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A Systematic Review of Studies Reporting Data-Driven Cognitive Subtypes across the Psychosis Spectrum.
Neuropsychology Review ( IF 5.739 ) Pub Date : 2019-12-18 , DOI: 10.1007/s11065-019-09422-7
Melissa J Green,Leah Girshkin,Kyle Kremerskothen,Oliver Watkeys,Yann Quidé

The delineation of cognitive subtypes of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may offer a means of determining shared genetic markers and neuropathology among individuals with these conditions. We systematically reviewed the evidence from published studies reporting the use of data-driven (i.e., unsupervised) clustering methods to delineate cognitive subtypes among adults diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. We reviewed 24 studies in total, contributing data to 13 analyses of schizophrenia spectrum patients, 8 analyses of bipolar disorder, and 5 analyses of mixed samples of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder participants. Studies of bipolar disorder most consistently revealed a 3-cluster solution, comprising a subgroup with 'near-normal' (cognitively spared) cognition and two other subgroups demonstrating graded deficits across cognitive domains. In contrast, there was no clear consensus regarding the number of cognitive subtypes among studies of cognitive subtypes in schizophrenia, while four of the five studies of mixed diagnostic groups reported a 4-cluster solution. Common to all cluster solutions was a severe cognitive deficit subtype with cognitive impairments of moderate to large effect size relative to healthy controls. Our review highlights several key factors (e.g., symptom profile, sample size, statistical procedures, and cognitive domains examined) that may influence the results of data-driven clustering methods, and which were largely inconsistent across the studies reviewed. This synthesis of findings suggests caution should be exercised when interpreting the utility of particular cognitive subtypes for biological investigation, and demonstrates much heterogeneity among studies using unsupervised clustering approaches to cognitive subtyping within and across the psychosis spectrum.
更新日期:2020-04-22

 

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