Gondwana Research ( IF 6.174 ) Pub Date : 2020-11-06 , DOI: 10.1016/j.gr.2020.10.009 R. Spikings; A. Paul; C. Vallejo; P. Reyes
Gabbros and ultramafic rocks of the Huarguallá Gabbro unit exposed in faulted slivers along the western Cordillera Real of Ecuador crystallised between 623and531 Ma (40Ar/39Ar dates), were derived from asthenospheric sources with minor crustal contamination, and form part of the Central Iapetus Magmatic Province. These rocks formed in an early rift environment during the opening of the Iapetus Ocean, and represent the only igneous record of Iapetus rifting north of the Huancabamba deflection (5°S) in South America. The age and composition of the Huarguallá Gabbro unit is consistent with the reconstruction of Tegner et al. (2019), which juxtaposes Baltica and northwestern Gondwana within Panotia. 206Pb/238U dates of detrital zircons combined with fossil assemblages shows that the Chiguinda unit of the Cordillera Real, and La Victoria Unit of the Amotape Complex were deposited during the Carboniferous. These new data, combined with previous studies of magmatism and sedimentation from southern Peru, Colombia and Venezuela, imply that the rocks of the Cordillera Real were in the Ordovician and Carboniferous back-arcs, while the arcs occur in conjugate margins that separated during the Triassic rifting of Pangaea. Faulted remnants of Ordovician arc rocks in the Cordillera Central of Colombia are probably allochthonous, and have been displaced from an Ordovician margin that did not face the rifted crustal sections.