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  • Chemotext: A Publicly Available Web Server for Mining Drug–Target–Disease Relationships in PubMed
    J. Chem. Inf. Model. (IF 3.76) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    Stephen J. Capuzzi, Thomas E. Thornton, Kammy Liu, Nancy Baker, Wai In Lam, Colin P. O’Banion, Eugene N. Muratov, Diane Pozefsky, Alexander Tropsha
    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Anthocyanin Management in Fruits by Fertilization
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    Mareike Jezek, Christian Zörb, Nikolaus Merkt, Christoph-Martin Geilfus
    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Utilization of a Genome-Edited Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) with High Gamma Aminobutyric Acid Content in Hybrid Breeding
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    Jeongeun Lee, Satoko Nonaka, Mariko Takayama, Hiroshi Ezura
    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Structural variation and microrheological properties of a homogeneous polysaccharide from wheat germ
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    liyuan Yun, Tao Wu, rui Liu, kun Li, Min Zhang

    A novel water-soluble polysaccharide (WGP) was purified from the crude wheat germ polysaccharide by Sephacryl S-500HRgel filtration. The molecular weight of WGP was determined as 4.89×106 Da and composed of arabinose, xylose, glucose, and galactose, with a molar ratio of 29.3%:42.7%:14.7%:13.3%, respectively. WGP was subjected for structural characterization by methylation analysis and 1D/2D nuclear magnetic resonance. WGP was mainly a backbone consisting of (1→4)-linked--D-Xylp (19.01%), (1→3, 4)-linked--D-Xylp (26.27%) residues, which was branched of (1→5)-linked α-L-Araf (28.09%), and (1→3,6)-linked β-D-Galp (12.11%) with -D-Glcp (14.52%) as terminal unit. The calculated values of Turbiscan stability indexes suggested that WGP (0.1–0.5 mg/mL) is a stable system. The microrheology results showed that WGP can form gel behavior at the concentration of 0.1–3 mg/mL. In in vitro assay, the results showed that WGP could cause the proliferation of the RAW264.7 macrophages, upregulate the stimulation of the production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-8 secretion in the lymphocytes.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • A colorimetric DNAzyme biosensor for convenience detection of enterotoxin B harbouring Staphylococcus aureus from food samples
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    BHAIRAB MONDAL, Bhavanashri N, Shylaja Ramlal, Joseph Kingston

    Abstract In the present study, a colorimetric DNAzymes biosensor strategy was devised in combination with immunomagnetic separation for rapid and easy detection of enterotoxin B harbouring Staphylococcus aureus from food and clinical samples. The method employs immunocapture of S. aureus and amplification of seb gene by DNAzyme complementary sequence integrated forward primer and with specific reverse primer. The DNAzyme sequence integrated dsDNA PCR products when treated with hemin and TMB (3, 3′, 5, 5′–tetramethylbenzidine) in the presence of H2O2 produce colorimetric signal. A linear relationship of optical signal with the initial template of seb was obtained which could be monitored by visually or spectrophotometrically for qualitative and quantitative detection. The limit of detection for the assay was approximately 102 CFU/mL of seb gene harboring target. This method is convenient compared to gel based and ELISA systems. Further, spiking studies and analysis on natural samples emphasized the robustness and applicability of developed method. Altogether, the established assay could be a reliable alternative, low-cost, viable detection tool for the routine investigation of seb from food and clinical sources.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Development of Pickering Emulsions Stabilized by Gliadin/Proanthocyanidins Hybrid Particles (GPHPs) and the fate of Lipid Oxidation and Digestion
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    Fu-Zhen Zhou, Li Yan, Shou-Wei Yin, Chuan-He Tang, Xiao-Quan Yang

