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Directional Auger and elastic peak electron spectroscopies: Versatile methods to reveal near-surface crystal structure
Surface Science Reports ( IF 14.824 ) Pub Date : 2019-05-21 , DOI: 10.1016/j.surfrep.2019.05.002
I. Morawski, M. Nowicki

A review of directional Auger (DAES) and directional elastic peak electron spectroscopy (DEPES) for investigations of the short range order within a near-surface region, similar to XPD, is presented. The application of these techniques requires nothing more than a retarding field analyser (RFA), commonly applied for the observation of low energy electron diffraction (LEED) patterns and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) measurements, for in depth structural investigations associated with the short range order within a near-surface region. The physical principles, experimental set-up, as well as examples of experimental and theoretical results, the latter obtained with the use of single scattering cluster (SSC) and multiple scattering (MS) calculations adopted for primary electron plane wave, are shown. The scattering geometry and details concerning the scattering events of primary electrons in crystalline solids described by SSC and MS approximations are presented. Furthermore, some issues related to computation parameters such as: maximal scattering order, the maximum radius around the emitter, the number of cluster layers, and the averaging range considered in the calculations are also addressed. The presentation of the data obtained for clean and covered substrates in the form of polar profiles and stereographic intensity distributions enables the straightforward identification of the crystalline structure within the first few sample layers. The data presented in the form of anisotropy maps enable the identification of interatomic axes formed between substrate and adsorbate atoms at the interface. The contribution of different sample layers to the final DEPES signal is discussed. The comparison of DAES results with those obtained by means of x-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD) is also presented. The qualitative and quantitative data analysis, the latter achieved by the comparison of experimental data with theoretical results by means of an R-factor analysis, is shown. The application of DAES and DEPES enables the characterization of the crystalline structure of adsorption systems from one monolayer (1 ML) up to thicknesses of the adsorbate limited by the inelastic mean free path of the registered electrons. Exemplary results are presented for adsorption systems, where the adsorbate and the substrate crystallize in the same (Ag/Cu, Pt/Cu, Cu/Pt) and in different (Cu/Ru) structures. The influence of the large unit cell of graphene formed on Ru(0001) on measured DEPES intensities is also shown. The detailed analysis of these results enables an identification of the short range order of atoms within the near-surface region, of adsorbate domains exhibiting different orientation with respect to the crystalline substrate, the determination of the domain populations, the relaxation and termination of the surface, the specific adsorption sites of adsorbed atoms, as well as the positions of atoms within a unit cell and their bond lengths (e.g. O/Ru(101¯0)).
更新日期:2019-05-21

 

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