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A bright γ-ray flare interpreted as a giant magnetar flare in NGC 253
Nature ( IF 42.778 ) Pub Date : 2021-01-13 , DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-03076-9
D. Svinkin; D. Frederiks; K. Hurley; R. Aptekar; S. Golenetskii; A. Lysenko; A. V. Ridnaia; A. Tsvetkova; M. Ulanov; T. L. Cline; I. Mitrofanov; D. Golovin; A. Kozyrev; M. Litvak; A. Sanin; A. Goldstein; M. S. Briggs; C. Wilson-Hodge; A. von Kienlin; X.-L. Zhang; A. Rau; V. Savchenko; E. Bozzo; C. Ferrigno; P. Ubertini; A. Bazzano; J. C. Rodi; S. Barthelmy; J. Cummings; H. Krimm; D. M. Palmer; W. Boynton; C. W. Fellows; K. P. Harshman; H. Enos; R. Starr

Soft γ-ray repeaters exhibit bursting emission in hard X-rays and soft γ-rays. During the active phase, they emit random short (milliseconds to several seconds long), hard-X-ray bursts, with peak luminosities1 of 1036 to 1043 erg per second. Occasionally, a giant flare with an energy of around 1044 to 1046 erg is emitted2. These phenomena are thought to arise from neutron stars with extremely high magnetic fields (1014 to 1015 gauss), called magnetars1,3,4. A portion of the second-long initial pulse of a giant flare in some respects mimics short γ-ray bursts5,6, which have recently been identified as resulting from the merger of two neutron stars accompanied by gravitational-wave emission7. Two γ-ray bursts, GRB 051103 and GRB 070201, have been associated with giant flares2,8,9,10,11. Here we report observations of the γ-ray burst GRB 200415A, which we localized to a 20-square-arcmin region of the starburst galaxy NGC 253, located about 3.5 million parsecs away. The burst had a sharp, millisecond-scale hard spectrum in the initial pulse, which was followed by steady fading and softening over 0.2 seconds. The energy released (roughly 1.3 × 1046 erg) is similar to that of the superflare5,12,13 from the Galactic soft γ-ray repeater SGR 1806−20 (roughly 2.3 × 1046 erg). We argue that GRB 200415A is a giant flare from a magnetar in NGC 253.



中文翻译:

NGC 253中的明亮γ射线耀斑被解释为巨大的电磁耀斑

软γ射线中继器在硬X射线和软γ射线中显示出突发发射。在活动阶段,它们发出随机的短(毫秒至几秒长)的硬X射线猝发,峰值发光度1为每秒10 36到10 43 erg。有时会发出能量为10 44到10 46 erg的巨大火炬2。这些现象被认为是由具有极高磁场(10 14至10 15高斯)的中子星产生的,称为中子星1,3,4。巨大的耀斑的第二长初始脉冲的一部分在某些方面模仿了短的γ射线爆发5,6,最近被确定为由两个中子星合并并伴有引力波发射7所致。两个γ射线爆发GRB 051103和GRB 070201与巨大的耀斑2,8,9,10,11相关。在这里,我们报告了对γ射线爆发GRB 200415A的观测结果,我们将其观测到位于星爆星系NGC 253的20平方arcmin区域,该区域位于约350万秒差距处。爆发在初始脉冲中具有清晰的毫秒级硬频谱,然后稳定衰减并在0.2秒内软化。释放的能量(大约1.3×10 46 erg)类似于银河软γ射线中继器SGR 1806-20的超耀斑5,12,13的能量(大约2.3×10 46尔格)。我们认为GRB 200415A是NGC 253中来自磁星的巨大火炬。

更新日期:2021-01-13
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