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Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing in the immune system: friend or foe?
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences ( IF 7.014 ) Pub Date : 2020-01-29 , DOI: 10.1007/s00018-020-03466-2
Taisuke Nakahama,Yukio Kawahara

Our body expresses sensors to detect pathogens through the recognition of expressed molecules, including nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins, while immune tolerance prevents an overreaction with self and the development of autoimmune disease. Adenosine (A)-to-inosine (I) RNA editing, catalyzed by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs), is a post-transcriptional modification that can potentially occur at over 100 million sites in the human genome, mainly in Alu repetitive elements that preferentially form a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) structure. A-to-I conversion within dsRNA, which may induce a structural change, is required to escape from the host immune system, given that endogenous dsRNAs transcribed from Alu repetitive elements are potentially recognized by melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) as non-self. Of note, loss-of-function mutations in the ADAR1 gene cause Aicardi-Goutières syndrome, a congenital autoimmune disease characterized by encephalopathy and a type I interferon (IFN) signature. However, the loss of ADAR1 in cancer cells with an IFN signature induces lethality via the activation of protein kinase R in addition to MDA5. This makes cells more sensitive to immunotherapy, highlighting the opposing immune status of autoimmune diseases (overreaction) and cancer (tolerance). In this review, we provide an overview of insights into two opposing aspects of RNA editing that functions as a modulator of the immune system in autoimmune diseases and cancer.
更新日期:2020-01-30

 

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