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Marine zooplankton dynamics after a major mining dam rupture in the Doce River, southeastern Brazil: Rapid response to a changing environment
Science of the Total Environment ( IF 5.589 ) Pub Date : 2020-05-22 , DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139621
Luiz Fernando Loureiro Fernandes; Tayná Rosa Martins Paiva; Cybelle Menolli Longhini; Juliano Bicalho Pereira; Renato David Ghisolfi; Georgette Cristina Salvador Lázaro; Lilian Elisa Demoner; Pedro de Souza Laino; Laura Rodrigues da Conceição; Fabian Sá; Renato Rodrigues Neto; Camilo Dias Junior; Kássia do Nascimento Lemos; Valéria da Silva Quaresma; Kyssyanne Samihra Oliveira; Caroline Fiório Grilo; Gustavo Martins Rocha

Zooplankton were sampled five days after the tailings from the Samarco dam rupture reached the ocean in the coastal region at the mouth of the Doce River. This was one of the largest environmental disasters in Brazilian history, and the impacts on the marine biota are not yet fully understood. This study aimed to evaluate the zooplankton community short term responses to the metal enrichment after the tailings reached the coastal region in different scenarios. Our results showed an acute impact on the zooplankton community, which peaked in abundance (222,958.60 ind/m3) and decreased in diversity (H′ = 1.23) near the river mouth. Two copepod species, Parvocalanus sp. and Oithona nana, composed up to 61% of the total abundance and they were correlated with concentrations of Fe, Pb, Cu and Zn in particulate fraction. These species feed opportunistically on nanophytoplankton, which dominated the autotroph community, possibly in response to the iron enrichment caused by the mud flow. A shift on zooplankton species composition was also observed. During the first three days, we found the presence of oceanic species in the 20 and 30 m isobaths during an incomplete upwelling event, which directly correlated with the presence of Calanoides carinatus. However, only three days later, following a cold front passage and consequent increase of water turbidity, those species were already absent, and the zooplankton community was significantly altered (PERMANOVA, df = 1, pseudo-F = 9.2247, p = .001). Zooplankton responded quickly to the environmental changes detected during our sampling period and proved to be key factors in costal monitoring, especially in dynamic oceanographic areas such as the Doce River coastal region.
更新日期:2020-05-22

 

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