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Fetal Transcatheter Trileaflet Heart Valve Hemodynamics: Implications of Scaling on Valve Mechanics and Turbulence.
Annals of Biomedical Engineering ( IF 3.474 ) Pub Date : 2020-02-12 , DOI: 10.1007/s10439-020-02475-3
Hoda Hatoum,Shelley Gooden,Megan Heitkemper,Kevin M Blum,Jason Zakko,Martin Bocks,Tai Yi,Yen-Lin Wu,Yadong Wang,Christopher K Breuer,Lakshmi Prasad Dasi

The scarcity of data available on the best approach for pulmonary fetal valve replacement or implantation necessitate an investigation on whether practices using adult transcatheter valves could be translated to fetal applications. The objective of this study is to evaluate the hemodynamic characteristics and the turbulent properties of a fetal sized trileaflet transcatheter pulmonary valve in comparison with an adult balloon-expandable valve in order to assess the possibility of designing valves for fetal applications using dynamic similarity. A 6 mm fetal trileaflet valve and a 26 mm SAPIEN 3 valve were assessed in a pulse duplicator. Particle image velocimetry was performed. Pressure gradient (ΔP), effective orifice area (EOA), regurgitant fractions (RF), pinwheeling indices (PI) and turbulent stresses were evaluated. ΔP was 8.56 ± 0.139 and 7.76 ± 0.083 mmHg with fetal valve and SAPIEN respectively (p < 0.0001); EOA was 0.10 ± 0.0007 and 2.1 ± 0.025 cm2 with fetal valve and SAPIEN respectively (p < 0.0001); RF with the fetal valve was 2.35 ± 1.99% and with SAPIEN 10.92 ± 0.11% (p < 0.0001); PI with fetal valve was 0.404 ± 0.01 and with SAPIEN 0.37 ± 0.07; The flow regime with the fetal valve was turbulent and Reynolds numbers reached about 7000 while those with the SAPIEN reached about 20,000 at peak velocity. Turbulent stresses were significantly higher with fetal valve compared with SAPIEN. Instantaneous viscous shear stresses with fetal valve were 5.8 times higher than those obtained with SAPIEN and Reynolds shear stresses were 2.5 times higher during peak systole. The fetal valve implantation leads to a turbulent flow (specific to this particular type and design of valve) regime unlike what is expected of a small valve with different flow properties compared to adult valves.
更新日期:2020-02-12

 

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