Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America ( IF 9.412 ) Pub Date : 2020-09-14 , DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2008323117 Hirosha Geekiyanage, Shima Rayatpisheh, James A. Wohlschlegel, Robert Brown, Victor Ambros
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) function cell-intrinsically to regulate gene expression by base-pairing to complementary mRNA targets while in association with Argonaute, the effector protein of the miRNA-mediated silencing complex (miRISC). A relatively dilute population of miRNAs can be found extracellularly in body fluids such as human blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The remarkable stability of circulating miRNAs in such harsh extracellular environments can be attributed to their association with protective macromolecular complexes, including extracellular vesicles (EVs), proteins such as Argonaut 2 (AGO2), or high-density lipoproteins. The precise origins and the potential biological significance of various forms of miRNA-containing extracellular complexes are poorly understood. It is also not known whether extracellular miRNAs in their native state may retain the capacity for miRISC-mediated target RNA binding. To explore the potential functionality of circulating extracellular miRNAs, we comprehensively investigated the association between circulating miRNAs and the miRISC Argonaute AGO2. Using AGO2 immunoprecipitation (IP) followed by small-RNA sequencing, we find that miRNAs in circulation are primarily associated with antibody-accessible miRISC/AGO2 complexes. Moreover, we show that circulating miRNAs can base-pair with a target mimic in a seed-based manner, and that the target-bound AGO2 can be recovered from blood plasma in an ∼1:1 ratio with the respective miRNA. Our findings suggest that miRNAs in circulation are largely contained in functional miRISC/AGO2 complexes under normal physiological conditions. However, we find that, in human CSF, the assortment of certain extracellular miRNAs into free miRISC/AGO2 complexes can be affected by pathological conditions such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.