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Five carbon- and nitrogen-bearing species in a hot giant planet’s atmosphere
Nature ( IF 42.778 ) Pub Date : 2021-04-07 , DOI: 10.1038/s41586-021-03381-x
Paolo Giacobbe, Matteo Brogi, Siddharth Gandhi, Patricio E. Cubillos, Aldo S. Bonomo, Alessandro Sozzetti, Luca Fossati, Gloria Guilluy, Ilaria Carleo, Monica Rainer, Avet Harutyunyan, Francesco Borsa, Lorenzo Pino, Valerio Nascimbeni, Serena Benatti, Katia Biazzo, Andrea Bignamini, Katy L. Chubb, Riccardo Claudi, Rosario Cosentino, Elvira Covino, Mario Damasso, Silvano Desidera, Aldo F. M. Fiorenzano, Adriano Ghedina, Antonino F. Lanza, Giuseppe Leto, Antonio Maggio, Luca Malavolta, Jesus Maldonado, Giuseppina Micela, Emilio Molinari, Isabella Pagano, Marco Pedani, Giampaolo Piotto, Ennio Poretti, Gaetano Scandariato, Sergei N. Yurchenko, Daniela Fantinel, Alberto Galli, Marcello Lodi, Nicoletta Sanna, Andrea Tozzi

The atmospheres of gaseous giant exoplanets orbiting close to their parent stars (hot Jupiters) have been probed for nearly two decades1,2. They allow us to investigate the chemical and physical properties of planetary atmospheres under extreme irradiation conditions3. Previous observations of hot Jupiters as they transit in front of their host stars have revealed the frequent presence of water vapour4 and carbon monoxide5 in their atmospheres; this has been studied in terms of scaled solar composition6 under the usual assumption of chemical equilibrium. Both molecules as well as hydrogen cyanide were found in the atmosphere of HD 209458b5,7,8, a well studied hot Jupiter (with equilibrium temperature around 1,500 kelvin), whereas ammonia was tentatively detected there9 and subsequently refuted10. Here we report observations of HD 209458b that indicate the presence of water (H2O), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3) and acetylene (C2H2), with statistical significance of 5.3 to 9.9 standard deviations per molecule. Atmospheric models in radiative and chemical equilibrium that account for the detected species indicate a carbon-rich chemistry with a carbon-to-oxygen ratio close to or greater than 1, higher than the solar value (0.55). According to existing models relating the atmospheric chemistry to planet formation and migration scenarios3,11,12, this would suggest that HD 209458b formed far from its present location and subsequently migrated inwards11,13. Other hot Jupiters may also show a richer chemistry than has been previously found, which would bring into question the frequently made assumption that they have solar-like and oxygen-rich compositions.



中文翻译:

炽热的巨型行星大气中的五种含碳和氮的物种

气态巨型系外行星的大气层靠近其母恒星(热木星)的轨道已经被探测了将近二十年1,2。它们使我们能够研究极端辐射条件下行星大气的化学和物理特性3。先前对炽热木星在其恒星前行进的观察表明,大气中经常存在水蒸气4和一氧化碳5。在化学平衡的通常假设下,已经按照比例缩放的太阳能组成6对此进行了研究。在HD 209458b,5、7、8的大气中发现了两个分子以及氰化氢,一个经过充分研究的热木星(平衡温度在1,500开尔文附近),而在这里尝试性地检测到氨9,然后反驳了10。在这里,我们报告对HD 209458b的观察,这些观察表明存在水(H 2 O),一氧化碳(CO),氰化氢(HCN),甲烷(CH 4),氨气(NH 3)和乙炔(C 2 H 2),每个分子的标准差为5.3至9.9。辐射和化学平衡的大气模型解释了所检测到的物种,表明富含碳的化学物质的碳氧比接近或大于1,高于太阳值(0.55)。根据与大气化学有关的行星形成和迁移情景3,11,12的现有模型,这将表明HD 209458b远离其当前位置形成并随后向内迁移11,13。其他炽热的木星也可能显示出比以前发现的更丰富的化学性质,这将使人们经常假设它们具有类似于太阳和富含氧气的成分的说法成为疑问。

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