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Fifty million years of beetle evolution along the Antarctic Polar Front [Evolution]
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America ( IF 9.412 ) Pub Date : 2021-06-15 , DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2017384118
Helena P. Baird, Seunggwan Shin, Rolf G. Oberprieler, Maurice Hullé, Philippe Vernon, Katherine L. Moon, Richard H. Adams, Duane D. McKenna, Steven L. Chown

Global cooling and glacial–interglacial cycles since Antarctica’s isolation have been responsible for the diversification of the region’s marine fauna. By contrast, these same Earth system processes are thought to have played little role terrestrially, other than driving widespread extinctions. Here, we show that on islands along the Antarctic Polar Front, paleoclimatic processes have been key to diversification of one of the world’s most geographically isolated and unique groups of herbivorous beetles—Ectemnorhinini weevils. Combining phylogenomic, phylogenetic, and phylogeographic approaches, we demonstrate that these weevils colonized the sub-Antarctic islands from Africa at least 50 Ma ago and repeatedly dispersed among them. As the climate cooled from the mid-Miocene, diversification of the beetles accelerated, resulting in two species-rich clades. One of these clades specialized to feed on cryptogams, typical of the polar habitats that came to prevail under Miocene conditions yet remarkable as a food source for any beetle. This clade’s most unusual representative is a marine weevil currently undergoing further speciation. The other clade retained the more common weevil habit of feeding on angiosperms, which likely survived glaciation in isolated refugia. Diversification of Ectemnorhinini weevils occurred in synchrony with many other Antarctic radiations, including penguins and notothenioid fishes, and coincided with major environmental changes. Our results thus indicate that geo-climatically driven diversification has progressed similarly for Antarctic marine and terrestrial organisms since the Miocene, potentially constituting a general biodiversity paradigm that should be sought broadly for the region’s taxa.



中文翻译:

五千万年的甲虫沿南极极地前缘进化[进化]

自南极洲与世隔绝以来,全球变冷和冰期-间冰期循环一直是该地区海洋动物群多样化的原因。相比之下,这些相同的地球系统过程被认为在陆地上几乎没有发挥作用,除了推动大范围的灭绝。在这里,我们展示了在南极极地锋沿线的岛屿上,古气候过程是世界上地理上最孤立和独特的食草甲虫群之一——Ectemnorhinini 象鼻虫多样化的关键。结合系统发育、系统发育和系统地理学方法,我们证明这些象鼻虫至少在 50 Ma 前从非洲殖民亚南极岛屿,并反复分散在其中。随着气候从中新世中期开始变冷,甲虫的多样化加速,产生了两个物种丰富的进化枝。其中一个进化枝专门以隐孢子虫为食,这是在中新世条件下盛行的极地栖息地的典型特征,但作为任何甲虫的食物来源都非常出色。这个分支最不寻常的代表是目前正在进行进一步物种形成的海洋象鼻虫。另一个进化枝保留了以被子植物为食的更常见的象鼻虫习性,它们很可能在孤立的避难所中幸存下来。Ectemnorhinini 象鼻虫的多样化与许多其他南极辐射同步发生,包括企鹅和 notothenioid 鱼,并与主要的环境变化同时发生。因此,我们的结果表明,自中新世以来,南极海洋和陆地生物的地理气候驱动的多样化取得了类似的进展,

更新日期:2021-06-10
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