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Estimates of exposure to the 100-year floods in the conterminous United States using national building footprints
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction ( IF 2.896 ) Pub Date : 2020-06-27 , DOI: 10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101731
Xiao Huang; Cuizhen Wang

Given the rising threat of floods in the U.S, it is of great importance to obtain baseline information by quantifying the general exposure of floods and assessing its impact on those likely to bear the eventual cost of flooding. This study provides a comparative assessment of the population exposed to flood hazards for the entire Conterminous United States and answers the following four fundamental questions: 1) how many people are exposed? 2) who are they? 3) how are they distributed? 4) how do the estimations from other floodplains differ from the estimations from FEMA floodplain? In light of the limitations of previous flood exposure studies in the U.S, this study uses the recently released Microsoft building footprint dataset to capture the heterogeneity of population distribution at the micro-level. The population at block group level from ACS 5-year estimates (2013–2017) is further disaggregated to residential buildings, identified via NLUD 2010 and OpenStreetMap Land Use polygons. A comparative study is then conducted to investigate the 100-year flood exposure from FEMA and from the other three publicly available 100-year floodplains. Although the exposure analysis shows varying spatial patterns for selected floodplains, it indicates that a large number of exposed residents are found in regions where FEMA floodplain product is unavailable, presumably responsible for the uncaptured losses reported from other studies. In addition, the inequitably high flood risk experienced by the poor revealed at the national level underscores the significance of flood vulnerability studies to emphasize the need for this vulnerable group.
更新日期:2020-06-29

 

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