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Titanium sintering science: A review of atomic events during densification
International Journal of Refractory Metals & Hard Materials ( IF 2.794 ) Pub Date : 2020-02-10 , DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrmhm.2020.105214
Randall M. German

The sintering densification trajectory for titanium powder is identified in terms of the interaction between mass transport processes and microstructure evolution. During initial heating, as surface oxides dissolve, surface diffusion forms bonds between contacting particles without densification. Grain boundaries form in the bonds due to random crystal orientations at the contacts. Except for mixed powder Kirkendall swelling, subsequent diffusion in these interparticle grain boundaries leads to densification. Most importantly, the alpha-beta transformation provides strain, defects, and interfaces that accelerate densification in the 800–1100 °C temperature range. This is below a typical peak sintering temperature. Final densification involves beta phase volume diffusion and grain boundary diffusion. Densification slows due to grain growth and the loss of grain boundary area. Pores close near 92% density to trap impurities and reaction products inside the closed pores, often limiting sintered density to about 95% of theoretical. High final density requires slow heating or long holds at intermediate temperatures to evaporate impurities prior to pore closure. The master sintering curve is a means to link densification to process parameters without concern over detailing this cascade of transport mechanisms and microstructure changes.
更新日期:2020-02-10

 

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