Chemosphere ( IF 5.778 ) Pub Date : 2021-02-22 , DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130014 Céline Gentil-Sergent; Claudine Basset-Mens; Juliette Gaab; Charles Mottes; Carlos Melero; Peter Fantke
The inventory model ‘PestLCI Consensus’, originally developed for temperate conditions, estimates initial pesticide emission fractions to air, to off-field surfaces by drift deposition, and to field crop and field soil surfaces according to crop foliar interception characteristics. Since crop characteristics and application techniques differ in tropical conditions, these aspects need to be included in the model in support of evaluating pesticide emissions under tropical conditions.
Based on published literature, a consistent set of crop foliar interception fractions was developed as function of crop characteristics and spraying techniques for tropical crops. In addition, we derived drift deposition fractions from published drift experiments specifically conducted under tropical conditions. Finally, we compiled a consistent set of pesticide emission fractions for application in life cycle assessment (LCA).
Foliar interception fractions are strongly influenced by the spraying technique, particularly for hand-operated applications. Drift deposition fractions to off-field surfaces were derived for air blast sprayer on papaya and coffee, for boom sprayer on bean and soybean, for aerial application on soybean, sorghum, millet, corn and cotton, and for hand-operated application on cotton. Emission fractions vary for each combination of crop and application method. Drift deposition curves for missing crop-application method combinations can only partly be extrapolated from the set of considered combinations.
Overall, our proposed foliar interception fractions and drift deposition fractions for various crops grown under tropical conditions allow to estimate pesticide emissions in support of assessing the environmental performance of agrifood systems in LCA with focus on tropical regions.