Journal of Hazardous Materials ( IF 9.038 ) Pub Date : 2020-10-16 , DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124289 Javaid Akhter Bhat; Parvaiz Ahmad; Francisco J Corpas
Arsenic (As) is a toxic metalloid that adversely affects plant growth, and poses severe risks to human health. It induces disturbance to many physiological and metabolic pathways such as nutrient, water and redox imbalance, abnormal photosynthesis and ATP synthesis and loss of membrane integrity. Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical molecule endogenously generated in plant cells which has signalling properties. Under As-stress, the endogenous NO metabolism is significantly affected in a clear connection with the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) triggering nitro-oxidative stress. However, the exogenous NO application provides beneficial effects under As-stress conditions which can relieve oxidative damages by stimulating the antioxidant systems, regulation of the expression of the transporter and other defence-related genes, modification of root cell wall composition or the biosynthesis of enriched sulfur compounds such phytochelatins (PCs). This review aims to provide up-to-date information on the key NO hallmarks to relieve As-stress in higher plants. Furthermore, it will be analyzed the diverse genetic engineering techniques to increase the endogenous NO content which could open new biotechnological applications, especially in crops under arsenic stress.