Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America ( IF 9.412 ) Pub Date : 2020-07-31 , DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2007245117 Sang-Jin Kim,Balakumaran Chandrasekar,Anne C Rea,Linda Danhof,Starla Zemelis-Durfee,Nicholas Thrower,Zachary S Shepard,Markus Pauly,Federica Brandizzi,Kenneth Keegstra
Xyloglucan (XyG) is an abundant component of the primary cell walls of most plants. While the structure of XyG has been well studied, much remains to be learned about its biosynthesis. Here we employed reverse genetics to investigate the role of Arabidopsis cellulose synthase like-C (CSLC) proteins in XyG biosynthesis. We found that single mutants containing a T-DNA in each of the five Arabidopsis CSLC genes had normal levels of XyG. However, higher-order cslc mutants had significantly reduced XyG levels, and a mutant with disruptions in all five CSLC genes had no detectable XyG. The higher-order mutants grew with mild tissue-specific phenotypes. Despite the apparent lack of XyG, the cslc quintuple mutant did not display significant alteration of gene expression at the whole-genome level, excluding transcriptional compensation. The quintuple mutant could be complemented by each of the five CSLC genes, supporting the conclusion that each of them encodes a XyG glucan synthase. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the CSLC genes are widespread in the plant kingdom and evolved from an ancient family. These results establish the role of the CSLC genes in XyG biosynthesis, and the mutants described here provide valuable tools with which to study both the molecular details of XyG biosynthesis and the role of XyG in plant cell wall structure and function.