Environmental Research ( IF 5.715 ) Pub Date : 2020-10-14 , DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.110333 Nicole C. Deziel; Joshua L. Warren; Huang Huang; Haoran Zhou; Andreas Sjodin; Yawei Zhang
Thyroid cancer incidence has increased substantially over the past decades, and environmental risk factors have been suggested to play a role. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine pesticides (OCP) are established thyroid hormone disruptors, but their relationship to thyroid cancer is not known.
We investigated the relationship between serum PCB and OCP concentrations and papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in 250 incident female PTC cases and 250 female controls frequency-matched on age, all residing in Connecticut. Interviews and serum samples were collected from 2010 to 2013. Samples were analyzed for 32 different chemicals using gas chromatography with isotope dilution high resolution mass spectrometry. We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using single pollutant logistic regression models for concentrations (per interquartile range) of individual PCB/OCP and summed groups of structurally or biologically similar PCB/OCP, adjusted for education, family history of cancer, alcohol consumption, age, and body mass index. Sub-analyses included stratification by tumor size (≤ and >1 cm) and birth before or during peak PCB production (born in 1960 or earlier and born after 1960), as exposures during early life may be important. We also applied three multi-pollutant approaches (standard multi-pollutant regression, hierarchical Bayesian modeling, principal components regression analysis) to investigate associations with co-exposures to multiple PCB/OCPs.
No PCB/OCPs were positively associated with PTC in primary analyses. Statistically significant associations were observed for 9 of the 32 chemicals and 3 summed groups of similar chemicals in the those born during peak production based on single-pollutant models. Multi-pollutant analyses suggested null associations overall.
Our results using single and multi-pollutant modeling do not generally support an association between PCB or OCP exposure and PTC, but some associations in those born during peak production suggest that additional investigation into early-life exposures and subsequent thyroid cancer risk may be warranted.