Barriers to Building Information Modeling (BIM) implementation in China’s prefabricated construction: An interpretive structural modeling (ISM) approach J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-15 Tan Tan, Ke Chen, Fan Xue, Weisheng Lu
It is widely recognized that Building Information Modeling (BIM) can facilitate the delivery of prefabricated construction. Nevertheless, the actual practice of BIM faces several barriers. A range of existing studies and literature have discussed these barriers extensively, but two research questions remain unanswered. First, what are the unique barriers facing the use of BIM in China’s prefabricated construction? Second, how do these barriers interrelate with one another? This research aims to address these two questions. Conducting a two-round literature review and a questionnaire survey ascertained twelve barriers acutely affecting the Chinese experience of applying BIM to prefabricated construction. In addition, Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) was used to identify interrelationships among these barriers. The exercise found that, compared with the cost-related issues suggested by previous studies that focused on general BIM implementation barriers, the lack of research about BIM in China and the absence of standards and domestic-oriented tools are likely the biggest hindrances to the practical application of BIM in China’s prefabricated construction. This study contributes to the knowledge body by revealing major barriers to BIM implementation in China’s prefabricated construction and crafting a corresponding three-level strategy to facilitate the possible implementation. The findings of this study can thus act as a practical reference for future research attempting to provide technological and managerial solutions to improve BIM implementation in China’s prefabricated construction.
Is China's air pollution control policy effective? Evidence from Yangtze River Delta cities J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-15 Weixin Yang, Guanghui Yuan, Jingti Han
AN Empathetic Added Sustainability Index (EASI) for Cementitious Based Construction Materials J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-15 L. Coppola, D. Coffetti, E. Crotti, G. Gazzaniga, T. Pastore
The concrete industry is the largest consumer of natural resources and the Portland cement, the binder of modern concrete mixtures, is not environmentally friendly. The world's cement production, in fact, contributes to the earth's atmosphere about 5-7% of the total CO2 emissions, CO2 being mainly responsible for global warming and climate change. As a consequence, concrete industry in the future has to feed the growing population needs – expected to rise up to ten billion in 2050 - being sustainable by means of the “3R-Green Strategy”: Reduction in consumption of gross energy, Reduction in polluting emissions and Reduction in consuming not renewable natural resources. At the same time, the concept of sustainable development in the concrete industry is not well defined and, currently, there are no holistic models capable of assessing the environmental footprint of cement-based materials. For this reason, a new Empathetic Added Sustainability Index (EASI) was developed taking into account both the environmental impact of mortars and concretes through the global warming potential (GWP), the gross energy requirement (GER) and the natural raw materials consumption (NRMC) but also the durability performance and the engineering performance (such as compressive and tensile strength, bond to reinforcing steel, shrinkage and creep, shear properties, etc) required as a function of the specific application. EASI demonstrated that Alkali Activated Slag (AAS) and High Volume Fly Ash (HVFA) reinforced concretes are characterized by the lower environmental impact in chloride-rich environments. On the other hand, in CO2-rich environments, the best solution in terms of sustainability is represented by the HVFA concretes. Finally, for a thermal plaster exposed to freeze and taw cycles, EASI clearly showed that AAS lightweight plaster is the most appropriate solution.
Incentives and inhibiting factors of eco-innovation in the Spanish firms. J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-15 N. Arranz, M.F. Arroyabe, A. Molina-García, J.C. Fernandez de Arroyabe
This paper investigates the incentives and inhibiting factors of eco-innovation capacities in the firm. Firms materialize the objectives of eco-innovation from a reactive attitude to external pressures, to a more proactive attitude that implies the voluntary incorporation of eco-innovation activities. This variability in the behaviour of companies with respect to the level of eco-innovation development has been a motivator for the research. However, despite the importance of this research question, this has been approached in a dispersed way from multiple approaches. From a dynamic capabilities perspective, we assume that the innovation capacity of the firm encourages eco-innovations. Our paper is focused on the process of eco-innovation, identifying the elements that facilitate or hinder the eco-innovation in the firm. We study the Spanish case, using a panel from the Spanish Innovation Survey, with a sample of 5,461 Spanish firms. The results highlight that the complexity of the eco-innovation process negatively affects the decision to develop eco-innovations. However, our results suggest that institutions and organizations of the Spanish environment are making efforts to compensate these obstacles and provide incentives to develop eco-innovations.
Do Better Workplace Environmental Conditions improve Job Satisfaction? J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-15 Amaya Erro-Garcés, Susana Ferreira
A Dynamic Weighting System Considering Temporal Variations Using the DTT Approach in LCA of Buildings J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-15 Shu Su, Chen Zhu, Xiaodong Li
Weighting is an important step that supports comparison and decision-making in the LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) of buildings. However, temporal variations of weighting systems have not been adequately studied. Given the increasing demand of addressing time issues in LCA, this study attempts to develop a dynamic weighting system. Three common weighting approaches—expert panel, monetization, and DTT (distance-to-target)—are compared, and the DTT approach is selected for utilization. Temporal variations of emission targets and resource characteristics are considered in the new weighting system, which includes short-term, medium-term, and long-term weighting factors. The dynamic weighting system makes it possible to quantify environmental impacts with temporal-varying environmental policies and planning, and the assessment results could better guide design improvements with various environmental priorities in different periods considered. A residential building is taken as case to test the operability of the new weighting system. The significant difference between the assessment results weighted by the traditional versus the dynamic weighting systems indicates the necessity of considering temporal variations.
Absorptive capacity and green innovation adoption in SMEs: The mediating effects of sustainable organisational capabilities J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-15 Mohamed Aboelmaged, Ghraib Hashem
This study builds on knowledge capability research and the natural resource-based view of the firm (NRBV) to examine the effect of absorptive capacity on green innovation adoption. It also investigates the mediating role of three sustainable capabilities, namely, sustainable orientation, sustainable human capital and sustainable collaboration. By means of partial least squares-based structural equation modelling method, the study validated and analysed the responses of 193 owners and managers of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in an emerging economy context. Data analysis has revealed that absorptive capacity is a strong predictor of sustainable capabilities and green innovation adoption. Moreover, sustainable orientation and collaboration capabilities have emerged as powerful determinants of green innovation adoption and mediators of the effect of absorptive capacity on green innovation adoption. Surprisingly, sustainable human capital shows no significant impact on green innovation adoption. This study offers a key departure from past studies through linking absorptive capacity to sustainable capabilities and green innovation adoption in the SMEs context. It also extends our knowledge concerning the role of NRBV and relational theory in green innovation adaption.
Comparative sustainability assessment of binary blended concretes using Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCMs) and Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-15 Kamel Mohamed Rahla, Ricardo Mateus, Luis Bragança
Backset valorization in dry-grind ethanol process by co-culture of edible filamentous fungi and fodder yeast J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-14 Witold Pietrzak, Joanna Kawa-Rygielska
In this study, edible filamentous fungi Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oligosporus were co-cultured with fodder yeast Candida utilis using corn thin stillage to produce feed-grade biomass, amylases, and ethanol with the purpose of backset valorization. The co-culture of A. oryzae with C. utilis inoculated after 24 h of pure fungal growth provided the most promising results, yielding 18.6 g L-1 biomass with 41 and 31% of lipid and protein, respectively, with all of the essential amino acids. The microorganisms consumed nearly 34% of the cultivation medium solids, as well as 33% of glycerol and 12% of lactic acid, which allowed them to produce ca. 4.5 g L-1 ethanol and 1.7 U mL-1 amylase. The liquid fraction of the cultivation medium was used as 200 mL L-1 backset for the production of high-solids corn mash. The final ethanol concentrations reached 78.3, 90.6 and 108.2 g L-1 in the control sample (without backset), unfermented backset addition and fermented backset addition, respectively. This suggests that the yeast-fungi co-culture for backset treatment was effective in improving the core production stage in an ethanol-producing plant.
