Chemosphere ( IF 5.778 ) Pub Date : 2020-11-20 , DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.129052 S. Gopi; A.G. Ramu; S. Sakthivel; Gilberto Maia; C.H. Jang; Dongjin Choi; Kyusik Yun
The urea oxidation reaction (UOR) and nitrophenol reduction are safe and key limiting reactions for sustainable energy conversion and storage. Urea and nitrophenol are abundant in industrial and agricultural wastes, human wastewater, and in the environment. Catalytic oxidative and reductive removal is the most effective process to remove urea and 4-nitrophenol from the environment, necessary to protect human health. 2D carbon-supported, cobalt nanoparticle-based materials are emerging catalysts for nitrophenol reduction and as an anode material for the UOR. In this work, cobalt modified on a porous organic polymer (CoPOP) was synthesized and carbonized at 400 and 600 °C. The formation of CoPOP was confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy, the 2D graphitic layer and amorphous carbon with cobalt metal by TEM, SEM, and PXRD, and the elemental composition by TEM mapping, EDX, and XPS. The catalytic activity for the 4-nitrophenol reduction was studied and the related electrocatalytic UOR was scientifically evaluated. The catalytic activity toward the reduction of 4-NP to 4-AP was tested with the addition of NaBH4; CoPOP-3 exhibited enhanced activity at a rate of 0.069 min-1. Furthermore, LSV investigated the catalytic activity of materials toward UOR, producing hydrogen gas, the products of which were analyzed via gas chromatography. Among the electrocatalysts studied, CoPOP-2 exhibited a lower onset potential, and the Tafel slope was 1.34 V and 80 mV dec-1. This study demonstrates that cobalt metal-doped porous organic polymers can be used as efficient catalysts to remove urea and nitrophenol from wastewater.