Chemosphere ( IF 5.778 ) Pub Date : 2020-11-19 , DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128995 Sofía Barreales-Suárez; Stéphane Azoulay; Miguel Ángel Bello-López; Rut Fernández-Torres
In this work, eight plants of Juncus sp. and ten of Salicornia europaea were used for an uptake assay of pharmaceuticals (flumequine, cirpofloxacin, enrofloxacin, carbamazepine, diclofenac and ibuprofen) by irrigation at three concentration levels: 10 ng mL-1 (low level); 700 ng mL-1 (medium level) and 10 μg mL-1 (high level). Two plants irrigated with pharmaceutical-free water were set up as controls. For each level, two plants were watered every day with 50 mL (Juncus sp.) and every two days with 20 mL (Salicornia europaea) of aqueous solutions containing all the analytes at the described concentrations. Plants irrigated at 10 μg mL-1 were significantly the most affected, whereas the rest of the plants remained, in general, largely displayed no apparent physiological effects throughout the 30 days (Juncus sp.) and 21 days (Salicornia europaea) assays. Leaves and stems were cut every seven days and roots were collected at the end of the assay. The samples were lyophilized, submitted to a microwave assisted extraction using 5 mL of acetonitrile:water mixture (1:1, v/v) and they were analyzed (in triplicate) in a liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry instrument. Most of the analytes were quantified in many of the samples corresponding to the three exposure levels with the highest concentrations obtained at high exposure levels. Ibuprofen was not detected in any sample and enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and diclofenac were not detected in the samples from Salicornia europaea.