    This work attempted to engineer emulsions’ interface using special affinity between proline-rich gliadin and proanthocyanidins (PA), to develop surfactant-free antioxidant Pickering emulsions with digestive-resistant properties. This binding interaction between gliadin and PA benefited the interfacial adsorption of the particles to corn oil droplets. Pickering droplets as building units assembled into interconnected three-dimensional network structure, giving the emulsions viscoelasticity and ultra-stability. Oxidative markers in Pickering emulsions were periodically monitored under thermally accelerated storage. Lipid digestion and oxidation fates were characterized using in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) models. Interfacial membrane constructed by antioxidant particles served as a valid barrier against lipid oxidation and digestion, in a PA dose-dependent manner. Briefly, lipid oxidation under storage and simulated GI tract was retarded. Free fatty acid (FFA) fraction released decreased by 55% from 87.9% (bulk oil) to 39.5% (Pickering emulsion), implying engineering interfacial architecture potentially benefited to fight obesity. This study opens a facile strategy to tune lipid oxidation and digestion profiles through the cooperation of Pickering principle and interfacial delivery of antioxidants.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • 更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Fabricating Simple Wax Screen-Printing Paper-Based Analytical Devices To Demonstrate the Concept of Limiting Reagent in Acid–Base Reactions
    J. Chem. Educ. (IF 1.419) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    Pithakpong Namwong, Purim Jarujamrus, Maliwan Amatatongchai, Sanoe Chairam
    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • 更新日期:2018-01-19
  • 更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Morgan Sheng
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-01-19

    Morgan Sheng Morgan Sheng, Published online: 19 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrd.2017.271 Morgan Sheng, Vice President of Neuroscience at Genentech, discusses his continued faith in the amyloid hypothesis, the promise of the genetics of neurodegenerative disorders and the overlap between psychiatric disease and neurodegeneration.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Impact of a five-dimensional framework on R&D productivity at AstraZeneca
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    Paul Morgan, Dean G. Brown, Simon Lennard, Mark J. Anderton, J. Carl Barrett, Ulf Eriksson, Mark Fidock, Bengt Hamrén, Anthony Johnson, Ruth E. March, James Matcham, Jerome Mettetal, David J. Nicholls, Stefan Platz, Steve Rees, Michael A. Snowden, Menelas N. Pangalos

    In 2011, AstraZeneca embarked on a major revision of its research and development (R&D) strategy with the aim of improving R&D productivity, which was below industry averages in 2005–2010. A cornerstone of the revised strategy was to focus decision-making on five technical determinants (the right target, right tissue, right safety, right patient and right commercial potential). In this article, we describe the progress made using this '5R framework' in the hope that our experience could be useful to other companies tackling R&D productivity issues. We focus on the evolution of our approach to target validation, hit and lead optimization, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling and drug safety testing, which have helped improve the quality of candidate drug nomination, as well as the development of the right culture, where 'truth seeking' is encouraged by more rigorous and quantitative decision-making. We also discuss where the approach has failed and the lessons learned. Overall, the continued evolution and application of the 5R framework are beginning to have an impact, with success rates from candidate drug nomination to phase III completion improving from 4% in 2005–2010 to 19% in 2012–2016.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Glimmers in illuminating the druggable genome
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    Griffin Rodgers, Christopher Austin, James Anderson, Aaron Pawlyk, Christine Colvis, Ronald Margolis, Jenna Baker

    Glimmers in illuminating the druggable genome Glimmers in illuminating the druggable genome, Published online: 19 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrd.2017.252 Much biomedical research continues to focus on a small proportion of the human genome that has already been studied intensively. The Illuminating the Druggable Genome programme, initiated as a pilot project by the US National Institutes of Health Common Fund in 2014, is now being implemented to accelerate the investigation of subsets of understudied proteins that have potential therapeutic relevance.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Design and Synthesis of Broad Spectrum Trypanosomatid Selective Inhibitors
    ACS Infect. Dis. (IF 3.6) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    Andrew L. Fraser, Stefanie K. Menzies, Elizabeth F. B. King, Lindsay B. Tulloch, Eoin R. Gould, Marija K. Zacharova, Terry K. Smith, Gordon J. Florence
    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Market watch: 2017 FDA drug approvals: number rebounds but average value slips
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    Mathias Baedeker, Michael Ringel, Valery Panier, Ulrik Schulze