Control measures for reduction of arsenic and cadmium contamination during underground coal gasification without shaft J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-14 Huaizhan Li, Nanshan Zheng, Guangli Guo, Yu Chen
In the process of underground coal gasification (UCG), there have been doubts or controversies if it is possible to control pollution of heavy metals such as arsenic and cadmium. To eliminate this suspicion, this paper first investigated the control method and design flow of reducing heavy metal pollution in the process of underground coal gasification (UCG) without shaft based on the analysis of the potential arsenic and cadmium pollution forms. The relationships between the development height of underground gasification mining-induced fractures and the parameters of gasifiers was revealed. The findings indicated that: 1) By rationally designing the parameters of the gasifier, it can be possible to control the development of mining-induced fractures, thus ensuring that the underground combustion space area does not penetrate the aquifer, surface water and atmospheric environment. Consequently, the pollution of arsenic and cadmium caused by UCG without shaft can be controlled from the source. Meanwhile, the validity of this method was verified from an engineering example. 2)When the gasifier height was constant and the isolated coal pillar was stable, the gasifier width was linearly positively correlated with the development height of the mining-induced fracture; When the widths of the gasifier and the isolated coal pillar were constant, the gasifier height and the development height of the mining-induced fracture was also linearly positively associated. As the contents of arsenic and cadmium in coal are high in China and the United States, the arsenic and cadmium control methods during the underground coal gasification proposed in this paper have valuable application prospects in these two major coal countries.
Towards a Framework of Smart-Circular Systems: An Integrative Literature Review J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-14 Andres Alcayaga, Erik G. Hansen, Melanie Wiener
Profiting from the benefits of smart products connected through the Internet of Things could disrupt business models and has the potential to foster a circular economy by embracing a performance economy. Extant literature has offered insights of smart products, circular strategies and product-service systems in isolated ways or by considering partial overlaps, but lacks a holistic account of their interplay. By means of an integrated review, this paper synthetizes literature of research and practice to describe binary interrelationships among these three concepts and propose a conceptual framework of smart-circular systems that defines and integrates key constructs. This paper thereby advances research by providing a description of three binary interrelationships: smart circularity, smart PSS and circular PSS. Moreover, the review elaborates a new understanding of smart-circular PSS by articulating the base strategy smart use and extending the following circular strategies (or technical loops): maintenance, reuse, remanufacturing, and recycling. Finally, the review outlines a critique of the state of the literature on this phenomenon and offers suggestions to guide future empirical and theoretical research.
Small hotels and Responsible Tourism Practice: hoteliers’ perspectives J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-14 Regis Musavengane
Responsible tourism is embraced globally as one of the vectors to achieving the United Nations’ 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Through the Theory of Planned Behaviour, this article attempts to establish the understanding of responsible tourism among owners of small budget hotels in the Johannesburg West Rand Region, South Africa. The conclusion it reaches is that a general appreciation of responsible tourism does not translate into being responsible in daily operations. The paper proposes a ‘Best Responsible Tourism Model’, which identifies four ways that small hotels can be encouraged by the public sector to participate in responsible tourism, including education, economic motivation, marketing motivation and building social networks. Combined, these feed into the Theory of Planned Behaviour variations, normative beliefs, behavioural beliefs and control beliefs, which will determine the behaviour and perceptions of hoteliers on Responsible Tourism Practice. Participatory democracy should be adopted by hoteliers and other key responsible tourism actors to augment understanding and practice of responsible tourism in small hotels.
An Arabic Social Media Based Framework for Incidents and Events Monitoring in Smart Cities J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-14 Manar Alkhatib, May El Barachi, Khaled Shaalan
Smart city initiatives aim at leveraging human, collective, and technological capital to ensure sustainable development and quality of life for their citizens. Offering efficient and sustainable emergency rescue services in smart cities requires coordinated efforts and shared information between the public, the decision makers, and rescue teams. With the rapid growth and proliferation of social media platforms, there is a vast amount of user-generated content that can be used as source of information about cities. In this work, we propose a novel framework for events and incidents’ management in smart cities. Our framework uses text mining, text classification, named entity recognition, and stemming techniques to extract the intelligence needed from Arabic social media feeds, for effective incident and emergency management in smart cities. In our system, the data is automatically collected from social media feeds then processed to generate incident intelligence reports that can provide emergency situational awareness and early warning signs to rescue teams. The proposed framework was implemented and tested using datasets collected from Arabic Twitter feeds over a two-years span, and the obtained results show that Polynomial Networks and Support Vector Machines are the top performers in terms of Arabic text classification, achieving classification accuracy of 96.49% and 94.58% respectively, when used with stemming. The results also showed that the use of stemming led to a penalty in terms of response time, and that the richer the dataset/corpus used in terms of size and composition, the higher the classification accuracy will be.
Redesigning Lightweight Gypsum With Mixes Of Polystyrene Waste From Construction And Demolition Waste J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-14 Mercedes del Rio Merino, Paola Villoria Sáez, Iolanda Longobardi, Jaime Santa Cruz Astorqui, Cesar Porras-Amores
Perlite and vermiculite are commonly used aggregates for lightweight gypsums, but they cause negative environmental impacts due to the high energy demand needed during their manufacture. Therefore, this paper studies the physical and mechanical behavior of lightweight gypsums using incorporating mixes of polystyrene wastes, both extruded (XPS) and expanded (EPS) polystyrene, in order to substitute perlite and vermiculite and achieve new materials complying with circular economy criteria. For this, and experimental plan was designed and 33 series of gypsums were prepared containing different percentages of EPS and XPS waste and also reference samples (with no additions). These samples were tested in the laboratory and the following tests were developed: dry density, superficial hardness, mechanical strengths and thermal behavior. A comparative analysis evidenced that it is viable to obtain lightweight gypsum when adding mixes of XPS and EPS waste. These gypsums containing polystyrenes comply with the current standards and have lower density than currently used lightweight gypsums and similar mechanical strengths.
The impact of farm size on agricultural sustainability J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-14 Chenchen Ren, Shen Liu, Hans Van Grinsven, Stefan Reis, Shuqin Jin, Hongbin Liu, Baojing Gu
Farm size plays a critical role in agricultural sustainability. This may have far-reaching consequences for the economic and environmental performance of agricultural production, resulting, for instance, in an excessive use of mineral fertilizers. However, the magnitude of such effects and their main causes are not well understood, while being essential for effective policy development, especially for countries like China where the agricultural sector is still largely dominated by smallholder farms. In this paper, we review the current understanding of how farm size affects agricultural sustainability using China's crop farming as an example from economic, environment and social aspects. We analyze impacts from both a Chinese and a global perspective to identify intervention points to improve agricultural performance. We found that increasing farm size has a positive impact on farmer’s net profit, as well as economic, technical and labor efficiency with mean coefficients 0.005, 0.02 and 2.25 in economic performance, respectively. Nevertheless, the relationships between farm size and overall productivity, total factor productivity and allocative efficiency are still not well understood and therefore require more research. Meanwhile, increase in farm size is associated with statistically significant decrease in fertilizer and pesticide use per hectare, showing clear benefits for environmental protection. In line with the experiences documented for the evolution of agricultural practices in developed countries, the expansion of large-scale farming is a critical path for modernizing agricultural production and ensuring sustainable food production from the social perspective. Measures concerning farm size should be implemented in an interaction between farmers and the government to promote the green development of agriculture.
Low carbon heating and cooling of residential buildings in cities in the hot summer and cold winter zone - A bottom-up engineering stock modeling approach J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-14 Xinyi Li, Runming Yao, Wei Yu, Xiangzhong Meng, Meng Liu, Alan Short, Baizhan Li
Building stock modeling can predict stock energy consumption and carbon emissions for both current and future conditions to inform building design and retrofitting policies. A 'bottom-up' engineering approach for building stock energy modeling is attractive to built environment energy researchers because of its capacity for detailed energy analysis. However, such studies in China have been very limited to date. The aim of this research is to develop a modeling approach to residential building stock energy consumption for space heating and cooling. A holistic four-step approach of archetype configurations; building performance simulation; stock floor area estimation and local weather adjustment is presented. The Chongqing municipality was chosen to demonstrate the approach. The results show that adopting the northern China standard pattern of central space heating for Chongqing's urban residential stock is not feasible because it dramatically increases primary energy consumption and therefore carbon dioxide emissions from space heating usage. By applying energy conservation retrofit measures to the Chongqing urban residential stock, the total energy consumption for space heating and cooling and resulting carbon dioxide emissions can be significantly reduced, with estimated reductions of 57.6%–60.7% in 2020 and 55.3%–57.2% in 2050. The method described can provide useful information and guidance for policymakers contemplating energy retrofit schemes.
