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Sulfhydration of AKT triggers Tau-phosphorylation by activating glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta} in Alzheimer’s disease [Neuroscience]
PNAS ( IF 9.580 ) Pub Date : 2020-02-12 , DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1916895117
Tanusree Sen, Pampa Saha, Tong Jiang, Nilkantha Sen

In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), human Tau is phosphorylated at S199 (hTau-S199-P) by the protein kinase glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). HTau-S199-P mislocalizes to dendritic spines, which induces synaptic dysfunction at the early stage of AD. The AKT kinase, once phosphorylated, inhibits GSK3β by phosphorylating it at S9. In AD patients, the abundance of phosphorylated AKT with active GSK3β implies that phosphorylated AKT was unable to inactivate GSK3β. However, the underlying mechanism of the inability of phosphorylated AKT to phosphorylate GSK3β remains unknown. Here, we show that total AKT and phosphorylated AKT was sulfhydrated at C77 due to the induction of intracellular hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The increase in intracellular H2S levels resulted from the induction of the proinflammatory cytokine, IL-1β, which is a pathological hallmark of AD. Sulfhydrated AKT does not interact with GSK3β, and therefore does not phosphorylate GSK3β. Thus, active GSK3β phosphorylates Tau aberrantly. In a transgenic knockin mouse (AKT-KI+/+) that lacked sulfhydrated AKT, the interaction between AKT or phospho-AKT with GSK3β was restored, and GSK3β became phosphorylated. In AKT-KI+/+ mice, expressing the pathogenic human Tau mutant (hTau-P301L), the hTau S199 phosphorylation was ameliorated as GSK3β phosphorylation was regained. This event leads to a decrease in dendritic spine loss by reducing dendritic localization of hTau-S199-P, which improves cognitive dysfunctions. Sulfhydration of AKT was detected in the postmortem brains from AD patients; thus, it represents a posttranslational modification of AKT, which primarily contributes to synaptic dysfunction in AD.
更新日期:2020-02-13

 

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