Cognitive Bias Modification for Behavior Change in Alcohol and Smoking Addiction: Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Individual Participant Data Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2019-01-14 Marilisa Boffo, Oulmann Zerhouni, Quentin F. Gronau, Ruben J. J. van Beek, Kyriaki Nikolaou, Maarten Marsman, Reinout W. Wiers
Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM) refers to a family of interventions targeting substance-related cognitive biases, which have been found to play a role in the maintenance of addictive behaviors. In this study, we conducted a Bayesian meta-analysis of individual patient data from studies investigating the effects of CBM as a behavior change intervention for the treatment of alcohol and tobacco use disorders, in individuals aware of the behavior change goal of the studies. Main outcomes included reduction in the targeted cognitive biases after the intervention and in substance use or relapse rate at the short-to-long term follow-up. Additional moderators, both at the study-level (type of addiction and CBM training) and at the participant-level (amount of completed training trials, severity of substance use), were progressively included in a series of hierarchical mixed-effects models. We included 14 studies involving 2435 participants. CBM appeared to have a small effect on cognitive bias (0.23, 95% credible interval = 0.06–0.41) and relapse rate (−0.27, 95% credible interval = −0.68 – 0.22), but not on reduction of substance use. Increased training practice showed a paradoxical moderation effect on relapse, with a relatively lower chance of relapse in the control condition with increased practice, compared to the training condition. All effects were associated with extremely wide 95% credible intervals, which indicate the absence of enough evidence in favor or against a reliable effect of CBM on cognitive bias and relapse rate in alcohol and tobacco use disorders. Besides the need for a larger body of evidence, research on the topic would benefit from a stronger adherence to the current methodological standards in randomized controlled trial design and the systematic investigation of shared protocols of CBM.
A Patient-Tailored Evidence-Based Approach for Developing Early Neuropsychological Training Programs in Addiction Settings Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2019-01-03 Benjamin Rolland, Fabien D’Hondt, Solène Montègue, Mélanie Brion, Eric Peyron, Julia D’Aviau de Ternay, Philippe de Timary, Mikaïl Nourredine, Pierre Maurage
Substance use disorders (SUDs) are associated with impairments of cognitive functions, and cognitive training programs are thus rapidly developing in SUD treatment. However, neuropsychological impairments observed early after withdrawal (i.e., early impairments), that is, approximately in the first six months, may be widespread. Consequently, it might not be possible to train all the identified early impairments. In these situations, we propose that the priority of cognitive training should be given to the early impairments found to be associated with early dropout or relapse (i.e., relapse-related impairments). However, substance-specific relapse-related impairments have not been singled out among all early impairments so far. Using a systematic literature search, we identified the types of established early impairments for all SUDs, and we assessed the extent to which these early impairments were found to be associated with relapse-related impairments. All cognitive functions were investigated according to a classification based on current neuropsychological models, distinguishing classical cognitive, substance-bias, and social cognition systems. According to the current evidence, demonstrated relapse-related impairments in alcohol use disorder comprised impulsivity, long-term memory, and higher-order executive functions. For cannabis use disorder, the identified relapse-related impairments were impulsivity and working memory. For stimulant use disorder, the identified relapse-related impairments were attentional abilities and higher-order executive functions. For opioid use disorder, the only identified relapse-related impairments were higher executive functions. However, many early impairments were not explored with respect to dropout/relapse, particularly for stimulant and opioid use disorders. The current literature reveals substance-specific relapse-related impairments, which supports a pragmatic patient-tailored approach for defining which early impairments should be prioritized in terms of training among patients with SUDs.
Evaluating Spelling in Glioma Patients Undergoing Awake Surgery: a Systematic Review Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-12-21 Fleur van Ierschot, Roelien Bastiaanse, Gabriele Miceli
A main goal of awake surgery is to preserve language in order to facilitate return to work and maintain quality of life. Although spelling has become crucial in daily life, it has received little attention in awake surgery practice. We review assessments of spelling carried out in awake surgery studies, to inspect how current neurofunctional theories of spelling may guide pre-, intra- and post-operative neurosurgical practice. A systematic database search in Embase, Medline, PubMed and Web of Science identified studies reporting on spelling assessment in glioma patients undergoing awake surgery. Twenty-three studies were included, of which only 9 report details on spelling assessments. We evaluate the incidence of dysgraphia in glioma patients, the types of spelling errors as a function of tumor location, and the specificity of spelling sites with respect to other language functions. Post-operative dysgraphia arose in 26.9% of the patients with preserved pre-operative handwriting, and persisted in 45.0% of them at follow-up. Intra-operative stimulation interfered only with handwriting in 37.7% of the patients. A network of frontal, parietal and temporal regions was found to underlie central and peripheral spelling processes. Evidence on spelling performance in patients undergoing awake surgery for gliomas is surprisingly scarce. With the limitations inherent in the small number of observations, results converge with the neurofunctional knowledge accruing from studies of stroke cases. Such knowledge should be exploited in more thorough investigations of spelling skills in glioma patients. Implications for clinical and neuroscientific practice are discussed, as well as possible strategies to overcome current limitations.
Correction to: The Neural Substrate of Reward Anticipation in Health: A Meta-Analysis of fMRI Findings in the Monetary Incentive Delay Task Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-12-14 Robin Paul Wilson, Marco Colizzi, Matthijs Geert Bossong, Paul Allen, Matthew Kempton, MTAC, Sagnik Bhattacharyya
The members of MTAC were removed from the author group and full list are shown in the Acknowledgements section. Also, members “Roee, A” and “Van Amselvoort, T” should be “Admon, R" and “Van Amelsvoort, T”, respectively. The original article has been corrected.
The ‘Neglected’ Personal Neglect Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-12-13 Pietro Caggiano, Mervi Jehkonen
A review of patients with brain injury showing personal neglect is presented. The aim is to shed light on this aspect of neglect often unresearched or only indirectly investigated, and to discuss recent findings concerning the methods used to assess personal neglect, its neural correlates and its association with the more often explored aspect of extrapersonal neglect. The review was performed using PubMed and PsychInfo databases to search for papers published in the last 123 years (until January 2018). We reviewed 81 papers describing either single or group studies for a total of 2247 patients. The results of this review showed that various aspects of personal neglect are still controversial and outcomes potentially contradictory. Despite the data reported in the present review suggest that personal neglect is more frequently associated with lesions of the right hemisphere, the left hemisphere may also play an important role. Not surprisingly, personal neglect and extrapersonal neglect seem to co-occur. However double dissociations of these two forms of neglect have been reported, and they seem to dissociate both from a functional and an anatomical perspective. More recent interpretations of personal neglect suggest that it may result from a disrupted body representation. The development of reliable psychometric tools with shared diagnostic criteria is essential to identify different degrees of personal neglect for different body parts and to better refine personal neglect in comparison to extrapersonal neglect and disorders related to distortions of personal domain.
Efficacy of Invasive and Non-Invasive Brain Modulation Interventions for Addiction Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-12-07 Judy Luigjes, Rebecca Segrave, Niels de Joode, Martijn Figee, Damiaan Denys
It is important to find new treatments for addiction due to high relapse rates despite current interventions and due to expansion of the field with non-substance related addictive behaviors. Neuromodulation may provide a new type of treatment for addiction since it can directly target abnormalities in neurocircuits. We review literature on five neuromodulation techniques investigated for efficacy in substance related and behavioral addictions: transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), (repetitive) transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), EEG, fMRI neurofeedback and deep brain stimulation (DBS) and additionally report on effects of these interventions on addiction-related cognitive processes. While rTMS and tDCS, mostly applied at the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, show reductions in immediate craving for various addictive substances, placebo-responses are high and long-term outcomes are understudied. The lack in well-designed EEG-neurofeedback studies despite decades of investigation impedes conclusions about its efficacy. Studies investigating fMRI neurofeedback are new and show initial promising effects on craving, but future trials are needed to investigate long-term and behavioral effects. Case studies report prolonged abstinence of opioids or alcohol with ventral striatal DBS but difficulties with patient inclusion may hinder larger, controlled trials. DBS in neuropsychiatric patients modulates brain circuits involved in reward processing, extinction and negative-reinforcement that are also relevant for addiction. To establish the potential of neuromodulation for addiction, more randomized controlled trials are needed that also investigate treatment duration required for long-term abstinence and potential synergy with other addiction interventions. Finally, future advancement may be expected from tailoring neuromodulation techniques to specific patient (neurocognitive) profiles.
Prevalence of Depression, Anxiety and PTSD in People with Dementia: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-12-07 J. K. Kuring, J. L. Mathias, L. Ward
There appears to be a link between depression/anxiety/PTSD and dementia, although the evidence is incomplete and the reason is unclear. Mental illness may cause dementia or may be prodromal or comorbid with dementia, or dementia may trigger a relapse of symptoms in individuals with a history of mental illness. This study examined the link between depression/anxiety/PTSD and dementia by evaluating the prevalence of these disorders in people with dementia, relative to their healthy peers. Existing meta-analyses have examined the prevalence of clinically-significant depression and anxiety in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and depression in frontotemporal dementia (FTD), but have not considered vascular dementia (VaD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), PTSD, or anxiety in FTD. The current meta-analysis compared the prevalence of clinically-significant depression, anxiety and PTSD in the four most common types of dementia (AD, VaD, DLB, FTD) and in unspecified dementia to that of healthy controls (PROSPERO number: CRD42017082086). PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL database searches identified 120 eligible studies. Prevalence rates were calculated for depression and anxiety in AD, VaD, DLB, FTD, unspecified dementia, and controls. PTSD data were only available for unspecified dementia. Subgroup analyses indicated that depression, but not anxiety, was more prevalent in people with dementia compared to controls; however, the anxiety analyses were probably under-powered. The results support a link between depression and dementia; however, the link between anxiety or PTSD and dementia remains unclear due to insufficient data. Longitudinal data is now needed to clarify whether depression/anxiety/PTSD may be risk factors for dementia.
