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Perceptions of control influence feelings of boredom.
Frontiers In Psychology ( IF 2.067 ) Pub Date : 2021-06-10 , DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.687623
James Danckert, Andriy A. Struk, Abigail A. Scholer

Conditions of low and high perceived control often lead to boredom, albeit for different reasons. Whereas high perceived control may be experienced as boring because the situation lacks challenge, low perceived control may be experienced as boring because the situation precludes effective engagement. In two experiments we test this proposed quadratic relationship. In the first experiment we had participants play different versions of the children’s game ‘rock-paper-scissors’ in which they arbitrarily won (intended to maximize feelings of control) or lost (to induce feelings of low control). Despite having only dichotomous conditions, participants reported experiencing a broad range of levels of perceived control. Consistent with our predictions, boredom was highest at low and high levels of perceived control (i.e., a quadratic relation between perceived control and felt boredom). Experiment 2 tested the notion that the mere prospect of gaining control may mitigate boredom. Participants given to believe (erroneously) that they could gain control over the game of rock, paper, scissors were less bored than those who believed there was no possibility of exerting control. This suggests that beliefs concerning prospective control, rather than a given level of perceived control per se, may predict engagement and boredom.

中文翻译:

控制感会影响无聊感。

尽管出于不同的原因,低感知控制和高感知控制的条件通常会导致无聊。高感知控制可能会因为缺乏挑战而被体验为无聊,而低感知控制可能会被体验为无聊,因为这种情况排除了有效的参与。在两个实验中,我们测试了这个提出的二次关系。在第一个实验中,我们让参与者玩不同版本的儿童游戏“剪刀石头布”,在这些游戏中,他们任意获胜(旨在最大化控制感)或输掉(以诱发低控制感)。尽管只有二分条件,但参与者报告说他们经历了广泛的感知控制水平。与我们的预测一致,在感知控制的低水平和高水平(即,感知控制和感到无聊之间的二次关系)。实验 2 检验了仅仅获得控制权的前景就可以减轻无聊的观念。被给予(错误地)相信他们可以控制石头、纸、剪刀游戏的参与者比那些认为不可能施加控制的人更无聊。这表明,关于预期控制的信念,而不是给定的感知控制水平本身,可以预测参与和无聊。
更新日期:2021-06-10
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