Utilizing coral waste and metakaolin to produce eco-friendly marine mortar: hydration, mechanical properties and durability J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-14 Yunyao Wang, Zhonghe Shui, Xu Gao, Yun Huang, Rui Yu, Xiaosheng Li, Rui Yang
The shortage of construction materials for concrete production on islands far from mainland is a long-standing problem. Coral waste is a by-product during some marine engineering works and it has the potential to be recycled as concrete ingredients. The present work reports the hydration, mechanical and durability-related properties as well as the ecological impacts of marine mortars based on coral waste and metakaolin (MK). Results show that coral waste mortar presents obviously lower compressive strength and chloride resistance than conventional river sand mortar. These defects can be overcome by MK addition due to the formation of carboaluminate, pozzolanic reaction as well as the increased water-retention of paste, which prevents water from being absorbed by coral waste sand (CS) to ensure better uniformity of matrix. Coral waste powder (CP) accelerates cement hydration but reduces the cumulative heat release due to dilution effect. The binary use of CP and MK results in a suspected heat release peak corresponding to the formation of carboaluminate at 26 h. Without sacrifice of the mechanical properties and durability, the coral waste based marine mortar incorporating 10 wt.% MK reduces more than 35 % non-renewable energy consumption and 40% carbon emission compared to conventional river sand mortar.
Performance evaluation of masonry grout containing high volume of palm oil industry by-products J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-14 Ramappa Ramesh Nayaka, U. Johnson Alengaram, Mohd Zamin Jumaat, Sumiani Binti Yusoff, Reventheran Ganasan
The rapid depletion of natural resources has led to the need to develop sustainable practices and material in various applications. One such sustainable practice is to divert the waste generated in the palm oil industry into production of building materials. In this study, palm oil clinker (POC) is used to replace cement and coarse aggregate. The POC chunks are crushed to be used as coarse aggregate and further ground to produce POC powder (POCP) to be used as a binder. The physical properties, chemical composition and scanning electronic microscopic studies were conducted to check the feasibility of substitution of up to 50% POCP as binder and up to 100% POC as coarse aggregate. Density, ultrsonic pulse velocity(UPV), compressive strength for air & water curing, flexural, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity in water cured regimes and structural efficiency were evaluated for the samples. Carbon footprint, cost effieciency and energy savings were also evaluated to understand the contribution of POC to sustainability. The results revealed that the ideal mixture of GPP (30% POCP & 50% POC) masonry grout achieved 79% of compressive strength, a 83% of flexural strength, 85% of tensile strength and about 85.5 % of modulus elasticity, as compared to control masonry grout. Carbon emissions of GPP was reduced by 21% and 14.60% cost reduction was established, in addition, appreciable energy savings was notified. The study showed that that utilisation of POC as eco-friendly material in masonry grout is highly recommended based on performance and can provide a route to sustanable practices in the building industry.
Performance and durability properties of self-compacting mortars with electric arc furnace dust as filler J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-14 A. Lozano-Lunar, Pedro R. da Silva, Jorge de Brito, J.I. Álvarez, J.M. Fernández, J.R. Jiménez
This study analyses the feasibility of incorporating electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) in the production of self-compacting mortars from the point of view of durability. Two types of EAFD, previously characterized and classified as hazardous waste, were used. Siliceous filler (powder) was replaced at different ratios (25%, 50%, and 100%, by volume). The following self-compacting mortar properties were measured at different curing times: total heat of hydration, compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, pore size distribution through mercury intrusion porosimetry, shrinkage and mass loss, water absorption by capillary, water absorption capacity, bulk density, skeletal density, open porosity for water, wettability by contact angle measurement, electrical resistivity, and carbonation depth. Although some of properties linked to the durability of the mortars, such as water absorption by capillarity, wettability or carbonation, were negatively affected by the incorporation of the EAFD, the results show the feasibility of replacing siliceous filler at up to 25% and the valorisation of EAFD as a secondary raw material (SRM). This research demonstrated that EAFD can be used as SRM as an alternative to landfills, thereby contributing to the promotion of the new circular economic model pursued by the European Union.
Enzymatic treatment and subsequent toxicity of organic micropollutants using oxidoreductases - A review J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-14 Béla Varga, Viola Somogyi, Mónika Meiczinger, Nóra Kováts, Endre Domokos
Organic micropollutants like pharmaceuticals, personal care products, pesticides and industrial chemicals have received an ever growing attention due to their adverse ecological effects in natural water bodies. A promising technology to remove the micropollutants from the wastewater is biocatalytic treatment using oxidoreductase enzymes. In order to improve removal efficiency and feasibility, the focus has been on developing enzyme-mediator systems and immobilisation techniques. Nonetheless, since oxidoreductase enzymes often promote coupling reactions, enzymatic reactions do not necessarily result in simpler compounds. Thus transformation products, which might be in equally or even more hazardous pollutants, can be still present in the wastewater after treatment. Therefore, the toxicity and ecological effects of the reaction products have to be investigated rigorously to ensure that the treatment mitigates the environmental and health related impacts. The objective of this paper is to give an overview of research carried out with oxidoreductase enzymes to treat different organic micropollutants and their mixtures along with real wastewater and to collect available information on different techniques, transformation products and toxicity. Though in most cases the reviewed enzymatic treatment methods resulted in less toxic effluent, the application of mediators, while facilitating higher transformation rates, increased the level of toxicity. Hence, it was concluded that the suitability of biocatalytic methods should be assessed from the perspective of toxicity beside the removal efficiency in order to allow the upscaling of the technology to a feasible and sustainable wastewater treatment solution.
The integration of social responsibility and sustainability in practice: exploring attitudes and practices in Higher Education Institutions J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-14 Walter Leal Filho, Federica Doni, Valeria Ruiz Vargas, Tony Wall, Ann Hindley, Lez Rayman-Bacchus, Kay Emblen-Perry, Jennifer Boddy, Lucas Viega Avila
Multivariate and multiobjective optimization of tannery industry effluent treatment using Musa sp flower extract in the coagulation and flocculation process J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-14 Maria Bernadete Pinto, Gisella Rossana Lamas Samanamud, Eduardo Prado Baston, Alexandre Boscaro França, Luzia Lima Rezende Naves, Carla Cristina Almeida Loures, Fabiano Luiz Naves
Several studies have focused in the tannery industry due to the high polluting potential of the effluent generated in leather processing; high concentrations of total chromium and organic load. However, the high costs attributed to the treatment of tanning residues explains why this material is not treated within the tannery industry. The extract from the flower of Musa sp, condensed and hydrolisable tanins, yet to be explored in literature was applied to remove organic matter from chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) of total solids, turbidity and total chromium from a tanning industry and leather processing. The use of the flower extract of Musa sp. proposed in this study does not require flocculant polymers after the coagulation step. A central composite design response surface (CCD) was modelled by the factors: coagulant volume, pH and rotation. The optimization was performed according to the NBI algorithm in a mixed arrangement to determine optimal weights. The modelling from CCD and minimization of Global Standard Error determines the optimized conditions, turbidity removal, total cromium, hexavalent chromium and trivalente chromium of 78% and 65.4%, 39.43% and 61.02%, respectively, increasing the biodegradability from the ratio biochemical oxygen demand (COD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 0.12–0.63.
Lemna gibba and Eichhornia crassipes extracts: Clean alternatives for deacidification, antioxidation and fungicidal treatment of historical paper J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-14 Wafaa A. Mohamed, Maisa M.A. Mansour, Mohamed Z.M. Salem
Visualisation Approach and Economic Incentives toward Low Carbon Practices in Households: A Survey Study in Hyogo, Japan J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-14 Xianbing Liu, Zhen Jin
Considering the great significance of residential sector for deep decarbonisation in the medium and long term, this study analyses the effectiveness of an emissions visualisation approach and economic incentives in promoting household low-carbon practices. The data was gathered by a questionnaire survey from 406 households in Hyogo Prefecture, Japan, which received eco-home diagnosis in the past three years. The result confirms that around 40% of the samples installed home energy management system (HEMS) as the visualisation tool, and many households received low-carbon subsidies; however, few of them have utilised the low-interest loan from the government of Hyogo. Household lifestyle efforts are less associated with the policy measures and some differ due to family characteristics, i.e., the age of head of the household. Replacing household equipment with low-carbon items is largely determined by the visualisation approach and availability of economic incentives. As an example, the installation of HEMS would increase the probability of replacement with an electric heat pump water heater by 25.6% and the introduction of solar PV system by 55.9%. This study assists in understanding household low-carbon practices and their relationship with the related policy measures.