Delusions in Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review of Published Cases Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-08-02 Nicola Warren, Cullen O’Gorman, Zena Hume, Steve Kisely, Dan Siskind
Delusions in Parkinson’s disease (PD) are thought to be associated with disease progression and cognitive impairment. However, this symptom description is not consistent in the literature and there is a suggestion that different subgroups of psychotic patients occur in PD, which we aimed to clarify. Case reports were identified through a systematic search of databases (PUBMED, EMBASE, PsychInfo). Cases with isolated delusions were compared to those with both delusions and hallucinations. We identified 184 cases of delusions in PD. Delusions were primarily paranoid in nature (83%) and isolated in 50%. Those with isolated delusions had an earlier onset of PD (46 years vs 55 years), higher rates of impulse control disorders (40.2 vs 10.3%), dopamine dysregulation (29.9 vs 11.3%) and lower rates of cognitive impairment (8.0 vs 26.8%). There is unexpected heterogeneity amongst cases of delusional psychosis, that cannot adequately be explained by existing models of PD psychosis.
General and Domain-Specific Effectiveness of Cognitive Remediation after Stroke: Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-07-13 Jeffrey M. Rogers, Rachael Foord, Renerus J. Stolwyk, Dana Wong, Peter H. Wilson
Cognitive remediation (CR) has been shown to improve cognitive abilities following a stroke. However, an updated quantitative literature review is needed to synthesize recent research and build understanding of factors that may optimize training parameters and treatment effects. Randomized controlled trials of CR were retrieved from seven electronic databases. Studies specific to adult stroke populations were included. Treatment effects were estimated using a random effects model, with immediate and longer-term follow-up outcomes, and moderator effects, examined for both overall and domain-specific functioning. Twenty-two studies were identified yielding 1098 patients (583 in CR groups). CR produced a small overall effect (g = 0.48, 95% CI 0.35–0.60, p < 0.01) compared with control conditions. This effect was moderated by recovery stage (p < 0.01), study quality (p = 0.04), and dose (p = 0.04), but not CR approach (p = 0.63). Significant small to medium (g = 0.25–0.75) post-intervention gains were evident within each individual outcome domain examined. A small overall effect (g = 0.27, 95% CI 0.04–0.51, p = 0.02) of CR persisted at follow-up (range 2–52 weeks). CR is effective and efficient at improving cognitive performance after stroke. The degree of efficacy varies across cognitive domains, and further high-quality research is required to enhance and sustain the immediate effects. Increased emphasis on early intervention approaches, brain-behavior relationships, and evaluation of activity and participation outcomes is also recommended.
The Effects of rTMS on Impulsivity in Normal Adults: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-05-05 Cheng-Chang Yang, Birgit Völlm, Najat Khalifa
Impulsivity is a multi-dimensional construct that is regarded as a symptom of many psychiatric disorders. Harm resulting from impulsive behaviour can be substantial for the individuals concerned, for their social network, and for wider society. Therefore, the importance of developing therapeutic interventions to target impulsivity is paramount. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature from AMED, Embase, Medline, and PsycINFO databases on the use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in healthy adults to modulate different subdomains (motor, temporal and reflection) of impulsivity. The results indicated that rTMS has distinct effects on different impulsivity subdomains. It has a significant, albeit small, effect on modulating motor impulsivity (g = 0.30, 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.43, p < .001) and a moderate effect on temporal impulsivity (g = 0.59, 95% CI, 0.32 to 0.86, p < .001). Subgroup analyses (e.g., excitatory vs. inhibitory rTMS, conventional rTMS vs. theta burst stimulation, analyses by stimulation sites, and type of outcome measure used) identified key parameters associated with the effects of rTMS on motor and temporal impulsivity. Age, sex, stimulation intensity and the number of pulses were not significant moderators for effects of rTMS on motor impulsivity. Due to lack of sufficient data to inform a meta-analysis, it has not been possible to assess the effects of rTMS on reflection impulsivity. The present findings provide preliminary evidence that rTMS can be used to modulate motor and temporal impulsivity in healthy individuals. Further studies are required to extend the use of rTMS to modulate impulsivity in those at most risk of engaging in harmful behaviour as a result of impulsivity, such as patients with offending histories and those with a history of self-harming behaviour.
Executive Function and Theory of Mind in Children with ADHD: a Systematic Review Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-08-30 Wilmar Pineda-Alhucema, Edith Aristizabal, Johana Escudero-Cabarcas, Johan E. Acosta-López, Jorge I. Vélez
In developmental research, the relationship between Executive Function (EF) and Theory of Mind (ToM) has been extensively assessed, and EF has been considered a condition for ToM. However, few researchers have studied the relationship between EF and ToM in clinical populations, especially that of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention and motor hyperactivity/impulsivity, in which EF is largely impaired. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) model, 201 English and Spanish articles evaluating EF and ToM in ADHD were chosen. Fifteen papers met the inclusion criteria and were selected for further analysis. The first study dates from 2001. Most of the studies’ designs are cross-sectional, include mostly male children, have a small sample size, and were conducted in European countries. Unlike tasks assessing EF, tasks assessing ToM were heterogeneous across studies. The EFs most correlated with ToM were inhibitory control, working memory, cognitive flexibility, and attention. Interest in studying the relationship between EF and ToM in ADHD is recent,but increasing based on new findings and tuning of ToM instruments. However, while an association between EF and ToM is indicated in ADHD, the degree of prediction and predictability of one over the other cannot yet be established because of the studies’ heterogeneity.
Social Function and Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children and Adults with Neurofibromatosis Type 1: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-08-11 Anita K. Chisholm, Vicki A. Anderson, Natalie A. Pride, Stephanie Malarbi, Kathryn N. North, Jonathan M. Payne
In light of the proliferation of recent research into social function in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a systematic review and meta-analysis is required to synthesise data and place findings within the context of a theoretical framework. This paper reviews findings from research into social function and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children and adults with NF1 and integrates these findings with the Socio-Cognitive Integration Abilities Model (SOCIAL). It also critically appraises links between social outcomes, internal and external factors moderating social functioning, cognitive domains implicated in social functioning, and underlying neural pathology in NF1. A systematic literature search conducted in MedLine (Ovid), PsycINFO (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), and PubMed electronic databases yielded 35 papers that met inclusion criteria for the systematic review. Out of these papers, 22 papers provided sufficient data for meta-analysis. Findings from this review and meta-analysis provide evidence that children and adults with NF1 exhibit significantly higher prevalence and severity of social dysfunction and ASD symptomatology. To date, very few studies have examined social cognition in NF1 but results indicate the presence of both perceptual and higher-level impairments in this population. The results of this review also provide support for age, gender, and comorbid ADHD as moderating factors for social outcomes in NF1. Suggestions for future research are offered to further our understanding of the social phenotype in NF1 and to facilitate the development of targeted interventions.
RBANS Validity Indices: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-05-16 Robert D. Shura, Timothy W. Brearly, Jared A. Rowland, Sarah L. Martindale, Holly M. Miskey, Kevin Duff
Neuropsychology practice organizations have highlighted the need for thorough evaluation of performance validity as part of the neuropsychological assessment process. Embedded validity indices are derived from existing measures and expand the scope of validity assessment. The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) is a brief instrument that quickly allows a clinician to assess a variety of cognitive domains. The RBANS also contains multiple embedded validity indicators. The purpose of this study was to synthesize the utility of those indicators to assess performance validity. A systematic search was completed, resulting in 11 studies for synthesis and 10 for meta-analysis. Data were synthesized on four indices and three subtests across samples of civilians, service members, and veterans. Sufficient data for meta-analysis were only available for the Effort Index, and related analyses indicated optimal cutoff scores of ≥1 (AUC = .86) and ≥ 3 (AUC = .85). However, outliers and heterogeneity were present indicating the importance of age and evaluation context. Overall, embedded validity indicators have shown adequate diagnostic accuracy across a variety of populations. Recommendations for interpreting these measures and future studies are provided.
A Systematic Review of Cognition in Chiari I Malformation Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Jeffrey M. Rogers, Greg Savage, Marcus A. Stoodley
Displacement of the cerebellar tonsils in Chiari type I malformation (CMI) can affect functions controlled by the cerebellum and brainstem. While playing an integral role in the control of movement, the cerebellum also has widespread cortical connections, influencing a range of cognitive process. A systematic literature review was conducted to examine the relationship between cognition and CMI, assessing evidence for general or domain-specific cognitive change. The search protocol examined the AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases. Articles meeting the following criteria were included in this review (i) examined children or adults with a clinically defined diagnosis of CMI, (ii) assessed cognitive function with a prospective examination, (iii) included at least one standardized instrument designed to measure general or specific domains of cognitive function, and (iv) were published in English in a peer-reviewed journal. Twelve articles were identified, including 783 cases aged 3 months to 64 years. General cognition, processing speed, and learning and memory appeared less affected, while language deficits appeared to diminish with age. Executive dysfunction was the most commonly reported cognitive impairment, while attention and working memory, and visuospatial and perceptual skills also appeared vulnerable. Numerous methodological limitations were identified that should be considered in interpreting the impact of CMI and planning future investigations. Overall, there is currently insufficient evidence to describe a valid and reliable profile of cognitive impairment in CMI. Further research is required to confirm these preliminary psychometric results and integrate them with pathophysiological models
The Study of Language in the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis - Frontotemporal Spectrum Disorder: a Systematic Review of Findings and New Perspectives Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-04-28 Marta Pinto-Grau, Orla Hardiman, Niall Pender
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized primarily by motor network disruption. Extra-motor manifestations including executive functions, social cognition, and behavioral changes are now well recognized as important features of ALS, and are associated with frontotemporal and frontostriatal network disruption. However, the presence and characterization of language changes has received less attention. This systematic review characterizes the profile of reported language dysfunction in ALS. PRISMA guidelines were implemented to carry out and report the review. Current evidence suggests that areas of neuroanatomical disruption in ALS spread to language centers such as posterior, inferior frontal and superior temporal areas leading to deficits in word retrieval, syntactic and grammatical processing, and spelling. However, the majority of studies of language in ALS have been limited by the recruitment of small clinic-based prevalent samples and important questions remain regarding the incidence and progression of language impairment in ALS. Further studies from population-based incident cohorts will help to determine the range of language deficits in ALS, and how these relate to previously defined executive and behavioral sub-phenotypes.
Neurocognitive Functioning in Depressed Young People: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-04-22 Joanne Goodall, Caroline Fisher, Sarah Hetrick, Lisa Phillips, Emma M. Parrish, Kelly Allott
Background: Depression is among the most common mental health problems for young people. In adults, depression is associated with neurocognitive deficits that reduce the effectiveness of treatment and impair educational and vocational functioning. Compared to adults, less is known about the neurocognitive functioning of young people with depression, and existing research has reported inconsistent findings. Method: This systematic review and meta-analysis synthesized the literature on neurocognitive functioning in currently depressed youth aged 12–25 years in comparison to healthy controls. Results: Following a systematic review of the literature, 23 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Poorer performance in the domains of attention (SMD: .50, 95% CI: .18–.83, p = .002), verbal memory (SMD: .78, 95% CI: .50–1.0, p < .001), visual memory (SMD: .65, 95% CI: .30–.99, p < .001), verbal reasoning/knowledge (SMD: .46; 95% CI: .14–.79; p < 0.001) and IQ (SMD: .32; 95% CI: .08–.56; p = 0.01) were identified in depressed youth. Relative weaknesses in processing speed/reaction time and verbal learning were also evident, however, these findings disappeared when the quality of studies was controlled for. Moderator analysis showed a tendency for poorer set-shifting ability in younger depressed participants relative to controls (although non-significant; p = .05). Moderator analysis of medication status showed taking medication was associated with poorer attentional functioning compared to those not taking medication. Conclusion: The findings suggest that currently depressed young people display a range of neurocognitive weaknesses which may impact treatment engagement and outcome. The findings support the need to consider neurocognitive functioning when treating youth with depression.
Executive Functions in Children and Adolescents with Turner Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-04-27 Claire Mauger, Céline Lancelot, Arnaud Roy, Régis Coutant, Nicole Cantisano, Didier Le Gall
Turner syndrome (TS) is a genetic disorder, affecting 1/2500 to 1/3000 live female births, induced by partial or total deletion of one X chromosome. The neurocognitive profile of girls with TS is characterized by a normal Verbal IQ and weaknesses in visual-spatial, mathematics, and social cognitive domains. Executive functions (EFs) impairments have also been reported in these young patients. However, methodological differences across studies do not allow determination of which EFs are impaired and what is the magnitude of these impairments. The aim of this review was to clarify the EF profile of children and adolescents with TS. Sixteen samples, from thirteen studies, were included in the current meta-analysis. EFs measures used in these studies were classified into working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, or higher-order EFs tasks in accordance with Diamond’s model, Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 135–168 (2013). Results confirmed that girls with TS had significant executive impairments with effect sizes varying from small (inhibitory control) to medium (cognitive flexibility) and large (working memory, higher-order EFs). Analyses by task revealed that cognitive inhibition may be more impaired than the other inhibitory control abilities. Heterogeneity across cognitive flexibility measures was also highlighted. Between-sample heterogeneity was observed for three tasks and the impact of participants’ characteristics on EFs was discussed. This meta-analysis confirms the necessity to assess, in patients living with TS, each EF by combining both visual and verbal tasks. Results also underline that, when studying girls with TS’ executive profile, it is important to explore the impact of moderator variables, such as IQ, parental socio-economic status, TS karyotype, psychiatric comorbidities, and hormonal treatment status.
Neurodevelopmental consequences of pediatric cancer and its treatment: applying an early adversity framework to understanding cognitive, behavioral, and emotional outcomes Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2017-12-22 Hilary A. Marusak, Allesandra S. Iadipaolo, Felicity W. Harper, Farrah Elrahal, Jeffrey W. Taub, Elimelech Goldberg, Christine A. Rabinak
Today, children are surviving pediatric cancer at unprecedented rates, making it one of modern medicine’s true success stories. However, we are increasingly becoming aware of several deleterious effects of cancer and the subsequent “cure” that extend beyond physical sequelae. Indeed, survivors of childhood cancer commonly report cognitive, emotional, and psychological difficulties, including attentional difficulties, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Cognitive late- and long-term effects have been largely attributed to neurotoxic effects of cancer treatments (e.g., chemotherapy, cranial irradiation, surgery) on brain development. The role of childhood adversity in pediatric cancer – namely, the presence of a life-threatening disease and endurance of invasive medical procedures – has been largely ignored in the existing neuroscientific literature, despite compelling research by our group and others showing that exposure to more commonly studied adverse childhood experiences (i.e., domestic and community violence, physical, sexual, and emotional abuse) strongly imprints on neural development. While these adverse childhood experiences are different in many ways from the experience of childhood cancer (e.g., context, nature, source), they do share a common element of exposure to threat (i.e., threat to life or physical integrity). Therefore, we argue that the double hit of early threat and cancer treatments likely alters neural development, and ultimately, cognitive, behavioral, and emotional outcomes. In this paper, we (1) review the existing neuroimaging research on child, adolescent, and adult survivors of childhood cancer, (2) summarize gaps in our current understanding, (3) propose a novel neurobiological framework that characterizes childhood cancer as a type of childhood adversity, particularly a form of early threat, focusing on development of the hippocampus and the salience and emotion network (SEN), and (4) outline future directions for research.
Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Computerized Cognitive Training on Executive Functions: a Cross-Disciplinary Taxonomy for Classifying Outcome Cognitive Factors Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-05-03 Shannon L. Webb, Vanessa Loh, Amit Lampit, Joel E. Bateman, Damian P. Birney
The growing prevalence of neurodegenerative disorders associated with aging and cognitive decline has generated increasing cross-disciplinary interest in non-pharmacological interventions, such as computerized cognitive training (CCT), which may prevent or slow cognitive decline. However, inconsistent findings across meta-analytic reviews in the field suggest a lack of cross-disciplinary consensus and on-going debate regarding the benefits of CCT. We posit that a contributing factor is the lack of a theoretically-based taxonomy of constructs and representative tasks typically used. An integration of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) taxonomy of broad and narrow cognitive factors and the Miyake unity-diversity theory of executive functions (EF) is proposed (CHC-M) as an attempt to clarify this issue through representing and integrating the disciplines contributing to CCT research. The present study assessed the utility of this taxonomy by reanalyzing the Lampit et al. (2014) meta-analysis of CCT in healthy older adults using the CHC-M framework. Results suggest that: 1) substantively different statistical effects are observed when CHC-M is applied to the Lampit et al. meta-analytic review, leading to importantly different interpretations of the data; 2) typically-used classification practices conflate Executive Function (EF) tasks with fluid reasoning (Gf) and retrieval fluency (Gr), and Attention with sensory perception; and 3) there is theoretical and practical advantage in differentiating attention and working-memory tasks into the narrow shifting, inhibition, and updating EF domains. Implications for clinical practice, particularly for our understanding of EF are discussed.
The Trajectory of Pseudoneglect in Adults: A Systematic Review Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-11-21 Trista E. Friedrich, Paulette V. Hunter, Lorin J. Elias
Neurologically healthy adults tend to display a reliable leftward perceptual bias during visuospatial tasks, a phenomenon known as pseudoneglect. However, the phenomenon in older adults is not well understood, and a synthesis of research that examines pseudoneglect using the line bisection task, as well as other tasks, in the context of aging is lacking. The aim of the current systematic review is to integrate the available research on pseudoneglect in late adulthood, and to discuss the association between age and a bias to the left hemispace. The systematic search revealed that five different tasks have been used to examine pseudoneglect in younger and older adults, and that participants over 60 years of age have demonstrated inconsistent perceptual biases (e.g., enhanced leftward bias, suppressed leftward bias, and rightward bias). Based on current evidence, although some age-related trends in the perceptual bias can be identified within each task, no firm conclusions about the effects of age on pseudoneglect can be drawn. A number of recommendations for future research are outlined throughout the review, including use of smaller age ranges within age groups, differentiating between neurologically healthy participants and those with clinical diagnoses, continued examination of gender, and consistent use of stimuli and methods of analyses within each task to improve internal comparability.
A Systematic Review of Cognitive Outcomes in Angiographically Negative Subarachnoid Haemorrhage Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-10-23 Tom Burke, Stephanie Hughes, Alan Carr, Mohsen Javadpour, Niall Pender
Clinical outcomes, including performance on cognitive assessment, in patients with angiographically negative subarachnoid haemorrhage (anSAH) are often interpreted as benign with a good prognostic trajectory. However, diffuse cognitive deficits have been reported within this patient cohort resulting from anSAH, albeit to a lesser extent when compared to other neurovascular events. We consider cognitive outcomes in relation to anSAH to systematically review reported deficits, with a view to quantify and categorise cognitive impairment in this cohort. Anxiety and depression were also included within this review, provided they were assessed alongside cognitive function. Performance deficits in attention and executive function are commonly reported, with set-shifting and interference tasks most commonly impaired in patients. Non-executive cognitive functions are negatively implicated also. Clinical implications and hypotheses relating to the source of these deficits are discussed. This review was formally registered with PROSPERO (CRD42017075294).
Cognitive Deficits in Psychotic Disorders: A Lifespan Perspective Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-10-20 Julia M. Sheffield, Nicole R. Karcher, Deanna M. Barch
Individuals with disorders that include psychotic symptoms (i.e. psychotic disorders) experience broad cognitive impairments in the chronic state, indicating a dimension of abnormality associated with the experience of psychosis. These impairments negatively impact functional outcome, contributing to the disabling nature of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and psychotic depression. The robust and reliable nature of cognitive deficits has led researchers to explore the timing and profile of impairments, as this may elucidate different neurodevelopmental patterns in individuals who experience psychosis. Here, we review the literature on cognitive deficits across the life span of individuals with psychotic disorder and psychotic-like experiences, highlighting the dimensional nature of both psychosis and cognitive ability. We identify premorbid generalized cognitive impairment in schizophrenia that worsens throughout development, and stabilizes by the first-episode of psychosis, suggesting a neurodevelopmental course. Research in affective psychosis is less clear, with mixed evidence regarding premorbid deficits, but a fairly reliable generalized deficit at first-episode, which appears to worsen into the chronic state. In general, cognitive impairments are most severe in schizophrenia, intermediate in bipolar disorder, and the least severe in psychotic depression. In all groups, cognitive deficits are associated with poorer functional outcome. Finally, while the generalized deficit is the clearest and most reliable signal, data suggests specific deficits in verbal memory across all groups, specific processing speed impairments in schizophrenia and executive functioning impairments in bipolar disorder. Cognitive deficits are a core feature of psychotic disorders that provide a window into understanding developmental course and risk for psychosis.
Let’s Open the Decision-Making Umbrella: A Framework for Conceptualizing and Assessing Features of Impaired Decision Making in Addiction Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-10-06 Lucien Rochat, Pierre Maurage, Alexandre Heeren, Joël Billieux
Decision-making impairments play a pivotal role in the emergence and maintenance of addictive disorders. However, a sound conceptualization of decision making as an umbrella construct, encompassing its cognitive, affective, motivational, and physiological subcomponents, is still lacking. This prevents an efficient evaluation of the heterogeneity of decision-making impairments and the development of tailored treatment. This paper thus unfolds the various processes involved in decision making by adopting a critical approach of prominent dual- or triadic-process models, which postulate that decision making is influenced by the interplay of impulsive-automatic, reflective-controlled, and interoceptive processes. Our approach also focuses on social cognition processes, which play a crucial role in decision making and addictive disorders but were largely ignored in previous dual- or triadic-process models. We propose here a theoretical framework in which a range of coordinated processes are first identified on the basis of their theoretical and clinical relevance. Each selected process is then defined before reviewing available results underlining its role in addictive disorders (i.e., substance use, gambling, and gaming disorders). Laboratory tasks for measuring each process are also proposed, initiating a preliminary process-based decision-making assessment battery. This original approach may offer an especially informative view of the constitutive features of decision-making impairments in addiction. As prior research has implicated these features as risk factors for the development and maintenance of addictive disorders, our processual approach sets the scene for novel and transdiagnostic experimental and applied research avenues.
Neuropsychological Interventions for Decision-Making in Addiction: a Systematic Review Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-09-26 Antonio Verdejo-García, Miguel A. Alcázar-Córcoles, Natalia Albein-Urios
Decision-making deficits are strong predictors of poor clinical outcomes in addiction treatment. However, research on interventions that address decision-making deficits among people with addiction is scarce and has not been analyzed. We aimed to systematically review evidence on neuropsychological interventions for decision-making deficits in addiction to identify promising therapies. Eligibility criteria were (1) participants with a diagnosis of substance use or behavioral addictive disorders, (2) interventions consisting of (neuro) psychological treatments that address decision-making, (3) comparators comprising control (sham) interventions, treatment as usual or no-treatment, (4) outcomes including a decision-making task, and (5) studies including RCTs and non-randomized trials. Search terms included addiction (or alcohol/drug/substance use/gambling) AND treatment (or specific interventions) AND decision-making (or specific tasks). The search yielded 728 hits, and two independent assessors agreed on the final selection of 12 articles. Interventions included Contingency Management (3 studies), Working Memory Training (2 studies) Goal Management Training (2 studies), Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (2 studies), Reality Therapy, Motivational Interview and Monetary Management. The main outcome measures were tasks of delay discounting, risk-taking and reward-based decision-making. Results showed that Goal Management Training improves reward-based decision-making, while Contingency Management combined with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy has beneficial effects on delay discounting. The evidence on Working Memory Training and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy as stand-alone treatments was mixed. Motivational Interview and Monetary Management had no significant effects on decision-making. Bias control across studies was moderate. We conclude that Goal Management Training and Contingency Management combined with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy have potential to modify decision-making in people with addiction. RCTs are needed to establish the efficacy of these interventions.
The Neural Substrate of Reward Anticipation in Health: A Meta-Analysis of fMRI Findings in the Monetary Incentive Delay Task Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-09-25 Robin Paul Wilson, Marco Colizzi, Matthijs Geert Bossong, Paul Allen, Matthew Kempton, MTAC, N. Abe, A. R. Barros-Loscertales, J. Bayer, A. Beck, J. Bjork, R. Boecker, J. C. Bustamante, J. S. Choi, S. Delmonte, D. Dillon, M. Figee, H. Garavan, C. Hagele, E. J. Hermans, ICCAM Consortium, Y. Ikeda, V. Kappel, C. Kaufmann, C. Lamm, S. E. Lammertz, Y. Li, A. Murphy, L. Nestor, M. Pecina, D. Pfabigan, D. Pizzagalli, L. Rademacher, A. Roee, T. Sommer, R. Stark, H. Suzuki, T. Van Amselvoort, E. Van Hell, M. Vink, M. Votinov, D. Wotruba, Sagnik Bhattacharyya
The monetary incentive delay task breaks down reward processing into discrete stages for fMRI analysis. Here we look at anticipation of monetary gain and loss contrasted with neutral anticipation. We meta-analysed data from 15 original whole-brain group maps (n = 346) and report extensive areas of relative activation and deactivation throughout the whole brain. For both anticipation of gain and loss we report robust activation of the striatum, activation of key nodes of the putative salience network, including anterior cingulate and anterior insula, and more complex patterns of activation and deactivation in the central executive and default networks. On between-group comparison, we found significantly greater relative deactivation in the left inferior frontal gyrus associated with incentive valence. This meta-analysis provides a robust whole-brain map of a reward anticipation network in the healthy human brain.
Distinct Activity Patterns of the Human Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis and Amygdala during Fear Learning Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-09-18 Kelly Luyck, Travis D. Goode, Haemy Lee Masson, Laura Luyten
The amygdala and, more recently, also the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, have been widely implicated in fear and anxiety. Much of our current knowledge is derived from animal studies and suggests an intricate convergence and divergence in functions related to defensive responding. In a recent paper, Klumpers and colleagues set out to examine these functions in a human fear learning procedure using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Their main findings were a role for the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in threat anticipation, and for the amygdala in threat confrontation. Here, we provide a critical summary of this interesting study and point out some important issues that were not addressed by its authors. In particular, we first take a closer look at the striking differences between both samples that were combined for the study, and, secondly, we provide an in-depth discussion of their findings in relation to existing neurobehavioral models.
Non-Gaussian Distributional Analyses of Reaction Times (RT): Improvements that Increase Efficacy of RT Tasks for Describing Cognitive Processes Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-09-03 David C. Osmon, Dmitriy Kazakov, Octavio Santos, Michelle T. Kassel
This didactic aims of this review are to demonstrate the advantages of examining the entire reaction time (RT) distribution to better realize the efficacy of mental speed assessment in clinical neuropsychology. RT distributions are typically non-normal, requiring consideration of a host of statistical issues. Specifically, the appropriate model of the mental speed task’s distribution (e.g., ex-Gaussian, Weibull, Normal-Gaussian, etc.) must be determined to know what parameters can be used to characterize test performance. While RT mean and standard deviation are typically used to characterize clinical performance, these parameters are usually inappropriate because RT performance rarely conforms to a normal-Gaussian distribution. For illustrative purposes, a tutorial for examining the entire RT distribution is provided that demonstrates differences between an Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity and a neurotypical group of college students. While such analyses are descriptive, it is important to characterize test performance in the context of a theoretical model of RT performance. Therefore, the tutorial includes interpretation that uses the Diffusion model (Ratcliff Psychological Review, 85, 59-108, 1978), which assumes an ex-Gaussian distribution. It is concluded that current results conform to a large literature demonstrating a more nuanced understanding of cognition afforded by non-Gaussian analysis of RT. This literature is compelling neuropsychology to enlarge assessment technology beyond the limitations of paper-and-pencil instruments.
The Effect of Non-Stroke Cardiovascular Disease States on Risk for Cognitive Decline and Dementia: A Systematic and Meta-Analytic Review Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2017-08-30 Kayla B. Stefanidis, Christopher D. Askew, Kim Greaves, Mathew J. Summers
Cardiovascular disease is associated with increased risk for cognitive decline and dementia, but it is unclear whether this risk varies across disease states or occurs in the absence of symptomatic stroke. To examine the evidence of increased risk for cognitive decline and dementia following non-stroke cardiovascular disease we conducted two independent meta-analyses in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. The first review examined cardiovascular diagnoses (atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure, periphery artery disease and myocardial infarction) while the second review assessed the impact of atherosclerotic burden (as indicated by degree of stenosis, calcification score, plaque morphology or number of plaques). Studies eligible for review longitudinally assessed risk for clinically significant cognitive decline and/or dementia and excluded stroke and cognitive impairment at baseline. Summary statistics were computed via the inverse variance weighted method, utilising Cox Proportional Hazards data (Hazard Ratios, HR). Both atrial fibrillation (n = 5, HR = 1.26, 95% CI [1.12, 1.43]) and severe atherosclerosis (n = 4, HR = 1.59, 95% CI [1.12, 2.26]) emerged as significant risk factors for cognitive decline and/or dementia. A small set of studies reviewed, insufficient for meta-analysis, examining congestive heart failure, peripheral artery disease and myocardial infarction suggested that these conditions may also be associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline/dementia. In the absence of stroke, patients with atrial fibrillation or generalised atherosclerosis are at heightened risk for cognitive deterioration. Nonetheless, this paper highlights the need for methodologically rigorous and prospective investigation of the relationship between CVD and dementia.
Prosaccade and Antisaccade Paradigms in Persons with Alzheimer’s Disease: A Meta-Analytic Review Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2017-10-27 Naomi Kahana Levy, Michal Lavidor, Eli Vakil
Persons with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) are at high Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) risk but the development of sensitive measures to assess subtle cognitive decline in this population poses a major challenge for clinicians and researchers. Eye movement monitoring is a non-invasive, sensitive way to assess subtle cognitive processes in clinical populations. We conducted a critical review and a meta-analysis of the literature on pro and antisaccade paradigm in AD/MCI. The meta-analysis included 20 studies, all of which used the prosaccade paradigm and 13 of which studied the antisaccade paradigm as well. Our meta-analysis showed that AD but not MCI patients showed longer prosaccade latencies when compared to controls. While antisaccade latencies did not differentiate between patients from controls, antisaccade error rate were significantly increased among patients in comparison to controls in over 87% of the studies. These findings highlight antisaccade error rate as a reliable tool to distinguish inhibition abilities between AD/MCI and healthy older persons.
Meta-Analysis of Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2017-09-01 Amitai Abramovitch, Gideon Anholt, Sagi Raveh-Gottfried, Naama Hamo, Jonathan S. Abramowitz
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with a moderate degree of underperformance on cognitive tests, including deficient processing speed. However, despite little research focusing on Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in OCD, it has long been speculated that the disorder is associated with elevated intellectual capacity. The present meta-analytic study was, therefore, conducted to quantitatively summarize the literature on IQ in OCD systematically. We identified 98 studies containing IQ data among individuals with OCD and non-psychiatric comparison groups, and computed 108 effect sizes for Verbal IQ (VIQ, n = 55), Performance IQ (PIQ, n = 13), and Full Scale IQ (FSIQ, n = 40). Across studies, small effect sizes were found for FSIQ and VIQ, and a moderate effect size for PIQ, exemplifying reduced IQ in OCD. However, mean IQ scores across OCD samples were in the normative range. Moderator analyses revealed no significant moderating effect across clinical and demographic indices. We conclude that, although lower than controls, OCD is associated with normative FSIQ and VIQ, and relatively lowered PIQ. These results are discussed in light of neuropsychological research in OCD, and particularly the putative impact of reduced processing speed in this population. Recommendations for utilization of IQ tests in OCD, and directions for future studies are offered.
A meta-analysis of the effects of antidepressants on cognitive functioning in depressed and non-depressed samples Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-02-14 Catherine E. Prado, Stephanie Watt, Simon F. Crowe
A thorough understanding of the cognitive effects of antidepressant medications is essential given their frequency of use. This meta-analysis was conducted to investigate whether antidepressants differentially affect the various domains of cognitive functioning for depressed and non-depressed participants. An electronic search of PsycInfo, Medline and Google Scholar was conducted for all journal articles published between January 1998 and January 2017. Thirty-three studies were included enabling calculation of Hedges’ g using a random effects model for the cognitive domains of divided attention, executive function, expressive language, immediate memory, perceptual motor skills, processing speed, recent memory, sustained attention, visuospatial-constructional skills and working memory. Results revealed that overall, antidepressants have a modest, positive effect on divided attention, executive function, immediate memory, processing speed, recent memory and sustained attention for depressed participants. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI’s) were found to have the greatest positive effect on cognition for depressed participants, as compared to the other classes of antidepressants analysed. Antidepressants did not significantly affect cognitive function in non-depressed participants.
Fatigue following Paediatric Acquired Brain Injury and its Impact on Functional Outcomes: A Systematic Review Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Jake Wilkinson, Nohely Lee Marmol, Celia Godfrey, Harriet Wills, Quirine van Eijndhoven, Edith Nardu Botchway, Nikita Sood, Vicki Anderson, Cathy Catroppa
Fatigue is a commonly reported sequela following an acquired brain injury (ABI), and can have a negative impact on many areas of a child’s life. However, there is minimal research that focuses on fatigue specifically, and so factors such as its occurrence, duration, and impact on functioning remain uncertain. This systematic review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the research to date, bringing together a number of studies with a focus on paediatric ABI and fatigue. Terms were searched in relevant databases (PsycInfo, Medline, CINAHL), and articles were included or excluded based on specified criteria. Of the 1177 papers identified in the original search, a total of 9 papers met inclusion criteria, and were categorised as traumatic brain injury (TBI; n = 4), meningitis and meningococcal disease (n = 2), brain tumours (n = 2), and mixed ABI group (n = 1). Key findings suggest that fatigue is a problem encountered by a significant proportion of patients in all the studies reviewed, and often occurred regardless of the cause; fatigue was also associated with poor academic achievement, limited physical activity, and social and emotional problems. Injuries of greater severity were associated with higher levels of fatigue and worse outcomes. Several management options were suggested, though their efficacy was not reported. Future research is required with a suggested focus on using multiple time points to better understand the trajectories of fatigue following childhood ABI, and to build an evidence base to determine which management options are most suitable.
Memory Rehabilitation in Patients with Epilepsy: a Systematic Review Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-02-15 Samantha Joplin, Elizabeth Stewart, Michael Gascoigne, Suncica Lah
Memory failure is a common clinical concern of patients with epilepsy and is associated with significant functional impairments. Thus, memory rehabilitation is of critical clinical importance. In this article, we aimed to systematically evaluate the efficacy of memory rehabilitation in patients with epilepsy. The Preferred Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was used to guide searches, extraction and reporting of data in this review. PsycINFO, Medline and PsychBITE searches yielded 95 studies. Twelve papers met inclusion criteria, reporting outcomes of cognitive or behavioural interventions that specifically targeted the rehabilitation of memory in patients with epilepsy. Methodological rigour was rated using the Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) scale for single-case studies and a modified version of the Downs and Black checklist for group studies. Twelve prospective studies, nine group (six pre-post design, one waitlist crossover, two randomised controlled trials) and three single-case studies were identified. Eleven of the studies included adults, eight of which involved adults with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). One paediatric study was identified. The quality of group studies ranged from 36% (poor) to 72% (good), using the modified Downs and Black checklist. Single-case studies were assessed using the SCED scale and assessed to range in quality from four to seven out to 11. Overall, memory rehabilitation was associated with improved memory function in all studies. Verbal memory outcomes were most commonly examined and associated with improvements. This review found that the level of evidence available to support rehabilitation of memory in patients with epilepsy was generally weak and inconsistent. Nevertheless, studies conducted to date, albeit of limited methodological quality, offer preliminary evidence that memory rehabilitation is associated with improvements in verbal memory in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Little is known about the efficacy of memory rehabilitation in patients with non-TLE, children, and other aspects of memory difficulties. Guidelines for future research are proposed.
Correction to: Detectable Neuropsychological Differences in Early Preclinical Alzheimer’s Disease: a Meta-Analysis Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2017-12-23 S. Duke Han, Caroline P. Nguyen, Nikki H. Stricker, Daniel A. Nation
Abstract Errors were discovered in the reporting of processing speed data that do not impact the interpretation of findings.
Neuropsychological Measures that Predict Progression from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer's type dementia in Older Adults: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2017-10-10 Sylvie Belleville, Céline Fouquet, Carol Hudon, Hervé Tchala Vignon Zomahoun, Jordie Croteau, Consortium for the Early Identification of Alzheimer’s disease-Quebec
This study aimed to determine the extent to which cognitive measures can predict progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer’s type dementia (AD), assess the predictive accuracy of different cognitive domain categories, and determine whether accuracy varies as a function of age and length of follow-up. We systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed data from longitudinal studies reporting sensitivity and specificity values for neuropsychological tests to identify individuals with MCI who will develop AD. We searched articles in Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and the Web of Science. Methodological quality was assessed using the STARDem and QUADAS standards. Twenty-eight studies met the eligibility criteria (2365 participants) and reported predictive values from 61 neuropsychological tests with a 31-month mean follow-up. Values were pooled to provide combined accuracy for 14 cognitive domains. Many domains showed very good predictive accuracy with high sensitivity and specificity values (≥ 0.7). Verbal memory measures and many language tests yielded very high predictive accuracy. Other domains (e.g., executive functions, visual memory) showed better specificity than sensitivity. Predictive accuracy was highest when combining memory measures with a small set of other domains or when relying on broad cognitive batteries. Cognitive tests are excellent at predicting MCI individuals who will progress to dementia and should be a critical component of any toolkit intended to identify AD at the pre-dementia stage. Some tasks are remarkable as early indicators, whereas others might be used to suggest imminent progression.
Detectable Neuropsychological Differences in Early Preclinical Alzheimer’s Disease: A Meta-Analysis Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2017-05-11 S. Duke Han, Caroline P. Nguyen, Nikki H. Stricker, Daniel A. Nation
The development of methods for in vivo detection of cerebral beta amyloid retention and tau accumulation have been increasingly useful in characterizing preclinical Alzheimer’s disease (AD). While the association between these biomarkers and eventual AD has been demonstrated among cognitively intact older adults, the link between biomarkers and neurocognitive ability remains unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis to test the hypothesis that cognitively intact older adults would show statistically discernable differences in neuropsychological performance by amyloid status (amyloid negative = A-, amyloid positive = A+). We secondarily hypothesized a third group characterized by either CSF tau pathology or neurodegeneration, in addition to amyloidosis (A+/N+ or Stage 2), would show lower neuropsychology scores than the amyloid positive group (A+/N- or Stage 1) when compared to the amyloid negative group. Pubmed, PsychINFO, and other sources were searched for relevant articles, yielding 775 total sources. After review for inclusion/exclusion criteria, duplicates, and risk of bias, 61 studies were utilized in the final meta-analysis. Results showed A+ was associated with poorer performance in the domains of global cognitive function, memory, language, visuospatial ability, processing speed, and attention/working memory/executive functions when compared to A-. A+/N+ showed lower performances on memory measures when compared to A+/N- in secondary analyses based on a smaller subset of studies. Results support the notion that neuropsychological measures are sensitive to different stages of preclinical AD among cognitively intact older adults. Further research is needed to determine what constitutes meaningful differences in neuropsychological performance among cognitively intact older adults.
Cognitive Interventions for Cognitively Healthy, Mildly Impaired, and Mixed Samples of Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized-Controlled Trials Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2017-07-19 Catherine M. Mewborn, Cutter A. Lindbergh, L. Stephen Miller
Cognitive interventions may improve cognition, delay age-related cognitive declines, and improve quality of life for older adults. The current meta-analysis was conducted to update and expand previous work on the efficacy of cognitive interventions for older adults and to examine the impact of key demographic and methodological variables. EBSCOhost and Embase online databases and reference lists were searched to identify relevant randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) of cognitive interventions for cognitively healthy or mildly impaired (MCI) older adults (60+ years). Interventions trained a single cognitive domain (e.g., memory) or were multi-domain training, and outcomes were assessed immediately post-intervention using standard neuropsychological tests. In total, 279 effects from 97 studies were pooled based on a random-effects model and expressed as Hedges’ g (unbiased). Overall, results indicated that cognitive interventions produce a small, but significant, improvement in the cognitive functioning of older adults, relative to active and passive control groups (g = 0.298, p < .001, 95% CI = 0.248–0.347). These results were confirmed using multi-level analyses adjusting for nesting of effect sizes within studies (g = 0.362, p < .001, 95% CI = 0.275, 0.449). Age, education, and cognitive status (healthy vs. MCI) were not significant moderators. Working memory interventions proved most effective (g = 0.479), though memory, processing speed, and multi-domain interventions also significantly improved cognition. Effects were larger for directly trained outcomes but were also significant for non-trained outcomes (i.e., “transfer effects”). Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed. This project was pre-registered with PROSPERO (#42016038386).
Is Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Related to Neuropsychological Function in Healthy Older Adults? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2017-05-08 Nathan Cross, Amit Lampit, Jonathon Pye, Ronald R. Grunstein, Nathaniel Marshall, Sharon L. Naismith
Previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses have identified cognitive deficits in adults with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). However, quantitative analysis of the association between OSA and neuropsychological performance has not been conducted specifically in older adults, for whom there is a greater risk of cognitive decline. We searched Medline, Embase and PsycINFO through August 2016 for studies describing associations between OSA and neuropsychological outcomes in people aged>50 years. Meta-analyses were performed on these studies for overall cognition and within cognitive domains. Subgroup analyses were performed taking into account risk of bias and moderating differences in study design. 13 studies met eligibility criteria for analysis. A small negative association was found between OSA and all neuropsychological outcomes combined, g=0.18(95% CI 0.04–0.32), and in memory and processing speed domains. Small case-control studies from sleep clinic populations observed the greatest associations, while larger cohort studies from community samples illustrated no association. Analysis accounting for publication bias resulted in a null overall association, g=0.02 (95%CI -0.12 to 0.16). Associations between OSA and cognition in later life are highly variable and the findings differ based on the type and setting of study. It appears some older adults may be at risk of cognitive impairments attributable to OSA; however, the risk of bias renders the evidence inconclusive. High quality research is warranted in clinically diagnosed OSA patients as well as those already experiencing neuropsychological impairment and who may be regarded at higher risk of further cognitive decline.
The Efficacy of Cognitive Intervention in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI): a Meta-Analysis of Outcomes on Neuropsychological Measures Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2017-12-27 Dale S. Sherman, Justin Mauser, Miriam Nuno, Dean Sherzai
Cognitive training in MCI may stimulate pre-existing neural reserves or recruit neural circuitry as “compensatory scaffolding” prompting neuroplastic reorganization to meet task demands (Reuter-Lorenz & Park, 2014). However, existing systematic reviews and meta-analytic studies exploring the benefits of cognitive interventions in MCI have been mixed. An updated examination regarding the efficacy of cognitive intervention in MCI is needed given improvements in adherence to MCI diagnostic criteria in subject selection, better defined interventions and strategies applied, increased use of neuropsychological measures pre- and post-intervention, as well as identification of moderator variables which may influence treatment. As such, this meta-analytic review was conducted to examine the efficacy of cognitive intervention in individuals diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) versus MCI controls based on performance of neuropsychological outcome measures in randomized controlled trials (RCT). RCT studies published from January 1995 to June 2017 were obtained through source databases of MEDLINE-R, PubMed, Healthstar, Global Health, PSYCH-INFO, and Health and Psychological Instruments using search parameters for MCI diagnostic category (mild cognitive impairment, MCI, pre-Alzheimer’s disease, early cognitive decline, early onset Alzheimer’s disease, and preclinical Alzheimer’s disease) and the intervention or training conducted (intervention, training, stimulation, rehabilitation, or treatment). Other inclusion and exclusion criteria included subject selection based on established MCI criteria, RCT design in an outpatient setting, MCI controls (active or passive), and outcomes based on objective neuropsychological measures. From the 1199 abstracts identified, 26 articles met inclusion criteria for the meta-analyses completed across eleven (11) countries; 92.31% of which have been published within the past 7 years. A series of meta-analyses were performed to examine the effects of cognitive intervention by cognitive domain, type of training, and intervention content (cognitive domain targeted). We found significant, moderate effects for multicomponent training (Hedges’ g observed = 0.398; CI [0.164, 0.631]; Z = 3.337; p = 0.001; Q = 55.511; df = 15; p = 0.000; I2 = 72.978%; τ2 = 0.146) as well as multidomain-focused strategies (Hedges’ g = 0.230; 95% CI [0.108, 0.352]; Z = 3.692; p < 0.001; Q = 12.713; df = 12; p = 0.390; I2 = 5.612; τ2 = 0.003). The effects for other interventions explored by cognitive domain, training type, or intervention content were indeterminate due to concerns for heterogeneity, bias, and small cell sizes. In addition, subgroup and meta-regression analyses were conducted with the moderators of MCI category, mode of intervention, training type, intervention content, program duration (total hours), type of control group (active or passive), post-intervention follow-up assessment period, and control for repeat administration. We found significant overall effects for intervention content with memory focused interventions appearing to be more effective than multidomain approaches. There was no evidence of an influence on outcomes for the other covariates examined. Overall, these findings suggest individuals with MCI who received multicomponent training or interventions targeting multiple domains (including lifestyle changes) were apt to display an improvement on outcome measures of cognition post-intervention. As such, multicomponent and multidomain forms of intervention may prompt recruitment of alternate neural processes as well as support primary networks to meet task demands simultaneously. In addition, interventions with memory and multidomain forms of content appear to be particularly helpful, with memory-based approaches possibly being more effective than multidomain methods. Other factors, such as program duration, appear to have less of an influence on intervention outcomes. Given this, although the creation of new primary network paths appears strained in MCI, interventions with memory-based or multidomain forms of content may facilitate partial activation of compensatory scaffolding and neuroplastic reorganization. The positive benefit of memory-based strategies may also reflect transfer effects indicative of compensatory network activation and the multiple-pathways involved in memory processes. Limitations of this review are similar to other meta-analysis in MCI, including a modest number studies, small sample sizes, multiple forms of interventions and types of training applied (some overlapping), and, while greatly improved in our view, a large diversity of instruments used to measure outcome. This is apt to have contributed to the presence of heterogeneity and publication bias precluding a more definitive determination of the outcomes observed.
Diagnostic Accuracy of Memory Measures in Alzheimer’s Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2017-09-22 Gali H. Weissberger, Jessica V. Strong, Kayla B. Stefanidis, Mathew J. Summers, Mark W. Bondi, Nikki H. Stricker
With an increasing focus on biomarkers in dementia research, illustrating the role of neuropsychological assessment in detecting mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s dementia (AD) is important. This systematic review and meta-analysis, conducted in accordance with PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) standards, summarizes the sensitivity and specificity of memory measures in individuals with MCI and AD. Both meta-analytic and qualitative examination of AD versus healthy control (HC) studies (n = 47) revealed generally high sensitivity and specificity (≥ 80% for AD comparisons) for measures of immediate (sensitivity = 87%, specificity = 88%) and delayed memory (sensitivity = 89%, specificity = 89%), especially those involving word-list recall. Examination of MCI versus HC studies (n = 38) revealed generally lower diagnostic accuracy for both immediate (sensitivity = 72%, specificity = 81%) and delayed memory (sensitivity = 75%, specificity = 81%). Measures that differentiated AD from other conditions (n = 10 studies) yielded mixed results, with generally high sensitivity in the context of low or variable specificity. Results confirm that memory measures have high diagnostic accuracy for identification of AD, are promising but require further refinement for identification of MCI, and provide support for ongoing investigation of neuropsychological assessment as a cognitive biomarker of preclinical AD. Emphasizing diagnostic test accuracy statistics over null hypothesis testing in future studies will promote the ongoing use of neuropsychological tests as Alzheimer’s disease research and clinical criteria increasingly rely upon cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neuroimaging biomarkers.
Non-Pharmacologic Interventions for Older Adults with Subjective Cognitive Decline: Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, and Preliminary Recommendations Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2017-03-07 Colette M. Smart, Justin E. Karr, Corson N. Areshenkoff, Laura A. Rabin, Carol Hudon, Nicola Gates, Jordan I. Ali, Eider M. Arenaza-Urquijo, Rachel F. Buckley, Gael Chetelat, Harald Hampel, Frank Jessen, Natalie L. Marchant, Sietske A. M. Sikkes, Andrea Tales, Wiesje M. van der Flier, Linda Wesselman, and the Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) Working Group
In subjective cognitive decline (SCD), older adults present with concerns about self-perceived cognitive decline but are found to have clinically normal function. However, a significant proportion of those adults are subsequently found to develop mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s dementia or other neurocognitive disorder. In other cases, SCD may be associated with mood, personality, and physical health concerns. Regardless of etiology, adults with SCD may benefit from interventions that could enhance current function or slow incipient cognitive decline. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis, conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines, is to examine the benefits of non-pharmacologic intervention (NPI) in persons with SCD. Inclusion criteria were studies of adults aged 55 + with SCD defined using published criteria, receiving NPI or any control condition, with cognitive, behavioural, or psychological outcomes in controlled trails. Published empirical studies were obtained through a standardized search of CINAHL Complete, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE with Full Text, PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES, supplemented by a manual retrieval of relevant articles. Study quality and bias was determined using PEDro. Nine studies were included in the review and meta-analysis. A wide range of study quality was observed. Overall, a small effect size was found on cognitive outcomes, greater for cognitive versus other intervention types. The available evidence suggests that NPI may benefit current cognitive function in persons with SCD. Recommendations are provided to improve future trials of NPI in SCD.
Population Base Rates and Disease Course of Common Psychiatric and Neurodegenerative Disorders Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2017-09-22 Katherine A. Kitchen Andren, Nicolette M. Gabel, Julija Stelmokas, Alyson M. Rich, Linas A. Bieliauskas
Knowledge of population base rates of neurological and psychiatric disorders is fundamental for diagnostic decision making. Consideration of relevant probabilistic information can improve diagnostic efficiency and accuracy. However, such data continue to be misused or underutilized, which can lead to misdiagnoses and negative patient outcomes. The aim of the current review is to create an easily accessible and comprehensive reference of existing age of onset as well as prevalence and incidence data for common neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders in adults. Relevant epidemiological data were compiled from well-respected and frequently-cited textbooks and scholarly studies. Reviews were collected from PubMed, and publicly-available sources were gathered from Google Scholar. Results are organized and presented in several tables and a figure, which can be used as a diagnostic guide for students and clinicians across healthcare disciplines.
Childhood Brain Tumors: a Systematic Review of the Structural Neuroimaging Literature Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2017-06-23 Alyssa S. Ailion, Kyle Hortman, Tricia Z. King
Due to medical advances, a large portion of children survive brain tumor diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, it is important to identify the neuroanatomical and neurocognitive outcomes associated with survivorship. This review summarizes the specific regional structural neuroimaging findings, the broad structural findings, as well as the corresponding neurocognitive domains affected in brain tumor populations. Across studies, damage is commonly reported near the cerebellum, brain stem, and subcortical regions, as well as the frontal lobes. These results are consistent with the expected neuroanatomical damage following posterior fossa brain tumors, which was the most common tumor location of the studies in this review. Damage to these regions impacts a broad range of neurocognitive outcomes, as well as a number of specific neurocognitive domains. Damage to more ventral and subcortical brain regions correlated with lower motor speed, processing speed, attention, and memory. Relevant limitations and future directions are discussed with a focus on disentangling the complex and multifaceted factors associated with the consequences of brain tumor survivorship.
Neuropsychological Predictors of Outcome Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Adults: a Meta-Analysis Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2017-07-05 Fiona Allanson, Carmela Pestell, Gilles E. Gignac, Yong Xiang Yeo, Michael Weinborn
Several neuropsychological dimensions are correlated with functional outcome (e.g., ability to return to family and community roles) following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Commonly investigated neuropsychological dimensions include verbal memory, visuo-spatial construction, set-shifting, generativity, and processing speed. Unfortunately, small sample sizes across relevant studies have contributed to inconsistent results. Furthermore, no studies have concurrently measured all of the candidate neuropsychological predictors, most of which are known to be inter-correlated. Thus, the unique predictive effects associated with the candidate predictors in TBI recovery have never been investigated. Consequently, this study used both meta-analysis and multiple regression to statistically evaluate neuropsychological candidate predictors across two outcome variables (1) the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOS-E) and (2) the Disability Rating Scale (DRS). Seven studies met inclusion criteria. Based on the meta-analyses, the following neuropsychological dimensions were found to be correlated with the GOS-E: immediate verbal memory (r = .43, 95% CI [.27, .58]), delayed verbal memory (r = .43, 95% CI [.21, .61]), visuo-spatial construction (r = .29, 95% CI [.15, .53]), set-shifting (r = −.31, 95% CI [−.45, −.15], and generativity (r = .44, 95% CI [.32, .54]). By contrast, only one neuropsychological dimension was found to be significantly related to the DRS (generativity: r = −.21, 95% CI [−.39, −.01]). Multiple regression on the GOS-E relevant meta-analytically derived correlation matrix determined that all neuropsychological dimensions were significant predictors of the GOS-E (multiple R2 = .31) with the exception of immediate verbal memory or learning. However, due to analytic characteristics, these findings must be interpreted with caution. Results were consistent with the need to consider multiple neuropsychological abilities in recovery and rehabilitation following TBI.
Imaging Markers of Post-Stroke Depression and Apathy: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2017-08-22 Elles Douven, Sebastian Köhler, Maria M. F. Rodriguez, Julie Staals, Frans R. J. Verhey, Pauline Aalten
Several brain imaging markers have been studied in the development of post-stroke depression (PSD) and post-stroke apathy (PSA), but inconsistent associations have been reported. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date evaluation of imaging markers associated with PSD and PSA. Databases (Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) were searched from inception to July 21, 2016. Observational studies describing imaging markers of PSD and PSA were included. Pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to examine the association between PSD or PSA and stroke lesion laterality, type, and location, also stratified by study phase (acute, post-acute, chronic). Other imaging markers were reviewed qualitatively. The search retrieved 4502 studies, of which 149 studies were included in the review and 86 studies in the meta-analyses. PSD in the post-acute stroke phase was significantly associated with frontal (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.34–2.19) and basal ganglia lesions (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.33–3.84). Hemorrhagic stroke related to higher odds for PSA in the acute phase (OR 2.58, 95% CI 1.18–5.65), whereas ischemic stroke related to higher odds for PSA in the post-acute phase (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.06–0.69). Frequency of PSD and PSA is modestly associated with stroke type and location and is dependent on stroke phase. These findings have to be taken into consideration for stroke rehabilitation programs, as this could prevent stroke patients from developing PSD and PSA, resulting in better clinical outcome.
Elevated Levels of Atypical Handedness in Autism: Meta-Analyses Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2017-07-23 Paraskevi Markou, Banu Ahtam, Marietta Papadatou-Pastou
An elevated prevalence of atypical handedness (left-, mixed-, or non-right-handedness) has been repeatedly reported in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) compared to typically developing individuals. However, the exact magnitude of this difference as well as the presence of possible moderating factors remains unknown. Here, we present three sets of meta-analyses of studies that assessed the handedness prevalence among individuals with ASD, totaling 1199 individuals (n = 723 individuals with ASD and n = 476 typically developing individuals). Meta-analysis set 1 found that individuals with ASD are 3.48, 2.49, and 2.34 times more likely to be non-right-handed, left-handed, and mixed-handed compared to typically developing individuals, respectively. Meta-analysis set 2 found a 45.4%, 18.3%, and 36.1% prevalence of non-right-handedness, left-handedness, and mixed-handedness, respectively, amongst individuals with ASD. The classification of handedness, the instrument used to measure handedness, and the main purpose of the study were found to moderate the findings of meta-analysis set 2. Meta-analysis set 3 revealed a trend towards weaker handedness for individuals with ASD. The elevated levels of atypical handedness in individuals with ASD could be attributed to atypicalities in cerebral structure and lateralization for language in individuals with ASD.
Heterogeneity of Neuropsychological Impairment in HIV Infection: Contributions from Mild Cognitive Impairment Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2017-05-24 Kathryn N. Devlin, Tania Giovannetti
Despite longstanding acknowledgement of the heterogeneity of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), existing HAND diagnostic methods classify according to the degree of impairment, without regard to the pattern of neuropsychological strengths and weaknesses. Research in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has demonstrated that classifying individuals into subtypes by both their level and pattern of impairment, using either conventional or statistical methods, has etiologic and prognostic utility. Methods for characterizing the heterogeneity of MCI provide a framework that can be applied to other disorders and may be useful in clarifying some of the current challenges in the study of HAND. A small number of studies have applied these methods to examine the heterogeneity of neurocognitive function among individuals with HIV. Most have supported the existence of multiple subtypes of neurocognitive impairment, with some evidence for distinct clinicodemographic features of these subtypes, but a number of gaps exist. Following a review of diagnostic methods and challenges in the study of HAND, we summarize the literature regarding conventional and empirical subtypes of MCI and HAND and identify directions for future research regarding neurocognitive heterogeneity in HIV infection.
Long-Term Neuropsychological Outcomes of Childhood Onset Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM): a Meta-Analysis Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2017-03-31 Karen L. O. Burton, Tracey A. Williams, Sarah E. Catchpoole, Ruth K. Brunsdon
The long-term neurocognitive prognosis of childhood onset acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is unclear. This review and quantitative synthesis of the available literature examined whether there are long-term impacts of childhood ADEM on neurocognitive functioning. A search of online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBSCO CINAHL, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) from their inception to October 2015 and reference lists identified 13 papers eligible for inclusion in the systematic review; seven of these were eligible for inclusion in meta-analyses. The systematic review indicated that, at a group level there is a positive long-term neuropsychological outcome from childhood onset ADEM. However, despite the apparent absence of long-term negative impacts of ADEM at a group level, at an individual level impairments in the areas of IQ, attention, executive functioning, processing speed, learning and memory, visuospatial skills and internalising symptoms were found in up to 43% of patients when aggregated across the studies. No significant negative effect of ADEM for any of the neuropsychological domains examined was found in meta-analyses. However, the effects for Processing Speed (rmean = −0.296 (CI 95% = −0.605-0.013)) and Internalising symptoms (rmean = 0.242 (CI 95% = −0.014-0.564)) approached significance (p = 0.06), suggesting a trend towards ADEM leading to long-term reduced processing speed and elevated internalising symptoms. Together, our findings suggest that despite a generally positive neurocognitive outcome post childhood ADEM there are a subset of individuals who can suffer from ongoing specific cognitive impairments. Clinical implications and research priorities are discussed.
Historical Perspectives on Ancient Greek Derived “a” Prefixed Nomenclature for Acquired Neurocognitive Impairment Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2017-05-08 Philip Gerard Gasquoine
Distinct forms of acquired neurocognitive impairment are often described by “a” prefixed terms that derive from ancient Greek (and in one case Latin). Two modern English language neurological and neuropsychological reference books were searched to identify 17 such terms in contemporary usage: amnesia, akinesia, ataxia, aphasia, agraphia, anosmia, apraxia, athetosis, ageusia, achromatopsia, agnosia, alexia, amusia, anomia, anarthria, anosognosia, and acalculia. These were traced to their initial association with acquired neurocognitive impairment in German, English, and French language medical publications from the late 18th, 19th, and early 20th centuries (1770 through 1920). Some of these terms (e.g., agnosia) were used in ancient Greek, although not associated with neurocognitive impairment. The remainder constitute novel semantically plausible (e.g., anosmia) and unclear (e.g., alexia) formulations. In the localizationist thinking of the time, neurocognition was conceived as being organized within specialized “centers” in specific locations connected by pathways within the brain.
Neuropsychological Test Administration by Videoconference: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2017-06-16 Timothy W. Brearly, Robert D. Shura, Sarah L. Martindale, Rory A. Lazowski, David D. Luxton, Brian V. Shenal, Jared A. Rowland
The purpose of the current systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effect of videoconference administration on adult neurocognitive tests. We investigated whether the scores acquired during a videoconference administration were different from those acquired during on-site administration. Relevant counterbalanced crossover studies were identified according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Twelve studies met criteria for analysis. Included samples consisted of healthy adults as well as those with psychiatric or neurocognitive disorders, with mean ages ranging from 34 to 88 years. Heterogenous data precluded the interpretation of a summary effect for videoconference administration. Studies including particpants with a mean age of 65–75, as well as studies that utilized a high speed network connection, indicated consistent performance across videoconference and on-site conditions, however studies with older participants and slower connections were more variable. Subgroup analyses indicated that videoconference scores for untimed tasks and those allowing for repetition fell 1/10th of a standard deviation below on-site scores. Test specific analyses indicated that verbally-mediated tasks including digit span, verbal fluency, and list learning were not affected by videoconference administration. Scores for the Boston Naming Test fell 1/10th of a standard deviation below on-site scores. Heterogenous data precluded meaningful interpretation of tasks with a motor component. The administration of verbally-mediated tasks by qualified professionals using existing norms was supported, and the use of visually-dependent tasks may also be considered. Variability in previous studies indicates a need for further investigation of motor-dependent tasks. We recommend the development of clinical best practices for conducting neuropsychological assessments via videoconference, and advocate for reimbursement structures that allow consumers to benefit from the increased access, convenience, and cost-savings that remote assessment provides.
The Differential Contributions of Conceptual Representation Format and Language Structure to Levels of Semantic Abstraction Capacity Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2017-04-03 Guido Gainotti
This paper reviews some controversies concerning the original and revised versions of the ‘hub-and-spoke’ model of conceptual representations and their implication for abstraction capacity levels. The ‘hub-and-spoke’ model, which is based on data gathered in patients with semantic dementia (SD), is the most authoritative model of conceptual knowledge. Patterson et al.’s (Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 8(12), 976-987, 2007) classical version of this model maintained that conceptual representations are stored in a unitary ‘amodal’ format in the right and left anterior temporal lobes (ATLs), because in SD the semantic disorder cuts across modalities and categories. Several authors questioned the unitary nature of these representations. They showed that the semantic impairment is ‘multi-modal’only in the advanced stages of SD, when atrophy affects the ATLs bilaterally, but that impariments can be modality-specific in lateralised (early) stages of the disease. In these cases, SD mainly affects lexical-semantic knowledge when atrophy predominates on the left side and pictorial representations when atrophy prevails on the right side. Some aspects of the model (i.e. the importance of spokes, the multimodal format of representations and the graded convergence of modalities within the ATLs), which had already been outlined by Rogers et al. (Psychological Review, 111(1), 205–235, 2004) in a computational model of SD, were strengthened by these results. The relevance of these theoretical problems and of empirical data concerning the neural substrate of concrete and abstract words is discussed critically. The conclusion of the review is that the highest levels of abstraction are due more to the structuring influence of language than to the format of representations.
Neuropsychological Measures in the Arab World: A Systematic Review Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2017-06-17 Ahmed F. Fasfous, Haya F. Al-Joudi, Antonio E. Puente, Miguel Pérez-García
Although Arabic is one of the most widely used languages in the world, little is known on the availability of standardized neuropsychological tests in Arabic. We review the literature published before 2016, using the keywords Arab*, cogniti*, and neuropsycholo*, as well as keywords for each Arab country. PubMed, PsycINFO, Education Source, Academic Search Complete, Education Resources Information Center, Shamaa, and Arabpsynet databases were searched, in addition to a selected number of Arabic medical and educational journals. After excluding case reports, studies conducted on Arab groups residing outside the Arab world or Israel, and studies that employed intelligence scales or cognitive screens without standardization, 384 studies were eventually reviewed. Tests with most extensive use, adaptation, validation and norming were identified. The Raven Matrices, with its variants, was the most normed cognitive test for Arab individuals (normed in 16 countries). The rate of neuropsychology publications from the Arab countries combined, per year, was less than half of that of each American journal (top 10 journals pertaining to cognition). Nonetheless, the rate in Arab countries has increased after 2010. Publications were mostly from Egypt and Saudi Arabia, but the ratio of test adaptation-to-publication was the largest in Jordan and Lebanon. Approximately half of these publications did not employ cognitive tests that were developed, translated, adapted, or standardized according to international guidelines of psychological measurement. We provide recommendations on improving clinical neuropsychology to better serve Arab patients.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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