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RSC主编推荐:能源领域精彩文章快览(免费阅读原文)

英国皇家化学会(RSC)是一个拥有175年历史的面向全球化学家的非营利会员制机构,旗下拥有43种期刊,其中很多在化学领域有很高影响力。为了进一步帮助广大读者追踪科技前沿热点,X-MOL团队与英国皇家化学会合作,推出英国皇家化学会期刊主编推荐的精彩文章快览,本期文章属“能源领域”,英文点评来自英国皇家化学会期刊的主编。如果大家对我们的解读有更多的补充和点评,欢迎点击“阅读原文”进入网页版,在文后发表您的高见!


Chemical Science (IF: 9.144)


1. Overall water splitting by Pt/g-C3N4 photocatalysts without using sacrificial agents

Chemical Science; DOI: 10.1039/C5SC04572J

This work reports the selective creation of both hydrogen and oxygen cocatalysts on surface-active sites of g-C3N4via photodeposition triggering the splitting of water for the simultaneous evolution of H2 and O2 gases. The photocatalyst remained stable for 510 reaction hours. Authors say this is significant as overall water splitting without using sacrificial agents is difficult to achieve, and that their discovery of Pt/g-C3N4 conjugated polymers that can split pure water without these agents sets a new chemical paradigm for clean, renewable solar energy.


作者们通过光沉积在g-C3N4的表面活性位点上选择性产生氢和氧助催化剂,从而光催化分解水同时生成H2和O2气体。这种光催化剂在经历了510个小时的反应后仍保持稳定。作者们说,在不使用牺牲剂的条件下实现全分解水是非常困难的,他们的工作是一大突破,所发现的Pt/g-C3N4 共聚高分子可以在不使用牺牲剂的情况下将水分解为氢气和氧气。这是清洁可持续的太阳能利用的一个很好的范例。


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http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2016/SC/C5SC04572J#!divAbstract


2. Topochemical molten salt synthesis for functional perovskite compounds

Chemical Science; DOI: 10.1039/C5SC03521J

This report reviews topochemical molten salt synthesis (TMSS) reactions and their applications towards tunable morphology of perovskite materials. TMSS is an environmentally friendly method of preparing pure and controllable perovskites, for use as piezoelectrics, catalysts, ferroelectrics, multiferroics, etc.


该综述回顾了拓扑化学熔融盐合成(TMSS)反应及其在形态可调钙钛矿材料上的应用。钙钛矿经常用于压电体、催化剂、铁电体和多铁性材料中,而拓扑化学熔融盐合成是目前制备高纯度、形态可控钙钛矿的一种环境友好的方法。


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http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2016/SC/C5SC03521J#!divAbstract


Energy & Environmental Science(IF: 25.427)


1. Ternary solar celles with a mixed face-on and edge-on orientation enable an unprecedented efficiency of 12.1%

Energy Environ. Sci., DOI: 10.1039/C6EE02851A

Ternary organic solar cells (OSCs), with a simple structure, can be easily adopted as sub-cells in a tandem design, thereby further enhancing the power conversion efficiency (PCE). A hitherto unrealized PCE of 12.1% was achieved at the optimized composition of the ternary blend. The ternary blend surprisingly had a face-on and edge-on co-existent texture, which is far better than that of the face-on orientated host film. To the best of the authors knowledge, this intriguing result refutes for the first time a general paradigm that high-performance OSCs are unambiguously linked to face-on structures. The study therefore provides a new platform for refining the theoretical underpinning of multiple blending OSCs.


三元有机太阳能电池(OSCs)结构简单,可以很容易地用作串联设计中的子电池,以进一步提高能量转换效率(PCE)。本文作者们通过三元共混物,在最佳组成下实现了前所未有的高能量转换效率——12.1%。这种三元混合物令人惊讶地同时具有face-on和edge-on的结构,性能比仅具有face-on结构的膜要更好。这个有趣的结果也否定了“高性能有机太阳能电池须具有face-on结构”这一普遍看法,这在已有报道中尚属首次。因此,这项研究为改进多元共混有机太阳能电池的理论基础提供了一个新的平台。


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2. The bridge between the materials and devices of thermoelectric power generators

Energy Environ. Sci., DOI: 10.1039/C6EE02488B

While considerable efforts have been made to develop and improve thermoelectric materials, research on thermoelectric modules is at a relatively early stage because of the gap between material and device technologies. In this review, the authors discuss the cumulative temperature dependence model to reliably predict the thermoelectric performance of module devices and individual materials for an accurate evaluation of the p–n configuration compared to the conventional model used since the 1950s. In this model, the engineering figure of merit and engineering power factor are direct indicators, and they exhibit linear correlations to efficiency and output power density, respectively. To reconcile the strategy for high material performance and the thermomechanical reliability issue in devices, a new methodology is introduced by defining the engineering thermal conductivity. Beyond thermoelectric materials, the device point of view needs to be actively addressed before thermoelectric generators can be envisioned as power sources.