    Market watch: 2017 FDA drug approvals: number rebounds but average value slips Market watch: 2017 FDA drug approvals: number rebounds but average value slips, Published online: 19 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrd.2018.2 Market watch: 2017 FDA drug approvals: number rebounds but average value slips

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • 2017 FDA drug approvals
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    Asher Mullard

    2017 FDA drug approvals 2017 FDA drug approvals, Published online: 19 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrd.2018.4 The FDA approved 46 new drugs last year, the highest total in more than two decades.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Chronic consumption of a Western diet modifies the DNA methylation profile in the frontal cortex of mice
    Food Funct. (IF 3.247) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    Amy Yokoyama, Keith Dunaway, Jennifer Rutkowsky, John Rutledge, Dragan Milenkovic

    In our previous work in mice, we have shown that chronic consumption of a Western diet (WD; 42% kcal fat, 0.2% total cholesterol and 34% sucrose) is correlated with impaired cognitive function. Cognitive decline has also been associated with alterations in DNA methylation. Additionally, although there have been many studies analyzing the effect of maternal consumption of a WD on DNA methylation in the offspring, few studies have analyzed how an individual’s consumption of a WD can impact his/her DNA methylation. Since the frontal cortex is involved in the regulation of cognitive function and is often affected in cases of cognitive decline, this study aimed to examine how chronic consumption of a WD affects DNA methylation in the frontal cortex of mice. Eight-week-old male mice were fed either a control diet (CD) or a WD for 12 weeks, after which time alterations in DNA methylation were analyzed. Assessment of global DNA methylation in the frontal cortex using dot blot analysis revealed that there was a decrease in global DNA methylation in the WD-fed mice compared with the CD-fed mice. Bioinformatic analysis identified several networks and pathways containing genes displaying differential methylation, particularly those involved in metabolism, cell adhesion and cytoskeleton integrity, inflammation and neurological function. In conclusion, the results from this study suggest that consumption of a WD alters DNA methylation in the frontal cortex of mice and could provide one of the mechanisms by which consumption of a WD impairs cognitive function.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Ameliorative role of camel whey protein and rosuvastatin on induced dyslipidemia in mice
    Food Funct. (IF 3.247) Pub Date : 2018-01-02
    Nashwa Ahmed El-Shinnawy, Sahar Sobhy Abd Elhalem, Nawal Zakaria Haggag, Gamal Badr
    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Stability and digestibility of one- or bi-layered medium-chain triglyceride emulsions with gum Arabic and whey protein isolates by pancreatic lipase in vitro
    Food Funct. (IF 3.247) Pub Date : 2017-12-22
    Xiaolin Yao, Yu Chen, Meng Shu, Kun Zhang, Zhiming Gao, Ying Kuang, Yapeng Fang, Katsuyoshi Nishinari, Glyn O. Phillips, Fatang Jiang
    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Association between sn-2 fatty acid profiles of breast milk and development of the infant intestinal microbiome
    Food Funct. (IF 3.247) Pub Date : 2017-12-04
    Tiemin Jiang, Bin Liu, Jufang Li, Xueyan Dong, Man Lin, Minghui Zhang, Junying Zhao, Yaohua Dai, Lijun Chen
    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Evaluation of Drug Exposure and Metabolism in Locust and Zebrafish Brains Using Mass Spectrometry Imaging
    ACS Chem. Neurosci. (IF 3.883) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    Marvin Villacrez, Karin Hellman, Tatsuya Ono, Yutaka Sugihara, Melinda Rezeli, Fredrik Ek, Gyorgy Marko-Varga, Roger Olsson
    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Active Tuning of Strong Coupling States between Dye Excitons and Localized Surface Plasmons via Electrochemical Potential Control
    ACS Photonics (IF 6.756) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    Fumiya Kato, Hiro Minamimoto, Fumika Nagasawa, Yuko S. Yamamoto, Tamitake Itoh, Kei Murakoshi
    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Comprehensive Study of Plasmonic Materials in the Visible and Near-Infrared: Linear, Refractory, and Nonlinear Optical Properties
    ACS Photonics (IF 6.756) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    Gelon Albrecht, Monika Ubl, Stefan Kaiser, Harald Giessen, Mario Hentschel
    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • ‘What do you think the aims of doing a practical chemistry course are?’ A comparison of the views of students and teaching staff across three universities.
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    Stephen Robert George-Williams, Angela L Ziebell, Chris D Thompson, Tina Lyn Overton