Multi-objective optimization of feed-water heater arrangement options in a steam power plant repowering J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-14 S. Nikbakht Naserabad, A. Mehrpanahi, G. Ahmadi
Waste Shell Powders as Valuable Bio- Filler in Gypsum Plaster – Efficient Waste Management Technique by Effective Utilization J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-14 M. Sophia, N. Sakthieswaran
Spatially resolved risk assessment of environmental incidents in China J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-14 Guozhi Cao, Yue Gao, Jinnan Wang, Xiafei Zhou, Jun Bi, Zongwei Ma
The prevention and control of environmental risks, especially incidental environmental risks, are essential for building an eco-environmental safety system. Risk assessment is an important premise and foundation for effective environmental risk management that can provide management priorities. Although many scholars have made substantial contributions to risk assessment of environmental incidents at the enterprise and regional scales, there is a lack of systematic assessment at the national scale. In this paper, we assessed the spatially resolved environmental incident risks at a resolution of 1 km × 1 km in China at the national scale based on risk field and vulnerability theories. Our results show that the proportion of high-risk areas account for 0.5% of mainland China, and the relatively high-risk areas account for 1.2%. The relatively high or above-risk levels are primarily distributed throughout the Yangtze River Delta Region, Pearl River Delta Region, Bohai Rim Region, and Chengdu-Chongqing Region. Spatially resolved maps enable us to understand the spatial characteristics and identify the hot spots of environmental incident risks, which can provide scientific references for macro policymaking relating to environmental risk management. Adjustments to industrial layout and structure are recommended to reduce the risk levels of incurring environmental incidents in China.
Diclofenac removal from water by adsorption on Moringa oleifera pods and activated carbon: Mechanism, kinetic and equilibrium study. J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-13 Paula Valéria Viotti, Wardleison Martins Moreira, Onélia Aparecida Andreo dos Santos, Rosangela Bergamasco, Angélica Marquetotti Salcedo Vieira, Marcelo Fernandes Vieira
The productive chain of Moringa oleifera can generate by-products such as pods and bark, which can become large environmental liabilities. In the search for cleaner production processes, which tend to value by - products, this work evaluated the potential application of the Moringa oleifera pod as a low cost adsorbents in the removal of diclofenac. Babassu coconut activated carbon was used for comparison purposes. The biosorbent characterization revealed a variety of functional groups on its surface, so that electrostatic attractions, π-π interactions and hydrogen bondings between diclofenac molecules and biosorbent may be involved in the adsorption mechanism. Moreover, activated carbon showed a highly microporous surface, in which the internal diffusion controlled the process, resulting in a slower adsorption. At equilibrium, the Freundlich model was the most accurate to represent the experimental data for both adsorbents, indicating a multilayer adsorption. Thermodynamic parameters showed that adsorption on biosorbent were an exothermic and chemosorptive process. On the other hand, on activated carbon it was an endothermic process accompanied by weak interactions. The maximum adsorption capacities obtained for both adsorbents, were, under the conditions analyzed, very close in values (60.805 mg g-1 and 71.150 mg g-1 for biosorbent and activated carbon, respectively). Therefore, this study demonstrated that Moringa oleifera pods, due to its high great efficiency in the removal of diclofenac, can be a low cost and promising alternative to conventional adsorbents in water treatment.
Cleaner one-part geopolymer prepared by introducing fly ash sinking spherical beads: properties and geopolymerization mechanism J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-13 Shenglai Guo, Cong Ma, Guangcheng Long, Youjun Xie
Measuring Ecological Capital: State of the Art, Trends, and Challenges J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-13 Huajun Yu, Yutao Wang, Xiao Li, Chengdong Wang, Mingxing Sun, Anshu Du
It is essential to assess the value of nature, as it provides various benefits for human economic development and well-being. It has been 20 years since two prominent publications came out in valuing nature. New concepts and methods have emerged since then. This study aimed to (1) investigate the relationship between the new proposed concept (ecological capital) and the existing two concepts: natural capital and ecosystem services and (2) examine the research trends of ecological capital accounting publications from 1997 to 2017. Bibliometric analysis was used to reveal the research trends. The results showed that the total number of publications has rapidly increased since 1997 and this growth trend will be maintained in the future. The most productive journal, country, institute, and author were Ecological Economics, USA, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Dr. Verburg, respectively. Ecosystem services and land were the most frequent types of ecological capital. Non-economic evaluation approaches became less of a favorite over time and economic valuation methods were mostly applied in last five years. The integration of different methods has attracted increasing academic attention. The progress, advantages, and limitations of different methods were summarized in this study, including SEEA, ecological footprint, exergy, emergy, LCA, and economic valuation approaches, as well as newly developed modelling approaches. The last part of this study presented three challenges in this academic field – the need to (1) establish a standard framework, (2) consider the transfer/transport of ecological capital, and (3) improve capabilities for decision-making.
Does the adoption of complex fertilizers contribute to fertilizer overuse? Evidence from rice production in China J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-13 Yiduo Sun, Ruifa Hu, Chao Zhang
Agricultural productivity growth in China highly depends on the use of chemical fertilizers. The past decades have witnessed an increasing adoption of complex fertilizers in China. Given the fact that complex fertilizers are indiscriminately used, however, there is little empirical evidence on the relationship between the adoption of complex fertilizers and fertilizer overuse in China. This study aims to investigate whether the adoption of complex fertilizers contributes to fertilizer overuse in agricultural production in China, and discuss the policy implications for fertilizer reduction. Using survey data covering 1122 rice-producing farm households in China, this study estimates the optimum amount of chemical fertilizers, and utilizes the instrumental variable (IV) Probit estimation to investigate the impact of adoption of complex fertilizers on fertilizer overuse. The results show that more than 85% of the sampled farm households adopted complex fertilizers in rice production, and complex fertilizers accounted for more than half of the total amount of chemical fertilizers. The overuse of chemical fertilizers was extremely common and serious. Given the endogeneity issue, IV Probit estimation shows that each 10-point increase in the percentage of complex fertilizers would increase the probability of fertilizer overuse by 8%. This demonstrates that the adoption of complex fertilizer might significantly contribute to the overuse of chemical fertilizers in rice production in China. To reduce fertilizer use, the Chinese government is expected to encourage the fertilizer enterprises to determine the nutrient ratio based on the soil nutrient content, enhance the soil testing and fertilizer recommendation, and improve the socialized agricultural extension system.
A coupled model system to optimize the best management practices for nonpoint source pollution control J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-13 Runzhe Geng, Peihong Yin, Andrew N. Sharpley
Agricultural nonpoint source pollution (NPS) is the main water-use impairment in the upper watershed of the Miyun Reservoir in Beijing, China. Selection and placement of best management practices (BMPs) in heterogeneous watersheds, requires a multi-objective optimization framework to identify the most cost-effective conservation strategy to achieve desired water quality goals. In this paper, a novel optimization methodology was developed, utilizing a BMP database that includes BMP reduction efficiencies and costs, using a multi-objective sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II, nondominated sorting genetic algorithm-II) combined with the Soil Water and Assessment Tool (SWAT) served as the NPS watershed model. Cost-effectiveness curves (optimal fronts) between pollutant reduction and total net cost input were obtained for the upper watershed of Miyun Reservoir. The optimal combination of BMP, which include a combination of conservation tillage, careful timing of 30% less fertilizer application, contour planting, and use of a 10-m edge-of-field buffer strip, indicate that the least costly scenario reduced total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads by 33% at a cost of 1.02×106 China Yuan. The cost-effective scenario reduced TN and TP loads 44% and 68% at a cost of 2.52×107 and 5.64×107China Yuan. The greatest reduction scenario reduced TN and TP loads 55% and 76%, respectively, at a cost of 2.01×108 and 2.48×108 China Yuan. Watershed with poultry operations, required a 30% reduction in number of birds, along with a 30% reduction in the amount of manure applied was needed to achieve water quality goals. Use of the coupled BMP optimization model can assist the policy makers achieve a cost-effective implementation of best management practices to mitigate agricultural nonpoint sources at a watershed scale.
