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An analytical gm/ID‐based harmonic distortion prediction method for multistage operational amplifiers
International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications ( IF 1.581 ) Pub Date : 2021-04-06 , DOI: 10.1002/cta.3012
Qixu Xie, Guoyong Shi

An analytical stage‐based harmonic distortion (HD) analysis method for multistage operational amplifiers (Op Amps) is developed in this work. This work contributes two fundamental methods that make the analytical HD prediction possible at the circuit level. Firstly, we propose that the traditionally used first order small‐signal transistor quantities gm (transconductance) and go (output conductance) in the gm/ID design methodology for bulk complementary metal‐oxide‐semiconductor (CMOS) technology can be extended to the higher order quantities gm(k) and go(k) ( urn:x-wiley:cta:media:cta3012:cta3012-math-0001). With proper normalization, these quantities become neutral to the device dimensions and operation currents, hence can be precharacterized by sweeping simulations and used as lookup tables. Secondly, we further develop analytical nonlinearity expressions for a set of commonly used amplifier stages, represented as the functions of the nonlinearity parameters gm(k) and go(k) of the transistors that form a stage circuit. A combination of these two fundamental methods on hierarchical nonlinearity modeling enables us to apply the existing analytical HD estimation methods for the stage‐form macromodels to predict the circuit‐level HD behavior, overcoming the need of running repeated simulations under device resizing and rebiasing. The proposed harmonic distortion analysis method has been validated by application to real multistage amplifiers, achieving HD prediction results in excellent agreement to fully transistor‐level circuit simulation results but with substantial speedup.

中文翻译:

一种用于多级运算放大器的基于gm / ID的解析谐波失真预测方法

本文针对多级运算放大器(Op Amps)开发了一种基于分析级的谐波失真(HD)分析方法。这项工作贡献了两种基本方法,这些方法使得在电路级进行分析高清预测成为可能。首先,我们建议将大容量互补金属氧化物半导体(CMOS)技术的gm / ID设计方法中传统使用的一阶小信号晶体管数量g m(跨导)和g o(输出电导)扩展为高阶量g mkg okur:x-wiley:cta:media:cta3012:cta3012-math-0001)。通过适当的归一化,这些量对于器件尺寸和工作电流变得中立,因此可以通过扫描仿真进行预表征,并用作查找表。其次,我们进一步开发了一组常用放大器级的解析非线性表达式,表示为非线性参数g mkg ok的函数。形成级电路的晶体管中的一个。这两种基本方法在分层非线性建模中的结合使我们能够将现有的分析高清估计方法应用于阶段形式的宏模型,以预测电路级高清行为,从而克服了在器件调整大小和偏置的情况下进行重复仿真的需求。所提出的谐波失真分析方法已通过在实际多级放大器中的应用进行了验证,获得的高清预测结果与完全晶体管级电路仿真结果非常吻合,但速度明显提高。
更新日期:2021-04-08
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