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The genomes of ancient date palms germinated from 2,000 y old seeds [Evolution]
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America ( IF 9.412 ) Pub Date : 2021-05-11 , DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2025337118
Muriel Gros-Balthazard, Jonathan M. Flowers, Khaled M. Hazzouri, Sylvie Ferrand, Frédérique Aberlenc, Sarah Sallon, Michael D. Purugganan

Seven date palm seeds (Phoenix dactylifera L.), radiocarbon dated from the fourth century BCE to the second century CE, were recovered from archaeological sites in the Southern Levant and germinated to yield viable plants. We conducted whole-genome sequencing of these germinated ancient samples and used single-nucleotide polymorphism data to examine the genetics of these previously extinct Judean date palms. We find that the oldest seeds from the fourth to first century BCE are related to modern West Asian date varieties, but later material from the second century BCE to second century CE showed increasing genetic affinities to present-day North African date palms. Population genomic analysis reveals that by ∼2,400 to 2,000 y ago, the P. dactylifera gene pool in the Eastern Mediterranean already contained introgressed segments from the Cretan palm Phoenix theophrasti, a crucial genetic feature of the modern North African date palm populations. The P. theophrasti introgression fraction content is generally higher in the later samples, while introgression tracts are longer in these ancient germinated date palms compared to modern North African varieties. These results provide insights into crop evolution arising from an analysis of plants originating from ancient germinated seeds and demonstrate what can be accomplished with the application of a resurrection genomics approach.



中文翻译:

古老的枣椰树的基因组从2000年的古老种子中萌发[进化]

从南黎凡特的考古遗址中回收了七种枣椰子种子(Phoenix dactylifera L.),其放射性碳可追溯到公元前四世纪至公元二世纪。我们对这些发芽的古代样品进行了全基因组测序,并使用单核苷酸多态性数据检查了这些先前灭绝的朱迪枣椰树的遗传。我们发现,公元前四世纪至一世纪最古老的种子与现代西亚枣品种有关,但公元前二世纪至公元二世纪以后的材料显示出对当今北非枣椰树的遗传亲和力增强。种群基因组分析表明,在大约2,400至2,000年前,拟杆菌(P. dactylifera)东地中海的基因库已经包含克里特岛的棕榈菲尼克斯theophrasti的渗入片段,这是现代北非枣椰子种群的重要遗传特征。与现代北非品种相比,这些较晚发芽的椰枣P. theophrasti渗入部分含量通常更高,而这些渗入道的长度则更长。这些结果提供了对源自古代发芽种子的植物的分析所产生的作物进化的见解,并证明了使用复活基因组学方法可以实现的目标。

更新日期:2021-05-03
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