Quaternary International ( IF 2.003 ) Pub Date : 2020-10-17 , DOI: 10.1016/j.quaint.2020.10.042 Cintia Ferreira Barreto; Alex da Silva de Freitas; Taísa Camila Silveira de Souza; Mauro Bevilacqua de Toledo; Ana Luiza Spadano Albuquerque; José Antônio Baptista Neto; Estefan Monteiro da Fonseca; Cleverson Guizan Silva
The vegetation history and climate in southeastern Brazil, as well as the oceanic dynamics of the tropical Atlantic Ocean offshore, were reconstructed for the last 7.4 cal ka BP. This reconstruction was based on pollen, fern spores and dinoflagellate cysts identified in a marine core (CF10–04B). It was possible to verify the presence of an ombrophilous forest from 7.4 cal ka BP. Near the base of the PI zone low concentrations of pollen and fern spores are recorded, along with low frequencies of forest taxa and fern spores and an increase in pollen types of open vegetation, suggesting less humid climatic conditions than currently observed in the coastal regions of Southeastern Brazil. The assemblages of dinoflagellate cysts suggest a neritic zone with warm upper column temperature, high salinity and oligotrophic environment (evidenced by the presence of O. centrocarpum, Spiniferites spp. and L. machaerophorum). An increase in Tropical Waters (TW) and the approximation of the Brazilian Current (BC) in the middle shelf of southeastern Brazil in the mid-Holocene probably influenced the low accumulation of cysts, pollen grains, fern spores, and their associations. It is still possible to verify that at approximately 4.6 cal ka BP, an increase in the rainfall in the southeastern Brazilian region was probably the fundamental factor for the expansion of vegetation, mainly based on the considerable increases in hygrophytic and aquatic plants. The marked increase in the accumulation of dinoflagellate cysts, with the dominance of autotroph taxa (mainly O. centrocarpum, followed by Spiniferites spp), evidences the warmer waters of the BC and more intense surface upwelling of the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW).