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  • Recent advances towards applications of molecular bottlebrushes and their conjugates
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2019-02-13
    Sidong Tu, Chandan Kumar Choudhury, Igor Luzinov, Olga Kuksenok

    We focus on the most recent developments towards synthesis, modeling, and applications of molecular bottlebrushes. Unique structural characteristics and properties of the bottlebrushes along with an ability to synthetically tailor their structure and functionality open up a number of emergent applications of these polymer systems. The conformation and resulting properties of molecular bottlebrushes and multi-component assemblies encompassing bottlebrushes can be regulated via chemical nature of the backbone and side moieties of bottlebrushes, variation of the distance between grafting points of the side groups, and the degree of polymerization of the side chains. Herein, we highlight the most recent progress in relating the structure of the bottlebrushes with their properties and focus on a number of diverse emerging applications involving bottlebrushes in solvents, melts, and bottlebrushes conjugated with surfaces, interfaces, linear chains, or biomacromolecules. Among such applications are drug delivery and sensing applications, electronic and photonic materials and materials with strain-adaptive stiffening, thermal stabilization and enhancement of activity of enzymes conjugated with copolymer bottlebrushes, and surface modification for biomedical applications.

  • Recent advances in MXenes: From fundamentals to applications
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2019-01-23
    Mohammad Khazaei, Avanish Mishra, Natarajan S. Venkataramanan, Abhishek K. Singh, Seiji Yunoki

    The family of MAX phases and their derivative MXenes are continuously growing in terms of both crystalline and composition varieties. In the last couple of years, several breakthroughs have been achieved that boosted the synthesis of novel MAX phases with ordered double transition metals and, consequently, the synthesis of novel MXenes with a higher chemical diversity and structural complexity, rarely seen in other families of two-dimensional (2D) materials. Considering the various elemental composition possibilities, surface functional tunability, various magnetic orders, and large spin–orbit coupling, MXenes can truly be considered as multifunctional materials that can be used to realize highly correlated phenomena. In addition, owing to their large surface area, hydrophilicity, adsorption ability, and high surface reactivity, MXenes have attracted attention for many applications, e.g., catalysts, ion batteries, gas storage media, and sensors. Given the fast progress of MXene-based science and technology, it is timely to update our current knowledge on various properties and possible applications. Since many theoretical predictions remain to be experimentally proven, here we mainly emphasize the physics and chemistry that can be observed in MXenes and discuss how these properties can be tuned or used for different applications.

  • 更新日期:2019-01-17
  • Reconfigurable nanoscale soft materials
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2018-12-29
    Zihao Ou, Ahyoung Kim, Wen Huang, Paul V. Braun, Xiuling Li, Qian Chen

    We discuss recent research efforts towards understanding and implementing the physical rules needed to make materials—especially materials composed of nanoscale building blocks—that exhibit the defining characteristics of living systems: adaptive and evolving functional behavior. In particular, we highlight advancements in direct imaging and quantifying of kinetic pathways governing structural reconfiguration in model systems of colloidal nanoparticles as well as emerging opportunities brought by frontier efforts in synthesizing shape-shifting colloids and flexible electronics. Direct observation of kinetic “crossroads” in nanoparticle self-assembly and reconfiguration will offer insight into how these steps can be manipulated to design dynamic, potentially novel materials and devices. Moreover, these principles will not be limited to nanoparticles; when extended to building blocks like soft micelles and proteins, they have the potential to have a similar impact throughout the broader field of soft matter physics.

  • Chemically-biased diffusion and segregation impedes void growth in irradiated Ni-Fe alloys
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2018-12-24
    Alexander Barashev, Yuri Osetsky, Hongbin Bei, Chenyang Lu, Lumin Wang, Yanwen Zhang

    Recent irradiations of Ni-Fe concentrated solid solution alloys have demonstrated significant improvement of radiation performance. This improvement is attributed to redistribution of the alloying elements near sinks of point defects (voids, dislocations) due to chemically-biased atomic diffusion, where vacancies have preference to migrate via Fe atoms and interstitials via Ni atoms. In Ni-Fe, all sinks are enriched by Ni atoms, which strongly affects further interactions of radiation-produced mobile defects with voids and dislocations, hence void growth and dislocation climb. Ni-decorated sinks interact stronger with interstitial atoms than vacancies, which enhances dislocation loops growth. At the same time, Ni segregation creates Fe-enriched “channels” for vacancy migration out of the damage region to agglomerate in the outer regions, inaccessible to interstitial atoms. Strong effect of chemically-biased diffusion is supported by transmission electron microscope characterization and calls for special attention in designing alloys with desired properties through tuning defect mobilities.

  • Thermodynamic costs of dynamic function in active soft matter
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2018-12-05
    Yong Dou, Kiran Dhatt-Gauthier, Kyle J.M. Bishop

    Living matter combines complex structures and dissipative processes to achieve dynamic functions that rely on material organization in space and time. In this Review, we discuss recent progress in creating synthetic material systems capable of four such functions–keeping time, powering motion, building structures, and making copies. Chemical oscillators coordinate the temporal activity of material assemblies; molecular motors and active colloids convert chemical energy into mechanical forces and motions; chemical activation of self-assembling components provides temporal control over dissipative structures; information-rich nanomaterials replicate their structures in exponential fashion. These and other dynamic functions cannot be achieved at thermodynamic equilibrium but instead require flows of energy and matter to create and maintain spatiotemporal order. Such systems are captured within the framework of stochastic thermodynamics, which describes the fluctuating thermodynamic quantities of driven systems. Even far from equilibrium, these quantities obey universal relations, which establish fundamental trade-offs between the rate of energy dissipation and performance metrics such as precision, efficiency, and speed. For each function considered, we present a simple kinetic model that offers general insights that inform the design and creation of dissipative material systems capable of dynamic functions. Overall, we aim to bridge experimental efforts in active soft matter and theoretical advances from stochastic thermodynamics to inform future research on material systems inspired by living matter.

  • Dynamics in hard condensed matter probed by X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy: Present and beyond
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2018-08-01
    Qingteng Zhang (张庆腾), Eric M. Dufresne, Alec R. Sandy

    Insight into the spatial ordering and dynamics of structural heterogeneity in materials is at the heart of understanding their structure and function. X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) measures the dynamic structure factor S ( Q , t ) providing information on the spontaneous low-energy dynamics intrinsic to many materials. Combined with in situ and in operando capabilities, XPCS provides unique insight into a variety of scientific areas, including phase separation in binary alloys, aging in metallic glasses, surface dynamics during growth, domain wall dynamics in ferroic complex oxides and charge and spin density wave motion in quantum materials. This review summarizes some recent XPCS work in these areas and discusses scientific opportunities that will be made possible with the many-fold increase in coherent flux provided by the world-wide construction and commissioning of X-ray sources based on multi-bend achromat (MBA) storage ring (SR) lattices and high repetition rate free electron lasers (FELs).

  • Modeling tribocorrosion of passive metals – A review
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2018-07-07
    Shoufan Cao, Stefano Mischler

    Tribocorrosion is a material degradation phenomenon resulting from interactive effects between wear and corrosion. It is commonly found in engineering applications (e.g. biomedical implants and marine equipment) which involve relative motion of contacting metals in a corrosive environment. In this study, models describing tribocorrosion of passive metals in sliding contacts were reviewed. Different categories of models (two-body or three-body contact models, lubricated tribocorrosion model, empirical models, multi-degradation models) were found in the literature. Through the identification of relevant chemo-mechanical degradation mechanisms, robust analytical expressions accurately predicting the overall material loss in tribocorrosion have been developed. Numerical methods have been used to describe time dependent transitions in tribocorrosion. Possibilities and limits of the proposed models in the literature as well as future trends are discussed in this review.

  • Nanomechanical testing of third bodies
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2018-06-27
    Richard R. Chromik, Yinyin Zhang

    During wear, materials undergo chemical and mechanical changes that lead to the formation of what are known as ‘third bodies’. Tribologists have long understood that third bodies have significant influence on the friction and wear performance of materials. However, the inhomogeneous nature of third bodies and how they form at the ‘buried interface’ of a sliding tribological contact has long made it difficult to fully characterize and study them. Recently, there have been significant advancements in nanomechanical testing such that researchers have begun to use these techniques to, for the first time, determine mechanical properties of third bodies. Coupling these measurements with high resolution electron microscopy and surface chemical analysis has finally given tribologists the ability to obtain the necessary data to understand and model third bodies and their connections to friction and wear. This review will present recent work on the topic of nanomechanical testing of third bodies while at the same time identifying the challenges and opportunities this research presents.

  • Current developments of nanoscale insight into corrosion protection by passive oxide films
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Vincent Maurice, Philippe Marcus

    Oxide passive films are a key for the durability of metals and alloys components as well as a central issue in corrosion science and engineering. Herein, we discuss current developments of the nanometer and sub-nanometer scale knowledge of the barrier properties and adsorption properties of passive oxide films brought by recent model experimental and theoretical investigations. The discussed aspects include (i) the chromium enrichment and its homogeneity at the nanoscale in passive films formed on Cr-bearing alloys such as stainless steel, (ii) the corrosion properties of grain boundaries in early intergranular corrosion before penetration and propagation in the grain boundary network, and (iii) the interaction of organic inhibitor molecules with incompletely passivated metallic surfaces. In all three cases, key issues are highlighted and future developments that we consider as most relevant are identified.

  • Recent progress of NiCo2O4-based anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2018-06-06
    Xiao Han, Xuan Gui, Ting-Feng Yi, Yanwei Li, Caibo Yue
  • Recent advances and an industrial perspective of cellulose nanocrystal functionalization through polymer grafting
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2018-11-24
    Stephanie A. Kedzior, Justin O. Zoppe, Richard M. Berry, Emily D. Cranston

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are an emerging nanomaterial for applications ranging from coatings and construction to adhesives and biomedical devices. Owing to their high aspect ratio, stiffness, and reinforcing potential, CNCs have shown great promise to be used in polymer nanocomposites. However, due to their inherent hydrophilicity and compatibility with polar environments, the use of CNCs in hydrophobic polymer matrices or in organic solvent-based formulations has been limited. To overcome this incompatibility, many reports on grafting polymers onto the surface of CNCs have been published over the past ten years. This review describes the recent advances in CNC surface functionalization through polymer grafting, and comprehensively covers the existing work to date. Methods including polymer “grafting to” and “grafting from” are described in detail, using polymerization techniques such as free radical, ring opening, and controlled radical polymerization. Purification and characterization of polymer-grafted CNCs, the potential for upscaling these functionalization methods, and current perspectives from academic and industrial viewpoints are presented.

  • Superior wear resistance of diamond and DLC coatings
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2018-11-20
    Ali Erdemir, Jean Michel Martin

    As the hardest known material, diamond and its coatings continue to generate significant attention for stringent applications involving extreme tribological conditions. Likewise, diamond-like carbon (DLC, especially the tetragonal amorphous carbon, ta-C) coatings have also maintained a high level interest for numerous industrial applications where efficiency, performance, and reliability are of great importance. The strong covalent bonding or sp3-hybridizaiton in diamond and ta-C coatings assures high mechanical hardness, stiffness, chemical and thermal stability that make them well-suited for harsh tribological conditions involving high-speeds, loads, and temperatures. In particular, unique chemical and mechanical nature of diamond and ta-C surfaces plays an important role in their unusual friction and wear behaviors. As with all other tribomaterials, both diamond and ta-C coatings strongly interact with the chemical species in their surroundings during sliding and hence produce a chemically passive top surface layer which ultimately determines the extent of friction and wear. Thick micro-crystalline diamond films are most preferred for tooling applications, while thinner nano/ultranano-crysalline diamond films are well-suited for mechanical devices ranging from nano- (such as NEMS) to micro- (MEMS and AFM tips) as well as macro-scale devices including mechanical pump seals. The ta-C coatings have lately become indispensable for a variety of automotive applications and are used in very large volumes in tappets, piston pins, rings, and a variety of gears and bearings, especially in the Asian market. This paper is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the recent developments in tribology of super-hard diamond and DLC (ta-C) films with a special emphasis on their friction and wear mechanisms that are key to their extraordinary tribological performance under harsh tribological conditions. Based on the results of recent studies, the paper will also attempt to highlight what lies ahead for these films in tribology and other demanding industrial applications.

  • Recent advances in the manipulation of circularly polarised light with cellulose nanocrystal films
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2018-11-19
    S.N. Fernandes, L.F. Lopes, M.H. Godinho

    Significant advances have been made to control the iridescence and the selective reflection of left circularly polarised (LCP) light, and transmission of right circularly polarised (RCP) light of solid films prepared from cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). However the manipulation of the photonic properties of the CNCs films, which reflect both RCP and LCP light is less investigated. Solid films prepare from natural sources as CNCs have advantageous characteristics that are absent in other synthetic structures, such as wide availability and renewability. Here we review and compare recent research activity involving the production and characterization of photonic band gap structures resulting from an anisotropic layer inserted between two cholesteric layers with different helical pitches but the same handedness. We make connections between systems existing in Nature and synthetic ones with the hope of advancing in the production and manipulation of CNCs-based photonic structures.

  • Flexible strain sensors fabricated using carbon-based nanomaterials: A review
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2018-11-10
    Tao Yan, Zhe Wang, Zhi-Juan Pan

    Flexible strain sensors have experienced growing demand due to their several potential applications, such as personalized health monitoring, human motion detection, structural health monitoring, smart garments, and robots. Recently, several academic results have been reported concerning flexible and stretchable strain sensors. These reports indicate that the materials and design methods have an important influence on the performance of strain sensors. Carbon-based nanomaterials including carbon-based nanofibers, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and carbon black nanoparticles play a key role in the fabrication of flexible strain sensors with excellent properties. In terms of design, carbon-based nanomaterials are generally combined with polymers to maintain the flexibility and stability of a strain sensor. Various combined methods were successfully developed using different assembly structures of carbon-based nanomaterials in polymers, such as uniform mixing and ordered structures, including films, fibers, nanofiber membranes, yarns, foams, and fabrics. The working mechanisms of the flexible strain sensors, including changing the conductive network between overlapped nanomaterials, tunneling effect, and crack propagation, are also different compared with that of traditional semiconductor and metal sensors. The effects of the carbon-based nanomaterial structures in polymers on the strain sensing performance have been comprehensively studied and analyzed. The potential applications of flexible strain sensors and current challenges have been summarized and evaluated. This review provides some suggestions for further development of flexible and stretchable strain sensors with outstanding performance.

  • Emerging methods and opportunities in nanoscale materials characterization
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2018-11-03
    Paul G. Evans

    The emergence of powerful nanomaterials characterization techniques promises to underpin a new range of advances in materials research. There have been significant developments in the characterization of the phase, structure, composition, and dynamics of materials at the nanoscale. Articles in this issue report recent advances in three areas: atom probe tomography, x-ray nanobeam scattering and diffraction, and x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. Each of these provides three-dimensional insight into hard materials in ways that have been previously unavailable. Taken together, these emerging methods have the potential to provide new tests for materials theory and computation and to extend significantly the range of questions that can be answered in materials research.

  • Bioinspired structural color sensors based on responsive soft materials
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2018-10-09
    Meng Qin, Mo Sun, Mutian Hua, Ximin He

    Structural colors in nature have inspired the design of diverse photonic structures, which can interact with light via interference, diffraction or scattering. Among them, responsive soft material-involved photonic structures uniquely feature large volumetric changes upon external stimuli. The volumetric changes result in peak/valley shift of reflection spectra and perceptible color changes, providing responsive soft material-based structural color systems capability of serving as sensors for detecting chemical and biological analytes. Synthetic polymers and some natural materials are the most studied and utilized responsive soft materials for constructing structural color sensors, by tuning the thickness and morphology of formed films, or incorporating them into template structures, or their self-assembling. In this review article, structural colors in nature are firstly introduced, followed by discussing recent developments of promising responsive soft material-based structural color sensors, including the design of structural color sensors based on synthetic polymers and natural materials, as well as their applications for chemical sensing, biosensing, and multi-analyte sensing with sensor arrays. For specific sensing of chemicals and biomolecules, the sensing performance is evaluated in terms of detection range, sensitivity, response time, and selectivity. For multi-analyte sensing, cross-reactive structural sensor arrays based on simply a single soft material will be shown capable of discriminating various series of similar compounds. The future development of structural color sensors is also proposed and discussed.

  • 更新日期:2018-10-01
  • X-ray nanobeam diffraction imaging of materials
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2018-09-29
    Tobias U. Schϋlli, Steven J. Leake
  • Crystallization of amorphous complex oxides: New geometries and new compositions via solid phase epitaxy
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2018-09-11
    Paul G. Evans, Yajin Chen, Jack A. Tilka, Susan E. Babcock, Thomas F. Kuech

    The crystallization of amorphous complex oxides via solid phase epitaxy enables a wide range of opportunities in the formation of oxide materials in new geometries and with previously inaccessible compositions. Emerging methods for controlling crystallization from the amorphous form arise from recent advances in the deposition of amorphous oxides, the formation and placement of crystalline seeds, and have built on an expanded understanding of the kinetics of nucleation and crystal growth. Key discoveries include methods for the creation of epitaxial layers in perovskite, spinel, and pyrochlore complex oxides. The creation of nanoscale homoepitaxial and heteroepitaxial seeds has the potential to enable new directions in the integration of complex oxides with semiconductors and in devices based on oxygen ion transport. Future opportunities include the creation of complex oxides in morphologies and compositions exhibiting electronic, thermal, and magnetic phenomena enabling a variety of applications.

  • 更新日期:2018-09-09
  • On the existence and origin of sluggish diffusion in chemically disordered concentrated alloys
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2018-05-24
    Yuri N. Osetsky, Laurent K. Béland, Alexander V. Barashev, Yanwen Zhang
  • Selective electron beam manufactured Ti-6Al-4V lattice structures for orthopedic implant applications: Current status and outstanding challenges
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2018-05-22
    X.Z. Zhang, M. Leary, H.P. Tang, T. Song, M. Qian

    Additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V lattices display unique mechanical and biological properties by virtue of their engineered structure. These attributes enable the innovative design of patient-specific medical implants that (i) are conformal to the intended surgical geometry, (ii) mimic the mechanical properties of natural bone, and (iii) provide superior biological interaction to traditional implants. Selective electron beam melting (SEBM) is an established metal additive manufacturing (AM) process that has enabled the design and fabrication of a variety of novel intricate lattices for implant applications over the last 15 years. This article reviews the technical and clinical characteristics of SEBM Ti-6Al-4V lattices, including (i) the SEBM process and its capabilities, (ii) the structures of human bones with an exhaustive list of corresponding mechanical properties from literature, (iii) the mechanical properties of SEBM Ti-6Al-4V lattices of various designs and their shortcomings when compared to human bones, (iv) microstructural control of SEBM Ti-6Al-4V lattices for improved performance, (v) the lattice manufacturability and associated geometric errors, and (vi) clinical cases. Existing literature on the mechanical response of SEBM Ti-6Al-4V lattice structures is exhaustively evaluated for documentation quality using established theoretical models. This extensive data-set allows novel insights into the effect of lattice design on mechanical response that is not possible with the individual data; and provides a comprehensive database for those who are actively involved in patient-specific SEBM implant design. On this basis, outstanding challenges and research opportunities for SEBM Ti-6Al-4V lattices in the biomedical domain are identified and discussed.

  • Predicting whether a material is ductile or brittle
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2018-04-30
    R.P. Thompson, W.J. Clegg

    In this paper we discuss the various models that have been used to predict whether a material will tend to be ductile or brittle. The most widely used is the Pugh ratio, G / K , but we also examine the Cauchy pressure as defined by Pettifor, a combined criterion proposed by Niu, the Rice and Thomson model, the Rice model, and the Zhou-Carlsson-Thomson model. We argue that no simple model that works on the basis of simple relations of bulk polycrystalline properties can represent the failure mode of different materials, particularly where geometric effects occur, such as small sample sizes. Instead the processes of flow and fracture must be considered in detail for each material structure, in particular the effects of crystal structure on these processes.

  • Anisotropic organic glasses
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2017-12-01
    Ankit Gujral, Lian Yu, M.D. Ediger

    While the last decades have seen considerable efforts to control molecular packing in organic crystals, the idea of controlling packing in organic glasses is relatively unexplored. Glasses have many advantageous properties that crystals lack, such as macroscopic homogeneity and compositional flexibility, but packing in organic glasses is generally considered to be isotropic and highly disordered. Here we review and compare four areas of recent research activity showing control over anisotropic packing in organic glasses: (1) anisotropic glasses of low molecular weight organic semiconductors prepared by physical vapor deposition, (2) the use of mesogens to produce anisotropic glasses by cooling equilibrium liquid crystal phases, (3) the preparation of highly anisotropic glassy solids by vapor-depositing low molecular weight mesogens, and (4) anisotropic films of polymeric semiconductors prepared by spin-coating or solution casting. We delineate the connections between these areas with the hope of cross-fertilizing progress in the development of anisotropic glassy materials.

  • Decoding the glass genome
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2017-09-11
    John C. Mauro
  • Glassy phases in organic semiconductors
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2018-03-17
    Chad R. Snyder, Dean M. DeLongchamp
  • Feedstock powder processing research needs for additive manufacturing development
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2018-02-01
    Iver E. Anderson, Emma M.H. White, Ryan Dehoff

    Additive manufacturing (AM) promises to redesign traditional manufacturing by enabling the ultimate in agility for rapid component design changes in commercial products and for fabricating complex integrated parts. By significantly increasing quality and yield of metallic alloy powders, the pace for design, development, and deployment of the most promising AM approaches can be greatly accelerated, resulting in rapid commercialization of these advanced manufacturing methods. By successful completion of a critical suite of processing research tasks that are intended to greatly enhance gas atomized powder quality and the precision and efficiency of powder production, researchers can help promote continued rapid growth of AM. Other powder-based or spray-based advanced manufacturing methods could also benefit from these research outcomes, promoting the next wave of sustainable manufacturing technologies for conventional and advanced materials.

  • Stress corrosion crack initiation in Alloy 690 in high temperature water
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2018-02-21
    Tyler Moss, Wenjun Kuang, Gary S Was

    Initiation of stress corrosion cracks in Alloy 690 in high temperature water is a rare occurrence and depends on the method by which the sample is loaded. Only in dynamic straining experiments is crack initiation consistently observed. Stress relaxation in constant deflection tests, and lack of a means of rupturing the oxide film in constant load tests are the principle reasons for the difficulty of initiating cracks in these tests. These observations, combined with those from the much more susceptible Alloy 600 form the basis for a mechanism stress corrosion crack (SCC) initiation of Alloy 690. SCC initiation is proposed to occur in three stages: an oxidation stage in which a protective film of Cr2O3 is formed on the surface over grain boundaries, an incubation stage in which successive cycles of oxide film rupture and repair depletes the grain boundary of chromium, and a nucleation stage in which the chromium depleted grain boundary is no longer able to support growth of a protective chromium oxide layer, resulting in formation and rupture of oxides down the grain boundary. The mechanism is supported by the available literature on oxidation and crack initiation of Alloy 690 in hydrogenated primary water conditions.

  • Recent approaches to reduce aging phenomena in oxygen- and nitrogen-containing plasma polymer films: An overview
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    M. Vandenbossche, D. Hegemann

    Plasma polymer films (PPFs) are well-known for their enhanced stability compared to conventional polymer coatings. However, PPFs tend to undergo aging in air or in aqueous environments due to oxidation, hydrophobic recovery, hydrolysis and dissolution of oligomeric fragments. Such aging mechanisms cause modifications of the PPFs that entail a change in surface properties. For example, PPF surfaces which are probed for protein adsorption or cell adhesion might therefore be substantially different from the initial PPF. It becomes thus necessary to understand the chemical reactions involved in the chemical modification (and/or degradation) of PPFs. Here, a summary of the most important aging mechanisms occurring in PPFs is given. More precisely, chemical reactions that can potentially occur in oxygen- and nitrogen-containing plasma polymer films when stored in air and in water were highlighted. On the basis of this understanding, recent strategies to reduce or delay aging mechanisms and/or to provide time-controlled degradable PPFs are discussed: the enhancement of the degree of cross-linking, the formation of a gradient structure in the PPF during plasma deposition, and the chemical post-plasma treatment to reduce the number of reactive sites. Finally, potential applications of such coatings will be considered.

  • Hydrogen embrittlement in compositionally complex FeNiCoCrMn FCC solid solution alloy
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2017-12-01
    K.E. Nygren, K.M. Bertsch, S. Wang, H. Bei, A. Nagao, I.M. Robertson
  • Coupled electronic and atomic effects on defect evolution in silicon carbide under ion irradiation
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2017-10-16
    Yanwen Zhang, Haizhou Xue, Eva Zarkadoula, Ritesh Sachan, Christopher Ostrouchov, Peng Liu, Xue-lin Wang, Shuo Zhang, Tie Shan Wang, William J. Weber
  • Physical metallurgy of concentrated solid solutions from low-entropy to high-entropy alloys
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2017-09-28
    Chun-Yang Cheng, Ya-Chu Yang, Yi-Zhen Zhong, Yang-Yuan Chen, Tung Hsu, Jien-Wei Yeh

    The alloy world could be divided into low-entropy (LEAs), medium-entropy (MEAs) and high-entropy alloys (HEAs) based on the configurational entropy at the random solution state. In HEAs, four core effects, i.e. high entropy, sluggish diffusion, severe lattice distortion and cocktail effects, are much more significant than low-entropy alloys in affecting phase transformation, microstructure and properties. In fact, the degree of the influence from these core effects more or less increases with increased mixing entropy. The trend is gradual from low-entropy alloys to high-entropy alloys. In this article, physical metallurgy of HEAs is discussed with the bridge connected to that of conventional alloys. As disordered and ordered solid solutions are the main constituent phases of alloys, the understanding of solid solutions is fundamental for the understanding of alloys. In addition, as dilute solid solutions have been well treated in current physical metallurgy, concentrated solid solutions from low-entropy to high-entropy alloys are focused in this article. Physical properties are especially emphasized besides mechanical properties.

  • Electronic band structure and electron transfer properties of two-dimensional metal oxide nanosheets and nanosheet films
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2017-09-06
    J.E. ten Elshof

    The electronic properties of 2-dimensional metal oxide nanosheets are reviewed. Although the band structures of 2D nanosheets bear some resemblance with the band structures of the 3D parent compounds from they are derived, their 2D nature may have a profound influence on the location of the valence and conduction bands. The presence of structural defects, aliovalent dopants, and adsorbed molecules affects the mobility and concentration of charge carriers, and may even influence the band structure. The ability to transfer electrons to and from nanosheets is controlled by the charge density of the nanosheet, and/or the presence of electron donating or accepting species in the immediate vicinity. Charge transport and electron transfer in multilayer films and heterostructures are also discussed.

  • Recent advances in 3D printing of porous ceramics: A review
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2017-09-09
    Lim Chin Hwa, Srithar Rajoo, Alias Mohd Noor, Norhayati Ahmad, M.B. Uday

    3D printing, alongside the rapidly advancing field of porous ceramics, is quickly expanding the horizon of what is going to be possible in the future. In this paper, 3D printing technology is evaluated for its compatibility with porous ceramic materials, due to its competitive process in terms of speed and specific tooling, especially for good quality fabrication. The paper reviews the capabilities of these new technology techniques for the fabrication of porous ceramic. The basic technology is the 3D printing techniques, which are used to fabricate porous green ceramic parts that are later sintered. Different ceramic materials are evaluated and the classification of different powders according to their 3D printing quality as well as material aspects is examined. The evaluation of 3D printing process in terms of the powders’ physical properties such as particle size, flowability and wettability is also discussed. The relationship between the different 3D printing parameters and the final printing outcome are assessed.

  • Atomic-level heterogeneity and defect dynamics in concentrated solid-solution alloys
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2017-03-18
    Yanwen Zhang, Shijun Zhao, William J. Weber, Kai Nordlund, Fredric Granberg, Flyura Djurabekova

    Performance enhancement of structural materials in extreme radiation environments has been actively investigated for many decades. Traditional alloys, such as steel, brass and aluminum alloys, normally contain one or two principal element(s) with a low concentration of other elements. While these exist in either a mixture of metallic phases (multiple phases) or in a solid solution (single phase), limited or localized chemical disorder is a common characteristic of the main matrix. Fundamentally different from traditional alloys, recently developed single-phase concentrated solid-solution alloys (CSAs) contain multiple elemental species in equiatomic or high concentrations with different elements randomly arranged on a crystalline lattice. Due to the lack of ordered elemental arrangement in these CSAs, they exhibit significant chemical disorder and unique site-to-site lattice distortion. While it is well recognized in traditional alloys that minor additions lead to enhanced radiation resistance, it remains unclear in CSAs how atomic-level heterogeneity affects defect formation, damage accumulation, and microstructural evolution. These knowledge gaps have acted as roadblocks to the development of future-generation energy technology. CSAs with a simple crystal structure, but complex chemical disorder, are unique systems that allow us, through replacing principal alloying elements and modifying concentrations, to study how compositional complexity influences defect dynamics, and to bridge the knowledge gaps through understanding intricate electronic- and atomic-level interactions, mass and energy transfer processes, and radiation resistance performance. Recent advances in defect dynamics and irradiation performance of CSAs are reviewed, intrinsic chemical effects on radiation performance are discussed, and direction for future studies is suggested.

  • Thermodynamics of concentrated solid solution alloys
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2017-10-12
    M.C. Gao, C. Zhang, P. Gao, F. Zhang, L.Z. Ouyang, M. Widom, J.A. Hawk
  • Fundamental deformation behavior in high-entropy alloys: An overview
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2017-09-06
    H.Y. Diao, R. Feng, K.A. Dahmen, P.K. Liaw

    High-entropy alloys (HEAs), as a new class of materials, are nearly equiatomic and multi-element systems, which can crystallize as a single phase or multi-phases. Most of the HEAs described in the literature contain multiple phases (secondary phases, nanoparticles, and so on), rather than a single solid-solution phase. Thus, it is essential to review the typical mechanical properties of both single-phase and multiphase HEAs thoroughly, with emphases on (1) the fundamental physical mechanisms and (2) the difference from conventional alloys. In this paper, mainly based on different mechanical properties, HEAs are classified into four types for the first time, i.e., (a) HEA alloy systems of 3d-transition metals only (Type 1), (b) HEA alloy systems of transition metals with larger atomic-radius elements (Type 2), (c) HEA alloy systems of refractory metals (Type 3), and (4) others (Type 4). Then a number of aspects of mechanical behavior are reviewed and discussed, including the elastic anisotropy, yield strength, high-temperature performance, serration behavior, fracture toughness, and fatigue responses, which may serve as a demonstrative summary for the current progress in the scientific research of HEAs. Several mechanisms that quantitatively explain the mechanical properties of single-phase and multiphase HEAs in terms of basic defects (dislocations, twinning, precipitates, etc.) are discussed. A number of future research activities are suggested, based on the emphasis on developing high-performance structural materials. The review concludes with a brief summary of major mechanical properties and insights into the deformation behavior of single-phase and multiphase HEAs. The comparison and contrast between HEAs and conventional alloys remain the most compelling motivation for future studies. With the integrated experimental and simulation investigations, a clearer picture of the fundamental deformation behavior of single-phase and multiphase HEAs could be explored.

  • Phase stability, physical properties and strengthening mechanisms of concentrated solid solution alloys
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2017-08-07
    Z. Wu, M.C. Troparevsky, Y.F. Gao, J.R. Morris, G.M. Stocks, H. Bei

    We review recent research developments in a special class of multicomponent concentrated solid solution alloys (CSAs) – of which the recently discovered high entropy alloys (HEAs) are exemplars – that offer a new paradigm for the development of next generation structural materials. This review focuses on the role of inherent extreme chemical complexity on the phase stability, electronic, transport, and mechanical properties of this remarkable class of disordered solid solution alloys. Both experimental observations and theoretical models indicate that the phase stability of HEAs goes beyond the original conjecture that these alloys are stabilized by configurational/mixing entropy; rather, it results from competition between the homogeneously disordered phase and phase separation/intermetallic compound formation. Although the number of single-phase HEAs with equiatomic composition is limited, those that do exist often exhibit remarkable electronic, magnetic, transport, and mechanical properties. For the mechanical response, we discuss the solution strengthening mechanism which governs the strength and deformation behaviors of the CSAs, as well as the increasing evidence that low stacking fault energies (deformation twinning) plays an important role in the low temperature strength and ductility of CrMnFeCoNi related alloys. We also review the current understanding of the role of the number and type of alloy elements in determining the electronic, magnetic, and transport properties, in particular the dominant role of magnetic interactions in the properties of 3d-transition metal based alloys. Finally, we emphasize that, despite rapid progress in characterization and understanding of the phase stability and physical/mechanical responses of CSAs, there remain significant challenges to fully exploring the new paradigm that these alloys represent.

  • Ion beam surface nanostructuring of noble metal films with localized surface plasmon excitation
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2017-01-12
    Xuan Meng, Tamaki Shibayama, Ruixuan Yu, Junya Ishioka, Seiichi Watanabe

    Noble metal nanoparticles strongly adhered to dielectric matrices have been extensively studied because of their potential applications in plasmonic devices based on tunable localized surface plasmon (LSP) excitation. Compared with conventional synthesis methods, the noble metal nanoparticles formed by ion-beam irradiation draw significant interest in recent years because a single layer dispersion of nanoparticles strongly bonded on the dielectric substrate can be obtained. In this paper, important phenomena related to ion-beam surface nanostructuring including ion-induced reshaping of metal nanoparticles, ion-induced core-satellite structure formation, and ion-induced burrowing of these nanoparticles are discussed, with their individual effects on LSP excitation. Consequently, ion-induced surface nanostructuring of Ag-Au bimetallic films on amorphous silica glass and sapphire with tunable LSP excitation are presented. In addition, theoretical studies of far-field and near-field optical properties of these nanoparticles under ion irradiation are introduced, and the enhanced localized electric field (hot spot) is interpreted. Finally, the futures and challenges of the emerging plasmonic applications based on tunable LSP excitations in bio-sensing and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) are presented.

  • 更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Powder bed binder jet 3D printing of Inconel 718: Densification, microstructural evolution and challenges☆
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2017-01-03
    Peeyush Nandwana, Amy M. Elliott, Derek Siddel, Abbey Merriman, William H. Peter, Sudarsanam S. Babu

    Traditional manufacturing of Inconel 718 components from castings and thermomechanical processing routes involve extensive post processing and machining to attain the desired geometry. Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies including direct energy deposition (DED), selective laser melting (SLM), electron beam melting (EBM) and binder jet 3D printing (BJ3DP) can minimize scrap generation and reduce lead times. While there is extensive literature on the use of melting and solidification based AM technologies, there has been limited research on the use of binder jet 3D printing. In this paper, a brief review on binder jet additive manufacturing of Inconel 718 is presented. In addition, existing knowledge on sintering of Inconel 718 has been extended to binder jet 3D printing. We found that supersolidus liquid phase sintering (SLPS) is necessary to achieve full densification of Inconel 718. SLPS is sensitive to the feedstock chemistry that has a strong influence on the liquid volume fraction at the processing temperature. Based on these results, we discuss an empirical framework to determine the role of powder particle size and liquid volume fraction on sintering kinetics. The role of powder packing factor and binder saturation on microstructural evolution is discussed. The current challenges in the use of BJ3DP for fabrication of Inconel 718, as well as, extension to other metal systems, are presented.

  • Statistical inference and adaptive design for materials discovery
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2016-10-10
    Turab Lookman, Prasanna V. Balachandran, Dezhen Xue, John Hogden, James Theiler

    A key aspect of the developing field of materials informatics is optimally guiding experiments or calculations towards parts of the relatively vast feature space where a material with desired property may be discovered. We discuss our approach to adaptive experimental design and the methods developed in decision theory and global optimization which can be used in materials science. We show that the use of uncertainties to trade-off exploration versus exploitation to guide new experiments or calculations generally leads to enhanced performance, highlighting the need to evaluate and incorporate errors in predictive materials design. We illustrate our ideas on a computed data set of M2AX phases generated using ab initio calculations to find the sample with the optimal elastic properties, and discuss how our approach leads to the discovery of new NiTi-based alloys with the smallest thermal dissipation.

  • Microstructure-based knowledge systems for capturing process-structure evolution linkages
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2016-05-12
    David B. Brough, Daniel Wheeler, James A. Warren, Surya R. Kalidindi

    This paper reviews and advances a data science framework for capturing and communicating critical information regarding the evolution of material structure in spatiotemporal multiscale simulations. This approach is called the MKS (Materials Knowledge Systems) framework, and was previously applied successfully for capturing mainly the microstructure-property linkages in spatial multiscale simulations. This paper generalizes this framework by allowing the introduction of different basis functions, and explores their potential benefits in establishing the desired process-structure-property (PSP) linkages. These new developments are demonstrated using a Cahn-Hilliard simulation as an example case study, where structure evolution was predicted three orders of magnitude faster than an optimized numerical integration algorithm. This study suggests that the MKS localization framework provides an alternate method to learn the underlying embedded physics in a numerical model expressed through Green’s function based influence kernels rather than differential equations, and potentially offers significant computational advantages in problems where numerical integration schemes are challenging to optimize. With this extension, we have now established a comprehensive framework for capturing PSP linkages for multiscale materials modeling and simulations in both space and time.

  • Informatics and data science in materials microscopy
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2016-10-20
    Paul M. Voyles

    The breadth, complexity, and volume of data generated by materials characterization using various forms of microscopy has expanded significantly. Combined with increases in computing power, this has led to increased application of techniques from informatics and data science to materials microscopy data, both to improve the data quality and improve the materials information extracted from the data. This review covers recent advances in data science applied to materials microscopy, including problems such as denoising, drift and distortion correction, spectral unmixing, and the use of simulated experiments to derive information about materials from microscopy data. Techniques covered include non-local patch-based methods, component analysis, clustering, optimization, and compressed sensing. Examples illustrate the need to combine several informatics approaches to solve problems and showcase recent advances in materials microscopy made possible by informatics.

  • Industrial materials informatics: Analyzing large-scale data to solve applied problems in R&D, manufacturing, and supply chain
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2017-03-09
    Bryce Meredig

    In this review, we discuss current and potential future applications for materials informatics in industry. We include in this discussion not only the traditional materials and chemical industries, but also other manufacturing-intensive sectors, which broadens the relevance of materials informatics to a large proportion of the economy. We describe several high-level use cases, drawing upon our experience at Citrine Informatics working in materials and manufacturing, although we omit any details that could be considered customer-proprietary. We note that a converging set of factors, including executive-level corporate demand for Big Data technologies, increasing availability of large-scale materials data, drive for greater competitiveness in manufacturing, and advances in machine learning, will lead to a rapid increase in industrial application of materials informatics over the next several years.

  • Atomistic calculations and materials informatics: A review
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2016-08-03
    Logan Ward, Chris Wolverton

    In recent years, there has been a large effort in the materials science community to employ materials informatics to accelerate materials discovery or to develop new understanding of materials behavior. Materials informatics methods utilize machine learning techniques to extract new knowledge or predictive models out of existing materials data. In this review, we discuss major advances in the intersection between data science and atom-scale calculations with a particular focus on studies of solid-state, inorganic materials. The examples discussed in this review cover methods for accelerating the calculation of computationally-expensive properties, identifying promising regions for materials discovery based on existing data, and extracting chemical intuition automatically from datasets. We also identify key issues in this field, such as limited distribution of software necessary to utilize these techniques, and opportunities for areas of research that would help lead to the wider adoption of materials informatics in the atomistic calculations community.

  • Analytical transmission electron microscopy at organic interfaces
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2016-04-11
    Angela E. Goode, Alexandra E. Porter, Michał M. Kłosowski, Mary P. Ryan, Sandrine Heutz, David W. McComb

    Organic materials are ubiquitous in all aspects of our daily lives. Increasingly there is a need to understand interactions between different organic phases, or between organic and inorganic materials (hybrid interfaces), in order to gain fundamental knowledge about the origin of their structural and functional properties. In order to understand the complex structure–property–processing relationships in (and between) these materials, we need tools that combine high chemical sensitivity with high spatial resolution to allow detailed interfacial characterisation. Analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a powerful and versatile technique that can fulfil both criteria. However, the application of analytical TEM to organic systems presents some unique challenges, such as low contrast between phases, and electron beam sensitivity. In this review recent analytical TEM approaches to the nanoscale characterisation of two systems will be discussed: the hybrid collagen/mineral interface in bone, and the all-organic donor/acceptor interface in OPV devices.

  • Revealing structure and electronic properties at organic interfaces using TEM
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2017-02-07
    James B. Gilchrist, Sandrine Heutz, David W. McComb

    Molecules and atoms at material interfaces have properties that are distinct from those found in the bulk. Distinguishing the interfacial species from the bulk species is the inherent difficulty of interfacial analysis. For organic photovoltaic devices, the interface between the donor and acceptor materials is the location for exciton dissociation. Dissociation is thought to occur via a complex route effected by microstructure and the electronic energy levels. The scale of these devices and the soft nature of these materials create an additional level of difficulty for identification and analysis at these interfaces. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the spectroscopic techniques it incorporates can allow the properties of the donor-acceptor interfaces to be revealed. Cross-sectional sample preparation, using modern focused ion beam instruments, enables these buried interfaces to be uncovered with minimal damage for high resolution analysis. This powerful instrument combination has the ability to draw conclusions about interface morphology, structure and electronic properties of organic donor-acceptor interfaces at the molecular scale. Recent publications have demonstrated these abilities, and this article aims to summarise some of that work and provide scope for the future.

  • Achieve atomic resolution in in situ S/TEM experiments to examine complex interface structures in nanomaterials
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2016-06-10
    Joerg R. Jinschek

    Characterization methods utilizing Scanning / Transmission Electron Microscopes have become routine techniques to investigate interface structures in nanomaterials. High resolution imaging methods reveals atomic structure; while spectroscopy gives additional access to elemental distribution and chemical bonding. Focus behind these developments is the research on nanomaterial-based technologies. Current trends in S/TEM research focus on extending atomic scale characterization capabilities from static to dynamic studies to understand in more detail the link between structure and its evolution vs. unique properties directly on its characteristic length scale. Progress in recent research is briefly reviewed to highlight the potential when using latest S/TEM methodology optimized for atomic scale investigations and how this can be extended to in situ studies of interfacial effects, followed by comments on how to achieve and maintain highest possible resolution & sensitivity when keeping the effect of electron beam under control during these atomic-scale in situ experiments.

  • 更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Shape memory strains and temperatures in the extreme
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2016-06-25
    H. Sehitoglu, L. Patriarca, Y. Wu

    It is well known that the achievement of high transformation strains in shape memory alloys (SMAs) has been curtailed by plastic deformation mediated via dislocation slip. In particular, the utilization of SMAs at high temperatures is also hindered by plastic slip. In this paper, an overview of the most important SMAs is provided by constructing transformation strain, transformation temperature, and slip resistance plots to put existing works in perspective. To this plots, we added results on NiTiHf alloys which impart both high temperature capability and high slip resistance at unprecedented levels. The remarkable finding is that NiTiHf alloys can undergo transformation strains near 20% and transformation temperatures exceeding 400 °C.

  • Nanodiamond: A high impact nanomaterial
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2016-06-30
    Nicholas Nunn, Marco Torelli, Gary McGuire, Olga Shenderova

    Diamond nanoparticles occupy a special niche among nanomaterials due to their combination of outstanding mechanical performance, chemical resistance, biocompatibility, and unique optical and electronic properties. In this review a brief survey of the different classes of nanodiamond particles based on synthesis method and associated structural features is provided. Then major structural features of ND particles (size, shape, crystallographic core, surface chemistry, internal defects / dopants, and presence of sp2 carbon) are discussed as well as their connection with ND properties and related applications. In conclusion current opportunities in the fields of production and processing of nanodiamond particles and the outlook for the future of the field are critically discussed.

  • Hydrogenated nanodiamonds: Synthesis and surface properties
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2016-06-25
    J.C. Arnault, H.A. Girard

    The present paper provides first a state of art on hydrogenation treatments performed either by plasma or by annealing. To compare with other surface terminations, specific assets of hydrogenated diamond surface for grafting are detailed and the different grafting routes achievable on hydrogenated nanodiamonds are summarized. In the last part, their reactivity with water molecules as well as their colloidal properties are presented and it will be shown that it is possible to render hydrogenated nanodiamonds active for radiosensitization applications.

  • Nanodiamond-based nanolubricants for motor oils
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2016-08-09
    Michail Ivanov, Olga Shenderova
  • Diamonds for quantum nano sensing
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2016-08-17
    Taras Plakhotnik

    This paper reviews applications of diamonds for sensing of magnetic and electrical fields, pressure and temperature. Considerable attention is focussed on the interaction of spins with static and oscillating magnetic fields as well as applications of such fields to spin control. A particular focus is on the spin of nitrogen-vacancy centers. Electron-spin microwave resonances play a central role in the ultra-sensitive metrology on the nanoscale, but pure optical methods are also considered in this review.

  • Single particle tracking of fluorescent nanodiamonds in cells and organisms
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2016-05-02
    Yuen Yung Hui, Wesley Wei-Wen Hsiao, Simon Haziza, Michel Simonneau, François Treussart, Huan-Cheng Chang

    Ever since the discovery of fullerenes in 1985, nanocarbon has demonstrated a wide range of applications in various areas of science and engineering. Compared with metal, oxide, and semiconductor nanoparticles, the carbon-based nanomaterials have distinct advantages in both biotechnological and biomedical applications due to their inherent biocompatibility. Fluorescent nanodiamond (FND) joined the nanocarbon family in 2005. It was initially developed as a contrast agent for bioimaging because it can emit bright red photoluminescence from negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy centers built in the diamond matrix. A notable application of this technology is to study the cytoplasmic dynamics of living cells by tracking single bioconjugated FNDs in intracellular medium. This article provides a critical review on recent advances and developments of such single particle tracking (SPT) research. It summarizes SPT and related studies of FNDs in cells (such as cancer cell lines) and organisms (including zebrafish embryos, fruit fly embryos, whole nematodes, and mice) using assorted imaging techniques.

  • Coating nanodiamonds with biocompatible shells for applications in biology and medicine
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2016-06-03
    Jitka Neburkova, Jan Vavra, Petr Cigler

    Use of nanodiamonds (NDs) as nontoxic nanoparticles for biological imaging, sensing, and drug delivery is expanding rapidly. The interest in NDs is triggered by their unique combination of optical properties. ND can accommodate nitrogen-vacancy color centers which provide stable fluorescence without photobleaching or photoblinking and their electronic structure is very sensitive to magnetic and electric fields. The limited options to control ND properties during synthesis or by direct surface functionalization leave room to be improved upon by employing surface coatings engineered precisely for a particular application. The major disadvantages of unmodified NDs are their limited colloidal stability and tendency to non-specifically adsorb biomolecules. This review aims to summarize recent advances in coating NDs (namely with silica and polymer shells), which addresses these disadvantages and enables the use of NDs in biological applications such as targeting of specific cells, drug delivery, and biological imaging.

  • Silicon Valley meets the ivory tower: Searchable data repositories for experimental nanomaterials research
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2016-06-14
    Nils Persson, Michael McBride, Martha Grover, Elsa Reichmanis
  • Some current challenges in clathrate hydrate science: Nucleation, decomposition and the memory effect
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2016-04-05
    John A. Ripmeester, Saman Alavi

    Among outstanding issues still to be understood regarding the clathrate hydrates are the mechanism of the processes involved in the formation and decomposition of clathrates: nucleation, decomposition, and the memory effect during reformation. The latter involves the shorter induction times required for solutions of decomposed hydrate to nucleate as compared to those for freshly prepared solutions. The formation of the clathrate hydrate phases of insoluble gases in water is accompanied by a ∼6000 fold concentration of the gas content in the solid phase compared to the aqueous phase from which it forms. The nucleation mechanism for the solid hydrate which allows the delivery of such high concentration of gas and water in one location has been the subject of much experimental and computational study. While these studies have improved our understanding of the nucleation process, many unknown aspects remain. These developments are described in this Opinion.

Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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