Current control of energy management system by applying ultracapacitor with boost converter interface for reused lithium-ion battery J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-13 Yi-Hsien Chiang, Wu-Yang Sean, Se-Min Jeong
This research addresses the current control of an energy management system (EMS) for reused lithium-ion battery (RLIB). RLIB in parallel with an ultracapacitor (UC) is connected to the dc-link by a dc/dc boost converter. One daily energy consumption of aeration pumps in wastewater treatment plant is illustrated. Aeration pumps use most electricity in the plant. This topology is utilized to enhance the system peak power and reduce the depth of discharge (DoD) of RLIB in the acceleration/deceleration of aeration pumps. The converter used here boosts the voltage of ultracapacitor up to the same level of RLIB side so that their current can be regulated to meet the demand, particularly peak power of pump. Here, the state-space averaging method and Lyapunov stability theory are applied in EMS to manage the power flow between RLIB and UC. For alternatively managing demand load current, switch S1 and S2 is configured between the UC, RLIB and dc-link. EMS is used to carry out the current control between these two switches. A simulation is performed to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme of EMS. Besides, the comparison of topologies with and without auxiliary switch S2 based on the same load current pattern is also discussed. In conclusion, current control of EMS for RLIB is developed and used in the acceleration/deceleration process of aeration pumps in wastewater treatment.
A routing algorithm for inspecting grid transmission system using suspended robot: Enhancing cost-effective and energy efficient infrastructure maintenance J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-13 Balaji Nagarajan, Yu Li, Zeyi Sun, Ruwen Qin
The inspection of transmission line using suspended based robots has drawn great attention from many utility companies. Such an emerging smart technology has the advantages of energy efficiency, cost effectiveness, safety, non-service interruption, and the potential of substituting for the traditional inspection method using linemen with the help of helicopter. In this paper, we propose a routing algorithm to identify locations where the ground control station needs to be deployed when using suspended robot in transmission line inspection. The motion and location between the suspended robot and the ground team are coordinated. The bidirectional data transmission between two sides can be guaranteed so that the live signal can be received and processed, robot motion can be controlled, large size obstacles can be appropriately cleared, and health condition of the transmission line can be captured. A case study based on a segment of the transmission line in the state of Missouri of the United States is implemented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed routing algorithm. Results of the case study illustrate that the performance from both economic and environmental aspects can be significantly improved compared to the traditional inspection mode employing helicopter and linemen as well as an ad-hoc routing algorithm currently used by some utility companies to guide the suspended robot in transmission line inspection. Specifically, compared to the ad-hoc routing algorithm and helicopter with photoelectric stabilized pod, the proposed algorithm can reduce the unit cost by 7.55% and 8.04%; and cut the unit emission by 21% and 98%, respectively.
Analysis of energy related CO2 emissions in Pakistan J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-13 Boqiang Lin, Muhammad Yousaf Raza
CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions from fossil fuels have turned out one of the most perilous and complex issues driving the climate change debate. The issue of increasing demand for electricity at the same time reducing CO2 emissions has become important worldwide. This study evaluates the CO2 emissions from the power sector of Pakistan during 1978-2017 using Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index technique and scenario analysis. We estimate LMDI to check the change under prearranged elements. According to results, the shift in population, activity effects, and gross domestic product are the essential factors in charge of the increase in CO2 emissions while carbon intensity and energy intensity effects participate in cutting emissions. Finally, scenario analysis found overall activity increases due to population and intensity of CO2 emissions, but carbon intensity could be reduced by using cleaner energy technologies. The findings suggest that CO2 emissions will possibly arrive at 277.9 Mt in 2035 in Pakistan. In relation with the main findings, some targeted policies suggestions are provided.
A review on the recovery and separation of rare earths and transition metals from secondary resources J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-13 Nilam Swain, Sujata Mishra
Investigating impacts of warm-mix asphalt technologies and high reclaimed asphalt pavement binder content on rutting and fatigue performance of asphalt binder through MSCR and LAS tests J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-13 Yiren Sun, Weiying Wang, Jingyun Chen
The combined use of warm-mix asphalt (WMA) technologies and high percentages of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) has become increasingly prevalent in asphalt paving industry due to its promising environmental and economic benefits; however, there remain significant concerns about the performance of WMA-high RAP mixtures. This study was focused on a laboratory investigation that evaluated the effects of two typical WMA additives, i.e., the wax based R and surfactant based M, and various high percentages (from 30% to 70%) of artificial RAP binder on the rutting and fatigue performance of asphalt binders through the recently developed multiple stress creep and recovery (MSCR) and linear amplitude sweep (LAS) tests, respectively. Five asphalt mixtures with different WMA technologies and RAP contents were used to verify the findings from the binder tests through the rutting and flexural fatigue tests. The results showed that the virgin binder always yielded the poorest rutting and fatigue performance. Both RAP binder and M improved the rutting resistance and traffic loading grades of the binders; R remarkably lowered the binder rutting performance, but this impact could be alleviated by properly increasing the RAP binder content. The inclusion of RAP binder enhanced the fatigue resistance of the binders, and so did R and M under most combinations of RAP contents and strain amplitudes. Generally, R performed better than M in improving the binder fatigue resistance. Besides, the LAS predicted results from the dissipated energy based approach generated slightly more conservative predictions than those from the pseudo strain energy based approach. Finally, most of the results for the mixtures exhibited similar trends to those for the binders, but M had different effects on the fatigue performance of the mixtures and binders.
The behavior of heteroatom compounds during the pyrolysis of waste computer casing plastic under various heating conditions J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-13 Chuan Ma, Qianqian Yan, Jie Yu, Tao Chen, Dingshun Wang, Sheng Liu, Kagiso Bikane, Lushi Sun
Single step and two-step pyrolysis of waste computer casing plastic were conducted to optimize both the product distribution and characteristics of liquid products. The single step pyrolysis was performed under various final temperatures ranging from 350 to 600 °C. The two-step pyrolysis was undertaken by initially increasing the temperatures to 350–380 °C and holding for 15 min, followed by a further increase to a peak temperature of 500 °C. The pyrolysis kinetic studies showed the activation energy of the two stages against conversion and revealed the synergistic reactions between BFR additives and plastic matrix. In the single step pyrolysis, fixed bed experiments showed that the final pyrolysis temperature had a significant influence on the product yield. The highest yield of 45.3 wt% oil was produced at 500 °C. The oil products mainly consisted of aromatic compounds, phenolic compounds, nitrogen-containing compounds, and approximately 11.3–15.9 wt% of toxic bromine. For the two-step pyrolysis, the impurities of O-, N- and Br-containing compounds were mainly enriched in the pyrolytic oils from the first step. Comparatively, more than 57% of single aromatic compounds was obtained in the pyrolytic oils from the second step, with less than 2.0 wt% of bromine. Meanwhile, the depolymerization of the plastic for the formation of styrene was promoted at the second step. The results suggested that in the two stage pyrolysis, bromine can be transferred into the liquid phase in the first stage, thus producing bromine containing compounds deficient oil in the second stage.
Green-washing or best case practices? Using circular economy and Cradle to Cradle case studies in business education J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-13 Kopnina Helen
Closed loop or ‘circular’ production systems known as Circular Economy and Cradle to Cradle represent a unique opportunity to radically revise the currently wasteful system of production. One of the challenges of such systems is that circular products need to be both produced locally with minimum environmental footprint and simultaneously satisfy demand of global consumers. This article presents a literature review that describes the application of circular methodologies to education for sustainability, which has been slow to adopt circular systems to the curriculum. This article discusses how Bachelor and Master-level students apply their understanding of these frameworks to corporate case studies. Two assignment-related case studies are summarized, both of which analyze products that claim to be ‘circular’. The students' research shows that the first case, which describes the impact of a hybrid material soda bottle, does not meet circularity criteria. The second case study, which describes products and applications of a mushroom-based material, is more sustainable. However, the students' research shows that the manufacturers have omitted transport from the environmental impact assessment and therefore the mushroom materials may not be as sustainable as the manufacturers claim. As these particular examples showed students how green advertising can be misleading, applying “ideal” circularity principles as part of experiential learning could strengthen the curriculum. Additionally, this article recommends that sustainable business curriculum should also focus on de-growth and steady-state economy, with these radical alternatives to production becoming a central focus of education of responsible citizens.
