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Latent Tuberculosis in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies to Prevent Disease Activation in an Endemic Population.
Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation ( IF 3.599 ) Pub Date : 2020-03-19 , DOI: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.03.013
Christianne Bourlon,Rocío Camacho-Hernández,Oscar M Fierro-Angulo,Aldo A Acosta-Medina,Maria T Bourlon,María Dolores Niembro-Ortega,María F Gonzalez-Lara,José Sifuentes-Osornio,Alfredo Ponce-de-León

Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) affects one-fourth of the world´s population. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients are at an elevated risk of developing active tuberculosis infection (ATBI). In this retrospective study of donors and HSCT recipients who underwent transplantation between February 2000 and June 2018, our aim was to determine the prevalence of LTBI and ATBI and to describe diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in an HSCT population in an endemic region. The cohort of 409 participants included 125 allogeneic HSCT (allo-HSCT) recipients, 165 autologous HSCT (auto-HSCT) recipients, and 119 HSCT donors. Patients were evaluated pre-HSCT with tuberculin skin test and thoracic imaging. LTBI was diagnosed in 26.2% of the cohort. Cases represented 20% of the auto-HSCT population, 20% of the allo-HSCT population, and 41.2% of the donor population. Pre-HSCT evaluation to rule out ATBI was performed in 62.6% of the cohort; all results were negative. Isoniazid was administered to 73.3% of those with LTBI. Within subgroups, 91.7% of HSCT recipients and 51% of donors received treatment. The median duration of therapy pre-HSCT was 70 days in recipients and 48 days in donors. The incidence of post-HSCT ATBI was 0 at 1-year follow-up. The incidence of LTBI in our population was higher than expected and still might have been underestimated owing to diagnostic test limitations. The absence of incident ATBI suggests that recipients, as opposed to donors, must receive LTBI treatment. Prevention of infectious complications in the HSCT population should be prioritized to improve clinical outcomes. Prospective data from collaborative working groups is needed to determine the best diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in this vulnerable patient population.
更新日期:2020-03-19

 

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