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The effect of smoking on biological change of recurrent breast cancer
Journal of Translational Medicine ( IF 4.098 ) Pub Date : 2020-04-05 , DOI: 10.1186/s12967-020-02307-x
Koji Takada; Shinichiro Kashiwagi; Yuka Asano; Wataru Goto; Rika Kouhashi; Akimichi Yabumoto; Tamami Morisaki; Hisakazu Fujita; Masatsune Shibutani; Tsutomu Takashima; Kosei Hirakawa; Masaichi Ohira

The selection of treatment for a patient with breast cancer largely relies on the cancer subtype. However, this process is complicated by changes in tumor biology at relapse. Smoking has been identified as a risk factor for breast cancer. The direct effect of a tobacco component delivered via blood circulation on the mammary gland tissue and subsequent DNA damage have been proposed to explain the association between cigarette smoking and breast cancer carcinogenesis. This postulation is supported by both tissue culture and animal studies demonstrating that the associated DNA damage further alters breast cancer cells, as indicated by an increased proliferative capacity and malignant transformation. In this study, we aimed to explore the relationship between changes in Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) each receptor at recurrence, and smoking and the prognosis after recurrence. This retrospective study included 989 patients with primary breast cancer who developed relapse after surgery and 50 patients who underwent regenerative biopsy or surgery from December 2007 to March 2018. ER, PgR, and HER2 expression in the primary and recurrent lesions was evaluated using immunohistochemistry, and the correlations of these expression patterns with smoking history (pack-years) were examined. When ER was evaluated in recurrent tumors, negative and positive conversions were recognized in 3 (6.0%) and 1 patient (2.0%), respectively. When PgR was evaluated, negative conversion was recognized in 15 patients (30.0%). When HER2 was evaluated, positive conversion was recognized in 6 patients (12.0%). Consequently, we observed a change in the intrinsic subtype in in 5 patients with recurrent tumors (10.0%). Although most clinical factors were not correlated with smoking, a positive conversion of HER2 in recurrence was significantly more frequent among smokers than among non-smokers (p = 0.024). Biological changes during breast cancer recurrence should be given careful clinical consideration because they affect treatment after recurrence. Our results suggest that smoking may induce increased HER2 expression in recurrent breast tumors.
更新日期:2020-04-22

 

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