-re