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Generalized regimes for the formation of stratified regions during freezing of multi-component mixtures
Applied Physics Reviews ( IF 12.750 ) Pub Date : 2019-12-09 , DOI: 10.1063/1.5125852
Virkeshwar Kumar, Atul Srivastava, Shyamprasad Karagadde

Stratified double-diffusive layers (DDLs) in fluidic mixtures such as oceans, magma, and latte typically contain alternating low gradient mixing regions separated by high gradient interfaces. The prior knowledge is restricted to the formation of layers, but the existence of DDLs, under prolonged freezing conditions, as well as in multicomponent mixtures, is not yet understood well. In this work, a new observation depicting the existence of a life-cycle for a double-diffusive layer is revealed with the help of real-time observations of unidirectional freezing of multicomponent mixtures. The observations showed a systematic occurrence of the onset, formation, disappearance, and recurrence of the DDLs when freezing conditions prevailed for longer durations of time. The results also include first-ever observations of compositional stratification in a ternary mixture, which depends on the regimes and nature of buoyant convection. The ternary experiments also demonstrated the formation of DDLs much closer to the solidifying mush, which shed light on retaining the stratified layers in the frozen state. Furthermore, the hypothesized life-cycle of the DDL was mapped to the regimes of occurrence and the nonexistence of DDLs in the mixture phase diagrams of binary and ternary systems, with a threshold composition difference and the corresponding critical Rayleigh number. This distinction of the regimes on the phase diagram shows a striking correlation with a reduced ternary phase diagram of igneous rocks, thus providing a suitable basis for explaining the formation of layered rocks.
更新日期:2019-12-31

 

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