一直以来人们在开发和改进热电材料方面做出了很多的努力,但由于材料和器件技术之间仍存在很大差距,关于热电模块的研究仍处在相对早期的阶段。在这篇综述中,作者讨论了利用累积温度依赖模型来可靠预测模块器件和单个材料热电性能的方法,以精确评估p-n型(与自上世纪50年代以来的传统模型相比)。在这个模型中,工程优值和工程功率因数是直接指标,它们分别与效率和输出功率密度呈线性相关。为了协调高材料性能策略和器件中的热机械可靠性问题,作者通过定义工程热导率引入了一种新方法。在热电发电机被作为电源之前,除热电材料之外,从设备角度出发的观点也需要引起注意。


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3. Biomimetic and bioinspired approaches for wiring enzymes to electrode interfaces

Energy Environ. Sci., DOI: 10.1039/C6EE02801B

Biomimetic and bioinspired approaches to redox enzyme wiring involve borrowing structures and strategies found in biological electron transfer systems for use in engineered devices. Redox protein–electrode systems are evolving for several applications, including energy, biomedical and environmental purposes. This review is intended to be both “tutorial” and comprehensive in that we provide a guide to understand, design, and improve electrode interfaces for redox enzyme electron transfer processes in devices. The review examines electrode interfaces by directly comparing them with biological electron transfer systems. First, the mechanisms, theory, and structures for electron transfer in biological systems are provided, followed by analysis of the strategies and structures engineered in redox-protein devices. The review describes the challenges of constructing and applying redox enzyme devices, including the poor electrical contact between electrodes and enzymes and low lifetime and scalability of devices.


在生物电子转移系统中发现的结构和策略能帮助或启发氧化还原酶在各种器件中的应用。氧化还原蛋白-电极系统可以应用在包括能源、生物医学以及环境等多种领域。本综述将有助于理解、设计和改善用于器件中氧化还原酶电子转移过程的电极界面。文中直接将电极界面与生物电子转移系统相比较,来检验前者。首先,提供了生物系统中电子转移的机制、理论和结构,然后分析了氧化还原蛋白器件设计的策略及结构。本文还总结了构建及应用氧化还原酶器件所面对的挑战,包括电极和酶之间较差的电接触,装置较短的使用寿命和不尽如人意的可扩展性。


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4. A new approach for recycling waste rubber products in Li-S batteries

Energy Environ. Sci., DOI: 10.1039/C6EE02770A

Vulcanized rubber products contain polymer backbones crosslinked with  ulphur to improve mechanical strength. Burning of waste rubber products emits toxic gases, and recycling of rubber by breaking the C–S bond with costly reagents and heat is also haunted by environmental concerns. The crosslinked polymers can be extracted chemically at room temperature and, by a simple solution-drop method, used to prepare a bifunctional cathode layer on the cathode current collector of a Li–S battery. The C–S bond of the crosslinking  ulphur can be broken reversibly in a discharge/recharge cycle to provide a  ulphur source, and the broken carbon bond can capture a lithium polysulfide soluble in a liquid organic electrolyte by forming a C–Li–S bond during discharge. During charge, the Li is extracted and the C–S bond is reformed. However, added  ulphur powder is also needed in the cathode of a Li–S battery. The data also provide a low-cost way to recycle waste rubber electrochemically.


硫化橡胶制品包含与硫交联的聚合物主链,以提高机械强度。燃烧废橡胶制品会释放有毒气体,通过昂贵的试剂和高温破坏C-S键来回收橡胶也受到环境问题的困扰。本文提供了一种简单的溶液滴落法,可在室温下化学提取这种交联聚合物,并用于制备锂硫电池正极集电器上的双功能正极材料层。交联硫的C-S键在放电/再充电循环中能可逆地断裂以提供硫源,并且在放电过程中,断裂的碳键可通过形成C-Li-S键捕获溶于液体有机电解质中的锂多硫化物。在充电过程中,锂被提取出来,C-S键也重新形成。然而,锂硫电池正极还是需要添加硫粉末。数据证明,本文提供了一种回收废橡胶的低成本电化学方法。


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5.Skutterudite with graphene-modified grain-boundary complexion enhances zT enabling high-efficiency thermoelectric device

Energy Environ. Sci., DOI: 10.1039/C6EE02467J

Skutterudite materials are widely considered for thermoelectric waste heat recovery. While the skutterudite structure effectively scatters the high frequency phonons, grain-boundary engineering is needed to further reduce the thermal conductivity beyond simply decreasing grain size. Here, the authors show that reduced graphene oxide (rGO) increases the grain boundary thermal resistivity by a factor of 3 to 5 compared to grain boundaries without graphene. A 16 leg thermoelectric module was made by using n- and p-type skutterudite–graphene nanocomposites that exhibited conversion efficiency 24% higher than a module made without graphene. Engineering grain boundary complexions with 2-D materials introduces a new strategy for advanced thermoelectric materials.


方钴矿材料被公认有希望用于热电废热回收。虽然方钴矿结构能有效地散射高频声子,但还是需要晶界工程来进一步降低热导率,而不是仅仅简单地减小晶粒尺寸。本文作者们发现,与无石墨烯的晶界相比,还原的氧化石墨烯(rGO)可将晶界热阻系数提高3到5倍。使用n型和p型方钴矿-石墨烯纳米复合材料,作者们制造了一个16腿热电模块,它的转换效率比不使用石墨烯的模块高24%。复合二维材料的晶界工程为开发高先进的热电材料引入了新的策略。


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