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Source apportionment and health risk assessment of airborne particulates over central Indo-Gangetic Plain
Chemosphere ( IF 5.108 ) Pub Date : 2020-05-22 , DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127145
Vishnu Murari; Nandita Singh; Rohit Ranjan; R.S. Singh; Tirthankar Banerjee

Sources of airborne particulates (PM10) were investigated in two contrasting sites over central Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), one representing a rural background (Mirzapur) and another as an urban pollution hotspot (Varanasi). Very high PM10 concentration was noted both in Varanasi (178 ± 105 μgm−3; N:435) and Mirzapur (131 ± 56 μgm−3; N:169) with 72% and 62% of monitoring days exceeded the national air quality standard, respectively. Particulate-bound elements contribute significant proportion of PM10 mass (15%–18%), with highest contribution from Ca (7%–10%) and Fe (2%–3%). Besides, presence of Zn (1%–3%), K (1%–2%) and Na (1%–2%) was also noted. Water-soluble ionic species contributed 15%–19% of particulate mass, primarily by the secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA). Among the SIA, sulphate (5%–7%) and nitrate (4%) were prominent, contributing 59%–62% of the total ionic load, especially in winter. Particulate-bound metallic species and ions were selectively used as signatory molecules and source apportionment of PM10 was done by multivariate factor analysis. UNMIX was able to extract particulate sources in both the locations and crustal resuspensions (dust/-soil) were identified as the dominant source contributing 57%–63% of PM10 mass. Secondary aerosols were the second important source (17%–23%), followed by emissions from biomass/-refuse burning (10–19%). Transport of airborne particulates from upper IGP by prevailing westerly were identified as the important contributor of particulates, especially during high particulate loading days. Health risks associated to particulate-bound toxic metal exposure were also assessed. Non-carcinogenic health risk was within the permissible limit while there is possibility of elevated risk for PM10-bound Cr and Cd, if adequate control measures are not in place.
更新日期:2020-05-22

 

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