Chemosphere ( IF 5.778 ) Pub Date : 2020-09-14 , DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128307 Josephine Bou Dagher; Coral K. Hahn-Townsend; Amrita Kaimal; Maryam Al Mansi; Joseph E. Henriquez; Diane G. Tran; Christian R. Laurent; Caleb J. Bacak; Hannah E. Buechter; Celexis Cambric; Jared Spivey; Yen-Jun Chuang; Elyssa J. Campbell; Abhyuday Mandal; Puliyur S. Mohankumar; Sheba M.J. Mohankumar
Bisphenol A (BPA) and Diethylhexyl Phthalate (DEHP) are well-studied endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), however, the effects of mixtures of these EDCs are not. To assess the consequences of prenatal exposure to a mixture of these EDCs, dams were orally administered either saline (control), BPA (5μg/Kg BW/day), high dose DEHP (HD-D; 7.5 mg/Kg BW/day), or a combination of BPA with HD-D in experiment 1; saline, BPA (5μg/Kg BW/day), low-dose DEHP (LD-D; 5μg/Kg BW/day) or a combination of BPA with LD-D in experiment 2. Gestational weights, number of abortions, litter size and weights, number of live births and stillbirths were recorded. Morphometric measures were obtained at birth and body weight, food and water intake were monitored weekly from postnatal weeks 3-12. Offspring were sacrificed at 16-24 weeks of age and organ weights were measured. The abortion rate of dams exposed to HD-D and the mixtures, BPA+LD-D and BPA+HD-D were higher at 9, 14 and 27% respectively. Prenatal exposure to BPA or HD-D significantly decreased relative thymus weights in male but not female offspring. Apoptotic cells were detected in thymus sections of both male and female offspring prenatally exposed to DEHP. Relative heart weights increased in BPA+HD-D exposed male offspring compared to the other groups. The results indicate that a mixture of BPA and DEHP, produced a pronounced effect on pregnancy outcomes. Male offspring appear to be more susceptible to the programming effects of these EDCs or their mixture suggesting a need to reconsider the possible additive, antagonistic or synergistic effects of EDC mixtures.