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“Das eigentliche Problem vom Menschen”: Debt, (Ac)Countability, and the Financialization of Wildlife Conservation
The Germanic Review: Literature, Culture, Theory Pub Date : 2021-06-10 , DOI: 10.1080/00168890.2021.1897506
Kári Driscoll

Abstract

In 2019, a new strategy in wildlife conservation was announced: so-called “rhino impact bonds,” designed to support the conservation of African black rhinos, with the ultimate aim of establishing a global “conservation debt market.” This essay takes this development in the financialization of wildlife conservation as an object lesson in the mutual imbrication of guilt, debt, and the (non)human in the age of the Anthropocene. To this end, it traces a theoretical trajectory that explicitly frames the figure of “Man” in terms of Schuld, starting with Nietzsche’s Genealogy of Morals. The essay takes Nietzsche’s “sovereign individual” to refer not to the human species as a whole but rather a specific “genre” of the human, namely what Sylvia Wynter calls homo oeconomicus. In “overrepresenting” himself as the paradigmatic human, this figure has established capital accumulation as the goal of all human life. From here, the essay turns to Walter Benjamin’s characterization of capitalism as a religion whose ultimate aim is not salvation but universal debt/guilt, and finally to Adorno’s account of nature conservation as domination. The rhino bonds represent the logical consequence of this trajectory, namely the expansion of the principle of universal debt to the entire natural world.



中文翻译:

“Das eigentliche Problem vom Menschen”:债务、(Ac)可数性和野生动物保护的金融化

摘要

2019 年,宣布了一项野生动物保护新战略:所谓的“犀牛影响债券”,旨在支持非洲黑犀牛的保护,最终目标是建立全球“保护债务市场”。本文将野生动物保护金融化的这一发展作为人类世时代内疚、债务和(非)人类相互交织的客观教训。为此,它从尼采的《道德谱系》开始,追溯了一条理论轨迹,该轨迹明确地根据舒尔德来构建“人”的形象。这篇文章认为尼采的“主权个体”不是指整个人类物种,而是指人类的一个特定“流派”,即西尔维娅·温特 (Sylvia Wynter) 所说的homo oeconomicus. 在将自己“过度代表”为典型的人类时,这个人物将资本积累确立为所有人类生活的目标。从这里开始,本文转向沃尔特·本雅明 (Walter Benjamin) 将资本主义描述为一种宗教,其最终目标不是拯救而是普遍的债务/内疚,最后转向阿多诺 (Adorno) 将自然保护视为统治的描述。犀牛债券代表了这一轨迹的逻辑结果,即将普遍债务原则扩展到整个自然世界。

更新日期:2021-06-10
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