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Seasonal assessment of groundwater contamination, health risk and chemometric investigation for a hard rock terrain of western India
Environmental Earth Sciences ( IF 2.180 ) Pub Date : 2021-02-22 , DOI: 10.1007/s12665-021-09414-y
Ajaykumar Kadam, Vasant Wagh, Sanjay Patil, Bhavana Umrikar, Rabindranath Sankhua

Groundwater quality in the Shivganga river basin, Western India, was evaluated by an integrated approach using pollution index of groundwater (PIG), health risk assessment (HRA) and chemometric analysis. Sixty eight (68) representative groundwater samples were collected and analysed for pH, Electrical conductivity (EC), Total dissolved solids (TDS), major cation and anion during pre- (PRM) and post (POM)-monsoon seasons of 2016. Hydro-chemical analysis inferred that EC, total hardiness, alkalinity, boron and fluoride are exceeding the permissible limits of the World Health Organisation (WHO). PIG was computed based on considered physicochemical parameters and WHO drinking standards to ascertain the degree of pollution level. PIG results inferred that about 6% samples fall in moderate, 12% in low and 82% in insignificant pollution in PRM season; while, 12% of sample fall within low, 88% insignificant pollution in POM season. HRA was carried to know the health impacts of boron and fluoride toxicity on infants, children and adults. HRA results suggest that children are more susceptible to non carcinogenic health risk than infants and adults. Chemometric analysis included correlation matrix (CM), principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) to know the relationship between water quality variables and their collective influence on overall groundwater quality. CM and PCA suggested that, inputs of TDS, Mg, NO3, Na, Cl, and SO4 are elevated due to rainfall and anthropogenic activities. These techniques are useful to evaluate the influence of seasonal variation of natural or anthropogenic processes controlling the groundwater quality in the study region.



中文翻译:

印度西部硬岩地形的地下水污染季节性评估,健康风险和化学计量学研究

通过使用地下水污染指数(PIG),健康风险评估(HRA)和化学计量分析的综合方法,对印度西部Shivganga流域的地下水质量进行了评估。收集了六十八(68)个代表性地下水样品,并分析了2016年季风前(PRM)和季风后(POM)期间的pH值,电导率(EC),总溶解固体(TDS),主要阳离子和阴离子。 -化学分析推断出EC,总硬度,碱度,硼和氟化物已超过世界卫生组织(WHO)的允许极限。根据考虑的理化参数和WHO饮用标准计算PIG,以确定污染程度。PIG结果推断,在PRM季节,约有6%的样品属于中度污染,低含量的样品为12%,微不足道的污染含量为82%。而在POM季节,有12%的样品处于低水平,88%的污染范围内。进行HRA是为了了解硼和氟化物毒性对婴儿,儿童和成人的健康影响。HRA结果表明,与婴儿和成人相比,儿童更容易遭受非致癌的健康风险。化学计量分析包括相关矩阵(CM),主成分分析(PCA)和聚类分析(CA),以了解水质变量及其对总体地下水质量的集体影响之间的关系。CM和PCA建议,TDS,Mg,NO的输入 HRA结果表明,与婴儿和成人相比,儿童更容易遭受非致癌的健康风险。化学计量分析包括相关矩阵(CM),主成分分析(PCA)和聚类分析(CA),以了解水质变量及其对整体地下水质量的集体影响之间的关系。CM和PCA建议,TDS,Mg,NO的输入 HRA结果表明,与婴儿和成人相比,儿童更容易遭受非致癌的健康风险。化学计量分析包括相关矩阵(CM),主成分分析(PCA)和聚类分析(CA),以了解水质变量及其对总体地下水质量的集体影响之间的关系。CM和PCA建议,TDS,Mg,NO的输入3,由于降雨和人为活动 Na,Cl和SO 4升高。这些技术可用于评估控制研究区域地下水水质的自然或人为过程的季节性变化的影响。

更新日期:2021-02-22
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