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Introducing a 1D numerical model for the simulation of PN junctions of varying spectral material properties and operating conditions
Energy Conversion and Management ( IF 8.208 ) Pub Date : 2021-01-12 , DOI: 10.1016/j.enconman.2020.113819
Panagiotis Stamatopoulos; Myrto Zeneli; Aristeidis Nikolopoulos; Alessandro Bellucci; Daniele M. Trucchi; Nikos Nikolopoulos

During the last years, innovative concepts of solid-state devices, such as multi-junction solar cells and thermophotovoltaic converters, have emerged as efficient means of direct electricity production. The accurate estimation of the conversion efficiency of such devices using simple yet effective numerical tools is a necessity to optimize their performance. This work presents an in-house code, which is based on the Drift Diffusion Model to simulate p-n junction diodes, under equilibrium (bias voltage application) and non-equilibrium (bias voltage and device illumination) conditions. Under non-equilibrium, illumination can originate from either solar radiation (conventional photovoltaic cell) or a thermally heated emitter (thermophotovoltaic operation). The drift-diffusion and Poisson’s equations are solved using a one-dimensional (1D) finite element Petrov-Galerkin method based on piecewise nonlinear interpolants of second-order accuracy, while the total current is evaluated in a post-process manner using the Scharfetter-Gummel scheme. Initially, the model is verified against the freeware SimWindows. Later on, a parametric analysis on the photovoltaic cell design and operating conditions reveals that its efficiency is highly affected by its total length, the n-type sub-region width, the doping levels of both p and n regions, the semiconductor material type, and, the device’s operating temperature. In contrast to other solvers, this one takes into account the model parameters’ dependence on temperature and electromagnetic spectrum, while it can be extended to incorporate the thermally stimulated electron emission in thermionic-based devices and 2D spatial effects. Finally, the calculated conversion efficiencies can be used to build a Reduced Order Model that can be further coupled with a computational fluid dynamics model to evaluate the overall thermo-electric performance of a solid-state device.



中文翻译:

引入一维数值模型来模拟各种光谱材料特性和工作条件的PN结

在过去的几年中,诸如多结太阳能电池和热光电转换器之类的固态设备的创新概念已经成为直接发电的有效手段。使用简单而有效的数值工具准确估算此类设备的转换效率是优化其性能的必要条件。这项工作提出了一个内部代码,该代码基于漂移扩散模型,用于在平衡(施加偏压)和非平衡(偏压和设备照明)条件下模拟pn结二极管。在非平衡状态下,照明可能来自太阳辐射(传统的光伏电池)或热辐射器(热光电运行)。基于一阶精度的分段非线性插值,使用一维(1D)有限元Petrov-Galerkin方法求解漂移扩散和Poisson方程,而总电流则使用Scharfetter-Post进行后处理评估。口香糖计划。最初,该模型针对免费软件SimWindows进行了验证。随后,对光伏电池设计和运行条件进行的参数分析表明,其效率受其总长度,n型子区域宽度,p和n区域的掺杂水平,半导体材料类型,以及设备的工作温度。与其他求解器相比,这一求解器考虑了模型参数对温度和电磁谱的依赖性,同时可以扩展以将热激发电子发射并入基于热电子的设备和2D空间效应中。最后,计算出的转换效率可用于构建降阶模型,该模型可进一步与计算流体动力学模型结合使用,以评估固态设备的整体热电性能。

更新日期:2021-01-13
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