Environmental Pollution ( IF 6.792 ) Pub Date : 2021-01-22 , DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116558 Jorge L. Gallego; Jesus Olivero-Verbel
Pesticides and trace elements occur in complex mixtures in agroecosystems, affecting soil health and food security. Hence, it is necessary to determine their toxicity in field conditions and to develop monitoring approaches to assess conventional and organic agriculture. The aim of this research was to evaluate the associations between Allium cepa L. cytogenetic biomarkers and the realistic mixture of pesticides and trace elements found in soils of conventional, conversion, and organic crops in an intensive agricultural region in Colombia. Pesticide screening was conducted using GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS methods. Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc were analyzed by ICP-MS; chromium, copper, nickel, and selenium by ICP-OES; and mercury by a direct analyzer. The meristematic cells in roots of Allium cepa L. were analyzed through microscopic observations to quantify cytogenetic effects. In conventional crops, 26 pesticides were detected in the soil samples, and those were below the limit of quantification in organic crops. The mean levels of As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Se were also greater in soils of conventional crops compared to the organics. In addition, the biomarkers of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity appeared augmented in conventional samples, and those were correlated with pesticide and trace element concentrations, pollution indices, and hazard quotients. Subsequently, a discriminant function based on the mitotic index, chromosomal aberrations, and nuclear abnormalities was suitable to classify the samples by crop type. These results demonstrate the sensitivity of Allium cepa L. to the toxicity of complex mixtures in field crops and its potential as an in-situ approach for soil health monitoring in organic and conventional crop systems.
农药和微量元素存在于农业生态系统的复杂混合物中，影响土壤健康和粮食安全。因此，有必要确定它们在田间条件下的毒性，并开发监测方法以评估常规和有机农业。这项研究的目的是评估洋葱密集型细胞遗传学生物标志物与哥伦比亚集约化农业区常规，转化和有机作物土壤中发现的农药和微量元素的实际混合物之间的关联。使用GC-MS / MS和LC-MS / MS方法进行农药筛查。ICP-MS分析砷，镉，铅和锌。ICP-OES中的铬，铜，镍和硒 和汞直接分析仪。葱属根的分生组织细胞通过显微镜观察对L. L.进行分析以定量细胞遗传学作用。在常规作物中，土壤样品中检测到26种农药，这些农药低于有机作物中的定量限。与有机物相比，常规作物土壤中的砷，镉，铬，镍，铅和硒的平均含量也更高。此外，在常规样品中，细胞毒性和基因毒性的生物标志物似乎增加了，并且与农药和痕量元素的浓度，污染指数和危险系数相关。随后，基于有丝分裂指数，染色体畸变和核异常的判别函数适用于按作物类型对样品进行分类。这些结果证明了葱属洋葱的敏感性L.对大田作物中复杂混合物的毒性及其作为有机和常规作物系统中土壤健康监测的原位方法的潜力。