Journal of Hazardous Materials ( IF 9.038 ) Pub Date : 2020-08-01 , DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123581 Yansen Li; Ji-Qin Ni
Animal manure could be hazardous to human and animals if not managed properly. Laying hen manure in two commercial manure-belt houses was sampled in seven events over two years. A total of 124 samples was taken in randomly-selected 3-D space with 24 subspaces, composed of 3 sections × 4 sides × 2 floors in the houses. The samples were analyzed for manure pH, total solids (TS), and total ammonia (NH3). Manure characteristics demonstrated large temporal variations that were correlated with indoor temperature and ventilation rate and demonstrated quasi seasonal patterns. Variations in manure NH3 were larger than TS and pH. Manure characteristics varied substantially in the 3-D space but no patterns could be seen among the four sides and between the two floors. However, manure with different ages in the 3 sections along the manure belt moving direction showed differences in manure TS and NH3. Manure on the belts could loss approximately 2.5 % moisture and 0.2 % NH3 concentration per day.