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The application of hierarchical clustering to analyzing ashes from the combustion of wood pellets mixed with waste materials
Environmental Pollution ( IF 6.792 ) Pub Date : 2021-02-17 , DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116766
Jacek Grabowski; Adam Smoliński

Air pollution constitutes the greatest environmental threat to human health in the European Union. In Poland, the emission of particulate matter and harmful gases originating from local coal based boiler plants and the combustion of fuels in residential heating appliances is a considerable source of air pollution. The combustion of fuel in home furnaces is inefficient due to the use of cheap fuels of low heating parameters and the frequent addition of waste. For the purpose of the research, deciduous tree wood pellets were selected as the basic fuel with the admixture of plastic waste, rubber, waste paper, wood residues, diapers, textile waste, multi-material packaging, construction waste, biomass and alternative fuel (RDF). Examining ash samples to confirm the practices of combusting or co-combusting waste materials in heating appliances is considered to be one of the most reliable detection methods; however, the results of direct research require further data processing. The application of hierarchical clustering analysis to the obtained results arranged into a matrix enabled in a simple way to demonstrate the similarities between the examined samples of fuel and the samples of fuel mixed with waste materials in the parameters space as well as to analyze the similarities among the measured parameters (the content of particular elements in ash) in the space of the examined samples. The application of chemometric methods for the purpose of identifying the combusted fuels, and, in particular the co-combusted waste complements the currently used monitoring tools which control the use of low quality fuels or the combustion of waste of different origin.



中文翻译:

层次聚类在分析混有废料的木屑燃烧中产生的灰分中的应用

空气污染对欧盟的人类健康构成最大的环境威胁。在波兰,源自当地燃煤锅炉厂的颗粒物和有害气体的排放以及住宅取暖设备中的燃料燃烧是空气污染的重要来源。由于使用了低加热参数的廉价燃料并且经常添加废物,因此在家用炉中的燃料燃烧效率很低。为了研究的目的,选择落叶乔木颗粒作为基本燃料,并将其与塑料废料,橡胶,废纸,木材残渣,尿布,纺织废料,多材料包装,建筑废料,生物质和替代燃料( RDF)。检查灰分样品以确认加热设备中燃烧或燃烧废料的做法是最可靠的检测方法之一;但是,直接研究的结果需要进一步的数据处理。将分层聚类分析应用于排列成矩阵的获得结果,可以通过简单的方式证明参数空间中所检查的燃料样本与掺有废料的燃料样本之间的相似性,并分析它们之间的相似性被测样品空间中的测量参数(灰分中特定元素的含量)。化学计量学方法在识别燃烧燃料中的应用,以及

更新日期:2021-02-22
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