Waste cooking oils exploitation targeting EU 2020 diesel fuel production: Environmental and economic benefits J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-12 Loukia P. Chrysikou, Vasiliki Dagonikou, Athanasios Dimitriadis, Stella Bezergianni
Risk assessment in photovoltaic poverty alleviation projects in China under intuitionistic fuzzy environment J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-12 Yunna Wu, Yiming Ke, Jing Wang, Lingwenying Li, Xiaoshan Lin
The photovoltaic poverty alleviation project (PPAP) supplies clean power and creates considerable income for poor families, which is highly in accord with the concept of coordinated and sustainable development. Appropriate risk assessment is essential for the aversion and the disposal of potential problems, which can minimize the loss and promote the PPAP development. In this paper, a three-phase risk assessment model is proposed: firstly, through an approach combining the project life cycle theory and the Delphi method, 18 risk factors are identified and classified into 4 groups. Next, an extend Decision-Making and Trial Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) method under intuitionistic fuzzy environment is employed for weight determination of indexes. Finally, the overall risk level is assessed and the priority disposal sequence of risk factors is highlighted based on the integrated results, the decision-maker preference theory and risk scenario analysis. According to the integrated results, ‘financing difficulties’, ‘no clear division of responsibilities and obligations’, ‘lack of operational experience’ and ‘material supply and installation defects’ are the riskiest factors that urgently need to be solved. Besides, the risk analysis reveals a fact that the overall risk level of China’s PPAPs is relatively high, especially in the technical aspect. Some corresponding suggestions are proposed, which may contribute to rational resource allocation and effective risk prevention.
Designing an organizational system for economically sustainable demand-side management in district heating and cooling J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-12 Antti Peltokorpi, Madis Talmar, Klaus Castren, Jan Holmström
The sustainable implementation of demand-side management (DSM) for district heating and cooling (DHC) is often limited because of DHC’s complexity and the requirements to involved stakeholders. The purpose of this study is to define the design principles of an organizational system for implementing economically sustainable DSM innovations in DHC. A design science approach is used to qualitatively analyze a real-life DSM implementation and decontextualize the organizational design toward more widely applicable principles. Combining empirical material gathered from ten interviews, document analysis and six months of participant observations with recent theoretical development on innovation ecosystems, we formulate a conceptual process framework that can facilitate the development and operation of an economically sustainable DSM solution. The process framework features five interlinked design principles. The findings contribute to the literature on multiorganizational systems and the implementation of technological innovations in the building and energy sectors.
Valorization of lignin biomass as a carbon feedstock in steel industry: Iron oxide reduction, steel carburizing and slag foaming J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-12 Mohannad Mayyas, Rasoul Khayyam Nekouei, Veena Sahajwalla
Integrated sustainability assessment of chemical production chains J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-12 Fang Wang, Siqi Wang, Gang Xin, Zhiwei Li, Raymond R. Tan, Xiaoping Jia
The chlor-alkali/polyvinyl chloride production chain is characterized by high levels of energy consumption and emissions. The sustainable development of this industry has become a growing concern in the face of finite resources and the increasing demand. In the production chain, environmental, energy, and economic aspects are intricately linked. Thus, it's important to investigate how this sector can develop sustainably by examining the interactions among these three aspects. This paper evaluates the chlor-alkali/polyvinyl chloride production chain by using an integrated method combining the driving force-pressure-state-impact-response framework and system dynamics. First, the driving force-pressure-state-impact-response framework is used to investigate the interactions between society and the environment in the development of the production chain. Selected indicators were defined to characterize each subsystem in order to evaluate these interactions quantitatively. Next, system dynamics models are developed to explore the interactions among the three subsystems via causality loops. Five scenarios of the development of chlor-alkali/polyvinyl chloride production chain were simulated to see the effect of different policies on the subsystems. The results show that the sustainable development scenario showed reductions of 52% in energy intensity and 88% in chemical oxygen demand load intensity compared to business as usual. This integrated methodology can also be used as a decision-support tool for the design, planning, and management of the production chains of other process industries.
Thermal Conversion of Blended Food Production Waste and Municipal Sewage Sludge to Recoverable Products J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-12 John T. Fox, Alexander N. Zook, James Freiss, Brian Appel, Jonathan Appel, Cem Ozsuer, Mustafa Sarac
Renewable fuels are necessary energy sources as bio-based combustible fuels can be utilized in existing infrastructure while lowering the dependence on petrochemical based fuels. Current bio-fuels are predominantly crop-based which require tillable land, fertilizer, chemicals, irrigation, and fuel to cultivate the biomass feedstock. This study investigated the hydrothermal conversion of underutilized waste streams for biomass feedstock. This work blended municipal sewage sludge solids, poultry dissolved air flotation solids, and used cooking oil to form a waste slurry that was thermally converted to renewable fuel products. Blended waste processing provides flexibility and robustness in the future of bio-based fuels, and the authors believe this is the first documented hydrothermal processing of this specific blended waste. The waste slurry was heated under subcritical hydrothermal conditions, where solids were separated, and then heated in a second pressurized reaction to complete the thermal conversion process of wastes to recoverable products. Prior to processing, the blended waste slurry contained 8,490 kJ/kg (3,650 BTU/lb). Following processing, the recovered gas products contained 38,747 kJ/kg (16,658 BTU/lb) and 42% methane. The recovered renewable oil contained 40,468 kJ/kg (17,398 BTU/lb) and 0.012% ash. The effluent produced water was appraised for nutrient content and was found to contain 1,689 mg/L of nitrogen, which has potential as a liquid fertilizer product. The produced gas fuel, produced liquid fuel, solid char, and produced nutrient laden water were determined to be potential marketable products.
Technical Evaluation Of Calcium Sulphate α-Hemihydrate In Oilwell Application: An Alternative To Reduce The Environmental Impacts Of Portland Cement J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-12 Petrucia D.D. Meireles, Dennys S.S. Pereira, Marcus A.F. Melo, Renata M. Braga, Julio C.O. Freitas, Dulce M.A. Melo, F.R.S. Silvestre
The oil industry has been drilling wells since the last century using Portland cement as a cementing basic material. There are several environmental impacts associated with the Portland cement production from the raw materials extraction to the macro impact generated by clinkerization such as the emission of greenhouse gases, mainly carbon dioxide (CO2), combined with huge energy consumption for its production. The study of cement slurries with other precursors types is extremely important in order to obtain a paste with the best properties which are aimed to reduce the negative effects on the environment. Calcium sulfate α-hemihydrate (α-HH) is a material that presents high ecological potential and can be considered a less aggressive agglomeration agent to the environment than Portland cement. The objective of the present work was to develop and analyze the behavior of slurry systems based on α-HH as a basic agglomeration agent for oil well cementing. For this study, slurries were prepared with different water/gypsum ratio (WGR) and submitted to different curing periods (24 hours, 7 and 28 days) and temperatures (27, 38 and 60°C). Then, the additives were added to the slurries using different concentrations of retarding admixture (sodium tetraborate), of superplasticizer (polycarboxylate) and antifoam agent (silicol), aiming to obtain the technological properties required by the oil industry. Such formulations were evaluated through rheology tests, compressive strength and thickening, and thermal characterization (TG/DTG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Infrared region absorption spectroscopy (IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were performed to characterize the α-HH and its additive formulations. The results showed that the α-HH system with 0.5 WGR showed the best results. The additives were used satisfactorily to enable optimizing the technological properties of the slurry. The α-HH slurry is applicable for cementing shallow oil wells (500 m) under mild temperature and pressure conditions.
Impact assessment of supply-side and demand-side policies on energy consumption and CO2 emissions from urban passenger transportation: The case of Istanbul J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-12 İrfan Batur, Islam Safak Bayram, Muammer Koc
The transportation sector accounts for about a quarter of global energy consumption and energy-related carbon emissions. To design and realize sustainable urban transportation, it is vital to understand and analyze interactions between a set of dynamic factors that shape transportation patterns, behaviors, and impacts. To this end, this study aims to develop a systems dynamics (SD) model for Istanbul, Turkey to simulate its urban motorized passenger transport system for analyzing numerous policies under different scenarios and assessing their potential effects in reducing energy consumption and CO2 emissions in the upcoming years. The constructed SD model includes four subsystems: population, household disposable income, transport, and energy and CO2 emissions. Based on historical data (2000–2015) and model validation processes, the energy consumption and the associated CO2 emissions from motorized passenger transport are forecasted for the following scenarios. The first one is business as usual scenario (BAU) which is designed to show how energy use and the associated CO2 emissions would evolve over time with the current development plans. The second and third scenarios constitute supply management measures (SMM) which consider different levels of improvements in the fuel economy of the vehicle fleet and reduced carbon emission intensity in electricity generation through increased share of renewable energy use. The fourth and fifth scenarios consider travel demand management (TDM) policies that include different levels of transport cost increase, and trip length reduction. Finally, the last two scenarios include integrated scenarios that are composed of the SMM and TDM options. In detail, compared to the BAU scenario, integrated scenario considers (1) a 10% improvement in the fuel economy of the vehicles, (2) a 10% reduction in the emission intensity of electricity generation, (3) a 30% increase in the transportation cost, and (4) a 15% reduction in the trip lengths. Under the BAU scenario, the SD model shows that energy consumption per capita from passenger trips will increase from 183 L of oil equivalent in 2016 to 315 L of oil equivalent in 2025 while the associated CO2 emissions per capita will increase from 460 kg in 2016 to 807 kg in 2025. To combat this dramatic growth, the findings indicate that the ambitious integrated scenario achieves the lowest energy consumption and CO2 emissions by offering a 33.5% expected reduction in total energy consumption and a 32.8% expected reduction in total CO2 emissions.
Relationship of carbon emissions and economic growth in China’s construction industry J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-12 Qiang Du, Jie Zhou, Ting Pan, Qiang Sun, Min Wu
Coordinating the dilemma of economic development and reducing carbon emissions is of great significance to reaching China’s energy-saving and emission-reduction targets. This paper investigates the decoupling relationship between economic growth and carbon emissions from the construction industry of China’s 30 provinces, and uses the standard deviational ellipse method to explore the spatial evolution of carbon emissions and the economy. The results indicate that the economic development levels of most provinces were positively correlated with carbon emissions. The spatial differences in the decoupling state of provincial construction industry are significant, and the decoupling states of the same type exhibited a certain spatial aggregation phenomenon. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of the output value and carbon emissions exhibited a northeast-southwest pattern. The weighted mean centers of both were located in the east and moved towards the northwestern region. These results may provide a basis for assessing regional construction carbon emissions and formulating strategies for the coordinated development of low carbon emissions in the construction industry.
Life Cycle and Economic Assessment of a Solar Panel Array Applied to a Short Route Ferry J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-12 Haibin Wang, Elif Oguz, Byongug Jeong, Peilin Zhou
Beyond CO2: A multi-criteria analysis of air pollution in Europe J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-12 Nicola Caravaggio, Serenella Caravella, Alessio Ishizaka, Giuliano Resce
Environmental-economic perspectives are recently taking growing momentum in the analysis of country-level performances, but few studies take into account the multi-dimensional nature of the phenomenon. The leading measure of pollution still remains only CO2 emission or, at best, CO2 equivalent emission. The few works taking a multi-criteria perspective are mainly related to specific case studies, urban areas, or the localization of renewable power plants. In this paper, we propose a multi-criteria analysis for a macro-perspective assessment of 10 different pollutants in 30 European countries over the period 2008–2015. Methodologically, we propose a new hybrid tool allowing us to merge the consolidated procedure usually employed for environmental evaluation: PROMETHEE, with a more flexible weighing process inspired by Data Envelopment Analysis. The unprecedented use of this tool for developing a macro perspective allows the clustering of European countries according their relative performances without any exogenous assumption about the weights given to the specific pollutants. In addition, the empirical evidence emerging from the analysis provides a comprehensive picture of patterns followed by European economies, which highlights the relative strengths and flaws at country-level for the considered pollutants.
Achieving sustainability through the temperature prediction of aggregate stockpiles J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-12 Ivica Androjić, Ivan Marović, Jelena Kaluđer, Gordana Kaluđer
This paper presents the potential energy savings and how to achieve sustainability by predicting the temperature of aggregate stockpiles in the production process of asphalt mixtures. A possible way to achieve energy efficiency and therefore sustainability is to preheat the mineral mixture, i.e. the aggregate, before it enters the production process in the asphalt mixing plant, thus resulting in lower energy consumption per ton of asphalt. The main objective of the conducted research was to develop and test an artificial neural network (ANN) model and analyse the influence of three independent variables (hour in the day, season, air temperature) on the one dependent variable (temperature of the mineral mixture). The impact of the observed independent variables on the temperature of the mineral mixture is analysed in a standard uncovered aggregate stockpile and in a solar aggregate stockpile. From the obtained modelling results, it can be concluded that it is possible to successfully use ANN in the process of predicting the temperature of aggregate stockpiles in the processes of aggregate production and storage as part of the whole production process of asphalt mixtures.
Are there scale economies in urban waste and wastewater municipal services? A non-radial input-oriented model applied to the Portuguese local government J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-12 Paulo Caldas, Diogo Ferreira, Brian Dollery, Rui Marques
Local government policy intervention, especially by means of structural reform, requires a detailed knowledge of the scale and scope characteristics of the local government services, explicitly solid urban waste collection and wastewater treatment. However, unfortunately little is known about scale economies in Portuguese municipal services, apart from water. The main contribution of this paper is to address this gap in the empirical literature on Portuguese local government. The major objectives of the paper are: (a) to investigate whether scale economies can explain differential council performance in terms of treating wastewater and collecting urban waste and (b) how this might shed light on the question of optimal jurisdictional size, i.e., the quantity of consumed resources and the volume of delivered services that maximize council productivity. By using a non-radial input-oriented model, we examine scale economies and optimal scale size for all 308 Portuguese local councils over the years 2008 and 2015. We find that (dis)economies of scale arise within each council cluster considered and as a probable consequence of combining the activities of two or more councils. We attempt to draw various policy implications from the analysis.
Decision Support Systems for Sustainable Manufacturing Surrounding the Product and Production Life Cycle – A Literature Review J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-11 Maximilian Zarte, Agnes Pechmann, Isabel L. Nunes
Achieving sustainable manufacturing in enterprises in all three dimensions (economic, social, environmental) involves complex decision-making processes. New environmental regulations, requirements set by customers for sustainable products, and economic benefits through for example resource savings are drivers for enterprises to consider manufacturing from a sustainable perspective. To support decision makers in enterprises, decision-support systems can be used to analyze the production from a sustainable perspective and to create suggestions for optimization of products and processes. This literature review addresses decision-support systems for sustainable manufacturing and presents the most commonly used sustainable indicators and decision-making methods. The literature review is focused on research approach which consider all three dimensions of sustainability (economic, social, and environmental) and on decision support systems applied in the phases of the product and production life-cycle (product and production design, production planning, production, and remanufacturing of processes and products). The results of the review show, that current investigations of decision support systems are more focused on the integration of sustainability in all three dimensions (economic, environmental, and social) at the strategic planning level (design and remanufacturing of products and processes), which is not reflected well at the operational level (production planning and controlling), where decision-making is mostly driven by single sustainable dimensions (environmental and economic). In addition to economic and environmental objectives, sustainable production planning and controlling systems should also consider social planning objectives. Further research is required to identify which sustainable indicators can be considered in sustainable production planning and controlling systems.
Techno-economic feasibility assessment of calcium looping combustion using commercial technology appraisal tools J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-11 Sebastian Michalski, Dawid P. Hanak, Vasilije Manovic
Calcium looping combustion (CaLC) is a new class of low-CO2-emission technologies for thermochemical conversion of carbonaceous fuels that can help achieve the emissions reduction targets set out in the Paris Agreement. Compared to mature CO2 capture technologies, which cause net efficiency penalties higher than 7% points, CaLC results in a net efficiency penalty of 2.9% points. However, a thorough economic assessment of CaLC needs to be undertaken to evaluate its economic viability. The levelised cost of electricity is commonly used to assess the economic performance of clean energy systems. However, this method does not account for commercially important parameters, such as tax, interest, and depreciation charges. This study aimed to improve the reliability and accuracy of economic assessments of clean energy systems by implementing the net present value (NPV) approach. This approach was applied to assess the economic performance of two concepts of the CaLC-based power plant with either the conventional steam cycle (SC) or the supercritical CO2 cycle (s-CO2) for heat utilisation along with the bottom-up approach to total capital cost estimation. A parametric study for both concepts was also conducted to assess the impact of the key thermodynamic parameters on the economic performance. Although the s-CO2 case with revised assumptions was shown to result in a 1%-point lower net efficiency compared to the SC case, its break-even cost of electricity was lower by 0.81 €/MWh. Further improvements of the techno-economic performance can be sought by optimisation of the s-CO2 cycle structure.
Factors influencing the application of prefabricated construction in China: From perspectives of technology promotion and cleaner production J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-11 Guobin Wu, Ru Yang, Ling Li, Xing Bi, Bingsheng Liu, Shaoyan Li, Shixiang Zhou
It has been proven that prefabricated construction plays a significant role in cleaner production in the construction industry due to its capacity for energy conservation, emissions reduction, low-carbon development and environmental protection. Although prefabricated construction was introduced in China decades ago, it still faces some problems during the application stage. In order to improve the application of prefabricated construction in China, this research explores its influencing factors from the perspectives of technology promotion and cleaner production. Twenty-one types of factors are identified through a literature review, and a questionnaire survey is conducted for the purpose of collecting empirical data. Factor analysis establishes an influencing factor model composed of industry factors, company factors, technology factors, government factors and market factors. The relative importance of each cluster and factor is revealed by its index of relative importance (IRI): the dominant player is the government, and the top five factors in the promotion of prefabricated construction in China are technology lock-in (76.42%), incentive policies (75.91%), standardization (73.70%), cost (73.70%) and entrepreneurial cognition (73.13%). Additionally, the process of conducting semi-structured interviews with experts provides suggestions. The findings will benefit researchers, practitioners and policymakers who want to promote the application of prefabricated construction, and provide references for other cleaner production technologies in China.
Life Cycle Assessment of Typical Methanol Production Routes: the Environmental Impacts Analysis and Power Optimization J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-11 Zhuo Chen, Qun Shen, Nannan Sun, Wei Wei
China is the largest producer and consumer of methanol in the world. The methanol industry will continuously develop in the long future in China and the environmental impact of the industry is greatly concerned about. In this study, a “cradle to gate” life cycle assessment of CTM, CGTM and NTM is conducted based on the Gabi education 6.0 software. The results suggest that CTM has a much more severe integrated impact, 2.0-3.4 times of the other two routes. In CTM route, environmental burden from synthetic gas production stage contributes most, while the methanol production stage is the major contributor to the burden in both CGTM and NTM routes. Notably, for the three methanol routes, 73.33%-78.50% of integrated impact put damage on the ecosystem. In addition, electricity has been found as the most sensitive parameter. And after power optimization, the integrated impact with 100% electricity generated from clean energy, could be reduced by 82.2%, 66.5% and 83.5% in CTM, CGTM and NTM routes, respectively. The CTM exhibits the largest reduction potential. From estimation, if 100% specific electricity from hydropower/wind/nuclear is adopted in CTM, its environmental impact is nearly equivalent with that of CGTM route. Meanwhile, CTM route with 100% application of clean energy based electricity will be competitive to CGTM and NTM routes with coal-based electricity matched. Therefore, it could be effective by adjusting its technique structure and/or the intelligent use of clean energy based power to realize the objective of cleaner production and sustainable development for methanol industry, not only in China, but also in other countries in the world.
Optimising the Regional Mix of Intermittent and Flexible Energy Technologies J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-11 Carl Haikarainen, Frank Pettersson, Henrik Saxén
Renewable energy sources could potentially satisfy a much larger part of the energy demand of human societies. When it comes to wind and solar energy, a key technological difficulty is the intermittent nature of these sources of energy. In order to ensure that energy is available at times when it is needed, these renewable energy technologies need to be backed up by storage systems and other more flexible energy systems such as gas engines. This paper presents a multi-period mixed-integer linear programming optimisation model of an energy system featuring multiple alternatives for satisfying variable demands of electricity and heat. The model is used to investigate how the intermittent renewable energy sources could work together with storage technologies, heat pumps, and flexible gas engines in a resource-efficient manner. Case studies are presented to illustrate how suitable technologies could be selected and operated in a region with high seasonal differences in the demands of heat and electricity. The case study suggests that heat pumps could play an important part in optimising the usage rate of wind power.
Nanoparticles from Construction Wastes: A Problem to Health and the Environment J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-11 Marcos Oliveira, Maria Izquierdo, Xavier Querol, Roy N. Lieberman, Binoy K. Saikia, Luis F.O. Silva
Life cycle assessment of manure biogas production: A review J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-11 Elisa Maria Mano Esteves, Ana Maria Naranjo Herrera, Victor Paulo Peçanha Esteves, Cláudia do Rosário Vaz Morgado
Manure is a livestock residue that causes high environmental burdens in different categories. Its usage in biogas production is an environmentally beneficial way not only to reduce these impacts, but also to produce energy and biofertilizers. Although manure has low energy value and low biogas conversion efficiency, it is indicated for use in co-digestion with other substrates to produce biogas. The present work provides a systematic review of studies that have analyzed the production cycle of biogas from manure around the world, to detect and compare the critical points of the life cycle assessment (LCA) steps defined by the International Standardization Organization (ISO), as well as the biogas process steps. The critical points related to LCA structure in the analyzed articles involve the different boundaries considered, since the initial stage varies from one that considers only the input of raw material in the digestion process, to the one that considers the upstream steps to obtain the substrate. Despite this, the comparison of LCA structure in the analyzed articles is possible, since the ISO standards contain well-defined parameters and steps. The critical points in biogas production processes involve different variables in regional case studies, such as climate, raw material availability, transportation distance, source of inputs and energy, plant location and technological development level, hindering comparison between studies. In relation to the level of technologies, no details of industrial steps were observed in the LCA studies of manure biogas. In spite of the difficulty, comparison between stages is developed in this work to allow careful evaluation of critical points and environmental impacts, and consequently to help establish regional sustainability strategies for the production of biogas from manure.
Heat flux transmission аssessment of a vegetation wall influence on the building envelope thermal conductivity J. Clean. Prod. (IF 5.651) Pub Date : 2019-02-11 Budimir Sudimac, Bratislav Ilić, Vladimir Munćan, Aleksandar Anđelković
Integration of vegetation into architectural objects can be a sustainable approach for the realization of objects' facades. Vegetation walls are innovative concepts of green construction. Vertically greened walls contribute to the improvement of energy properties of buildings and improve the design characteristics of buildings. Vegetation walls initiate the user's interactive attitude towards the object's envelope.This study shows the potential of the green wall in the process of thermodynamic transmissions within the structure of facade wrappers during the summer. During the research, the energy specificities of the vegetation walls and their contribution to the improvement of the thermal properties of the facade wall were analyzed. For the needs of the research, an experimental model was developed on which the intensity of solar radiation, temperature values and heat fluxes were measured. Measurements have shown that vegetation affects the reduction of the surface temperature of the envelope and, consequently, it affects the value of the coefficient of thermal conductivity of the facade coating. The research shows that a wall that contains plants has a major influence on the temperature balance in the building envelope.The methodology presented in this paper is based on the analysis of climatic characteristics, experimental measurement of the test model and comparative analysis with the reference element. During the experiment, the data on the external climate parameters, the temperature values and the coefficient of heat passing through the wall were continuously measured. The effects of thermal protection, using vegetation on the south-oriented wall, were analyzed. From the previous research it was concluded that the south oriented wall has a lower thermal absorption and a lower value of the heat flux than the other walls.Data analysis enabled the assessment of the efficiency of thermal insulation of the wall using vegetation during the summer period. The distribution of temperature values, measured on the experimental model, showed a fall in temperature relative to the reference wall, which leads to a reduction in the total energy required to the object in the summer period. The proposed methodology enables a quantitative analysis of the effects of vertical greenery. The values obtained by measuring in the experimental model correspond to the empirical results. The use of vegetation walls in architecture has opened up new possibilities for reducing energy in the summer period when the experiment was carried out.
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