Chemosphere ( IF 5.778 ) Pub Date : 2020-09-14 , DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128335 Jacky Bhagat; Nisha Singh; Norihiro Nishimura; Yasuhito Shimada
Azoles are considered as one of the most efficient fungicides for the treatment of humans, animals, and plant fungal pathogens. They are of significant clinical importance as antifungal drugs and are widely used in personal care products, ultraviolet stabilizers, and in aircraft for its anti-corrosive properties. The prevalence of azole compounds in the natural environment and its accumulation in fish raises questions about its impact on aquatic organisms.
The objective of this paper is to review the scientific studies on the effects of azole compounds in fish and to discuss future opportunities for the risk evaluation.
A systematic literature search was conducted on Web of Science, PubMed, and ScienceDirect to locate peer-reviewed scientific articles on occurrence, environmental fate, and toxicological impact of azole fungicides on fish.
Studies included in this review provide ample evidence that azole compounds are not only commonly detected in the natural environment but also cause several detrimental effects on fish. Future studies with environmentally relevant concentrations of azole alone or in combination with other commonly occurring contaminants in a multigenerational study could provide a better understanding.
Based on current knowledge and studies reporting adverse biological effects of azole on fish, considerable attention is required for better management and effective ecological risk assessment of these emerging contaminants.