Precambrian Research ( IF 4.427 ) Pub Date : 2020-10-16 , DOI: 10.1016/j.precamres.2020.105957 S. Jung; R.L. Romer; J.A. Pfänder; J. Berndt
The 563.7±6.1 Ma old, early-syntectonic Mon Repos complex is a predominantly metaluminous, magnesian, calc-alkalic granodioritic to granitic intrusion. Major and trace element variations imply that the rocks evolved through fractional crystallization processes involving amphibole, biotite, Fe-Ti oxides, zircon, and apatite. Rocks less evolved than granodiorite show evidence of hornblende accumulation. Initial Sr (87Sr/86Sr: 0.7090-0.7111) and Nd (ε Nd: -5.3 to -12.3) isotopic compositions of the granodiorites and granites are highly heterogeneous and vary with SiO2 contents indicating that assimilation of older crustal components occurred. Initial 206Pb/204Pb (16.65-17.65) and 207Pb/204Pb ratios (15.52-15.60) are similar to other mafic-intermediate complexes from the Damara belt. One monzodiorite and two quartz monzonites are K2O-, LILE-, and HFSE enriched and have similar SiO2 contents as the granodiorites. These samples are similar to post-collisional mafic magmas from elsewhere in the world. Their ε Nd values (-3.8 to -4.3), 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7051 - 0.7073) and trace-element characteristics imply that their unexposed parental melts are derived from a lithospheric mantle source that was contaminated and metasomatized by crustal material during ancient subduction processes. The data are explained by assuming a “flat” subduction model where melting predominantly involves ancient continental mantle lithosphere and crust with limited, if any, melting of the underlying asthenospheric mantle. During flat subduction, a sliver consisting of buoyant oceanic lithosphere was amalgamated with the base of the ancient continental lithosphere of the overriding plate. The oceanic mantle lithosphere and the oceanic crust dehydrated (but did not melt) and these fluids lowered the solidus of the overlying continental mantle lithosphere and crust. This scenario can explain the occurrence of rare K2O- and LILE-enriched monzodiorites and quartz monzonites with crustal-like isotopic compositions observed in this study as well as some more alkaline rocks in the belt. Because the metasomatized continental lithospheric mantle has lower solidus temperatures than peridotitic mantle, it is very likely that such metasomatized rocks may melt early during flat subduction. Thus, K2O-enriched monzodiorites to monzogranites are not restricted to late stages of the evolution of an orogen but may already form at the onset of an orogeny.