Chemosphere ( IF 5.778 ) Pub Date : 2021-02-22 , DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130042 Linglong Chu; Xin Kang; Dongpeng Li; Xinshan Song; Xiaoxiang Zhao
Ionic liquids (ILs1) which are called “green solvents”, are used widely in the textile industry as adjuvants due to their many advantages. However, their persistent residues may cause ecotoxicity. The aim of the study is to explore the toxicity of different anions on imidazole ILs and their toxicological mechanism. For the experiments 1-butyl-3-methylimidazole tetrafloroborate ([C4mim]BF4) and 1- butyl -3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4mim]Cl) were selected to study their toxic effects on Isatis tinctoria. ILs may affect the germination rate. Fresh weight, dry weight and Hill reaction activity decreased continuously with increasing of IL concentrations, showing an effect-dose relationship. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that cell walls were fuzzy, starch granules had accumulated and the chloroplast structure was damaged. These changes will affected the function and electron transport efficiency of photosystemⅡ. Superoxide anion accumulation stimulated the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD, CAT) and caused lipid peroxidation as well as an increased malondialdehyde content. ILs also reduced indirubin and total flavonoids contents, which reduced the pharmacological efficacy of Isatis tinctoria. This is demonstrated by three-dimensional fluorescence chromatogram. [C4mim]Cl was more toxic than [C4mim]BF4. ILs caused toxic effects to Isatis tinctoria. The ecological toxicity of ILs should be considered when using them as additives in the textile industry.
被称为“绿色溶剂”的离子液体（ILs 1）由于其许多优点而在纺织工业中广泛用作佐剂。但是，它们的残留残留物可能会引起生态毒性。该研究的目的是探讨不同阴离子对咪唑ILs的毒性及其毒理机制。对于实验1-丁基-3-甲基咪唑tetrafloroborate（[C 4个MIM] BF 4）和1-丁基-3-甲基咪唑氯化物（[C 4个MIM] Cl）的选择，以研究它们对毒性作用菘蓝。IL可能影响发芽率。随着IL浓度的增加，鲜重，干重和Hill反应活性不断降低，表现出效剂量关系。透射电镜（TEM）显示细胞壁模糊，淀粉颗粒积累，叶绿体结构受损。这些变化将影响光系统Ⅱ的功能和电子传输效率。超氧阴离子的积累刺激了抗氧化酶（SOD，POD，CAT）的活性，并导致脂质过氧化以及丙二醛含量的增加。白介素也降低了靛玉红和总黄酮的含量，从而降低了板蓝根的药理作用。这由三维荧光色谱图证明。[C 4mim] Cl的毒性比[C 4 mim] BF 4更大。离子液体引起的毒性作用板蓝根。在纺织工业中将IL用作添加剂时，应考虑IL的生态毒性。