    The aims of teaching laboratories is an important topic of discussion amongst teaching staff in universities. It is often assumed that both teaching staff and students are implicitly aware of these aims, although this is rarely tested or measured. This assumption can lead to mismatched beliefs between students and teaching staff and, if not corrected, could lead to negative learning experiences for students and become a source of frustration for teaching staff. In order to measure and identify this potential gap in a manner that could be readily generalised to other institutions, a single open question - ‘What do you think the aims of doing a practical chemistry course are?’ – was distributed to students and teaching staff at two Australian universities and one UK university. Qualitative analysis of the responses revealed that students, teaching associates and academics held relatively narrow views of the aims of teaching laboratories, particularly focusing on aims aligned with expository experiences (e.g. development of practical skills or enhancing understanding of theory). Whilst some minor differences were noted between students at the three institutions, the overwhelming similarities in their responses indicated a fairly common perception of the aims of teaching laboratories. Of the three groups, academics held the narrowest view of teaching laboratories, typically neglecting the preparation of students for the workforce or the simple increase in laboratory experience the students could gain. This study highlights gaps between the perceptions of students and teaching staff with regards to laboratory aims and reveals that all three groups held relatively simplistic views of teaching laboratories.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Microbial and Chemical Shelf-Life of Vacuum Steam-Pasteurized Whole Flaxseed and Milled Flaxseed
    J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    Manoj Shah, Bridget Eklund, Luiz Gustavo Conde Lima, Teresa Bergholz, Clifford Hall

    Abstract Flaxseed is an oilseed with many health benefits. Flaxseed may be consumed raw or in processed form. In the raw form, there is a potential for microbial contamination. Several pasteurization methods have been used to reduce microbial contamination. However, such treatments may affect chemical properties of foods. In this study, vacuum steam-pasteurization was conducted on whole flaxseed and milled flaxseed using 4 different conditions (3 min at 75 °C, 3 min at 90 °C, 9 min at 90 °C, and 3 min at 105 °C). Microbial and chemical shelf-life was monitored for 28 wk (36 wk for aerobic plate counts). Significant reduction (P < 0.05) in microbial counts (total aerobic plate counts, and yeast and mold counts) occurred after pasteurization and during storage of both whole flaxseed and milled flaxseed. Although both the moisture content and aw increased after pasteurization, they were similar to the unpasteurized samples during storage. Peroxide value, free fatty acid, headspace volatiles, fatty acid profiles, oil content, and secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) content were chemical indices measured. Only small changes were observed in the chemical indices after vacuum steam-pasteurization for both pasteurized whole flaxseed and milled flaxseed as compared to the unpasteurized flaxseed at most instances. Vacuum steam-pasteurization can be used as a safe alternative for the microbial reduction of low-moisture products, such as flaxseed, without significantly affecting chemical stability. Practical Application Vacuum steam-pasteurization can be effectively used for the treatment of whole flaxseed and milled flaxseed to reduce spoilage microorganisms, such as total aerobes and yeasts and molds. In addition, this pasteurization method had minimal effects on several chemical shelf-life parameters with positive impact on SDG of the processed flaxseed.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Importance of Applying Condiments in a Commonly Consumed Food System for Understanding the Association Between Familiarity and Sensory Drivers of Liking: A Study Focused on Doenjang
    J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    Soo Hyun Roh, Soh Min Lee, Sang Sook Kim, Kwang-Ok Kim

    Abstract Doenjang, a Korean traditional fermented soybean paste, is one of the most essential condiments in Korean cuisine. Condiments are rarely consumed as it is, and are generally applied to other foods. The objective of this study was to understand how sensory drivers of liking of Doenjang would be affected according to food forms in which it is evaluated: the original paste form compared with a normally consumed soup form, and to understand the association of familiarity of evaluated food form. Descriptive analysis and consumer acceptability test was performed in 2 consumption forms: the original paste form and the Doenjang soup from. For consumer liking test, elderly consumers who have more experience to traditional Deonjang were compared to the young in their response to Doenjang paste and soup. The descriptive analysis results showed that the characteristic sensory features of the Deonjang samples were little affected based on the food system in which it was evaluated. However, when the paste was applied in soup, the intensities of the characteristic sensory features were reduced. Acceptability and familiarity of traditional type Doenjang samples for the young and for the elderly consumers were very similar in paste, but it differed when the samples were evaluated in soup. Thus, expectation difference between the young and the elderly was better revealed in soup, a more common food form consumed in practice. The results of this study indicate the importance of understanding sensory drivers of liking for a condiment such as Doenjang in their commonly consumed forms. Practical Application Compared to the original condiment form, expectation difference between the young and the elderly were better revealed in Deonjang soup, a food form normally consumed in practice. Thus, the results of this study reinforced the importance of investigating sensory drivers of liking for a condiment in a food form that is normally consumed in practice for accurate understanding on consumer preference.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • The Hepatoprotective Effect of Selenium-Enriched Yeast and Gum Arabic Combination on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Chronic Liver Injury in Rats
    J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    Mohammed Hamid, Yassin Abdulrahim, Dandan Liu, Gang Qian, Alamzeb Khan, Kehe Huang

    Abstract The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of selenium-enriched yeast (SY) and Gum Arabic (GA) have been reported. This study aimed to determine the hepatoprotective effect of SY and GA combination on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced chronic liver injury in rats and to explore their synergistic mechanisms of action. Forty adult male Wistar rats randomly allotted to 5 groups: (A) worked as control, (B) was administered CCl4, (C-E) were fed daily by GA, SY, and GA+SY respectively after mixing with basal diet, following CCl4-intoxication. GA and SY combination significantly ameliorated CCl4-induced reduction in serum total protein with elevation in aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) in addition to restoring the histopathological changes and hepatic content of hydroxyproline. GA and SY combination was also effective in reducing lipid peroxidation (MDA), consistent with an increase in total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, indicating the suppression of liver oxidative stress. Furthermore, liver inflammation was ameliorated by GA and SY combination through inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and toll-like receptor 4(TLR-4) over expression in the liver. Moreover, the up-regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression by GA and SY combination enhanced the regeneration of liver tissue after CCl4-administration. The expression of Collagen1, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGFβ1), was obviously ameliorated by GA and SY combination, suggesting the amelioration of profibrotic response of the liver. Taken together, our current study suggests that GA and SY combination exhibit a significant hepatoprotective activity, which more efficient than GA or SY alone. Practical Application Chronic liver diseases are the serious health problems, which increase the morbidity and mortality in the world today. Selenium-enriched yeast (SY) and Gum Arabic (GA) combination might be potential dietary agents could obviously ameliorate chronic liver damage, higher than GA and SY alone. They act to suppress the inflammation and inhibit the profibrotic response as well as support the liver regeneration.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Occurrence of Ochratoxins, Fumonisin B2, Aflatoxins (B1 and B2), and Other Secondary Fungal Metabolites in Dried Date Palm Fruits from Egypt: A Mini-Survey
    J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    Mohamed F. Abdallah, Rudolf Krska, Michael Sulyok

    Abstract This study was conducted to investigate the natural co-occurrence of 295 fungal and bacterial metabolites in 28 samples of dried date palm fruits collected from different shops distributed in Assiut Governorate, Upper Egypt in 2016. Extraction and quantification of the target analytes were done using the “dilute and shoot” approach followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. In total, 30 toxic fungal metabolites were detected. Among these metabolites, 4 types of ochratoxins including ochratoxin type A and B were quantified in 3 samples (11%) with a contamination range from 1.48 to 6070 μg/kg for ochratoxin A and from 0.28 to 692 μg/kg for ochratoxin B. In addition, fumonisin B2 was observed in 2 (7%) samples with contamination levels ranging from 4.99 to 16.2 μg/kg. The simultaneous detection of fumonisin B2 in the same contaminated samples with ochratoxins indicates the fungal attack by Aspergillus niger species during storage. Only 1 sample was contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (14.4 μg/kg) and B2 (2.44 μg/kg). The highest maximum concentration (90400 μg/kg) was for kojic acid that contaminated 43% of the samples. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of the natural co-occurrence of fumonisin B2 and ochratoxin A and B in addition to a wide range of other fungal metabolites in date palm fruits. Practical Application Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by different fungi. These metabolites pose a potential risk on human health since they contaminate many food commodities. Among these, date palm fruits which are an integral part of diet in several countries. Therefore, detection of mycotoxins is a prerequisite to insure the safety of food. Here, different types of mycotoxins have been detected in levels that may have health hazard.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Protective Effect of Chitosan Oligosaccharides Against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Immunosuppression and Irradiation Injury in Mice
    J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    Xingchen Zhai, Xin Yang, Pan Zou, Yong Shao, Shoujun Yuan, A. M. Abd El-Aty, Jing Wang

    Abstract Chitosan oligosaccharides (COS), hydrolyzed products of chitosan, was found to display various biological activities. Herein, we assessed the immunostimulatory activity of COS both in in vitro and in vivo studies. In vitro cytotoxicity studies to murine macrophage RAW264.7 revealed that COS is safe even at the maximum tested concentration of 1000 μg/mL. It also stimulates the production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and enhances the phagocytosis in COS-stimulated RAW264.7. We have shown that the COS could significantly (P < 0.05) restore the reduced immune organs indices, phagocytic index, lymphocyte proliferation, natural killer cell activity, and antioxidant enzyme activities in a cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppressed mice model. COS can also improve the survival rate in irradiation injury mice and significantly (P < 0.05) increased the spleen indices and up-regulates the CD4+/CD8+ ratio in splenocytes. In sum, the aforementioned results suggest that COS might has the potential to be used as an immunostimulatory agent in patients with immune dysfunctions or be a model for functional food development. Practical Application COS might has the potential to be used as an immunostimulatory agent in patients with immune dysfunctions or be a model for functional food development.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • The Protective Effect of Antarctic Krill Oil on Cognitive Function by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress in the Brain of Senescence-Accelerated Prone Mouse Strain 8 (SAMP8) Mice
    J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    Qian Li, Fengjuan Wu, Min Wen, Teruyoshi Yanagita, Changhu Xue, Tiantian Zhang, Yuming Wang

    Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder, and oxidative stress plays a vital role in its progression. Antarctic krill oil (AKO) is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, which has various biological activities, such as improving insulin sensitivity, alleviating inflammation and ameliorating oxidative stress. In this study, the protective effect of AKO against AD were investigated in senescence-accelerated prone mouse strain 8 (SAMP8) mice. Results showed that treatment with AKO could effectively ameliorate learning and memory deficits and ease the anxiety in SAMP8 mice by Morris water maze, Barnes maze test and open-field test. Further analysis indicated that AKO might reduce β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation in hippocampus through decreasing the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxo-G), increasing the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in the brain of SAMP8 mice. Practical Application The results of Morris water maze, Barnes maze test and open-field test indicated that Antarctic krill oil (AKO) improved the cognitive function and anxiety of SAMP8 mice. AKO reduced the Aβ42 level in hippocampus of SAMP8 mice. AKO ameliorated oxidative stress in brain rather than in serum and liver of SAMP8 mice.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Quality Characteristics of a Low-Fat Beef Patty Enriched by Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Vitamin D3
    J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    Inmaculada Gómez, María Victoria Sarriés, Francisco C. Ibañez, María José Beriain

    Abstract Olive and linseed oils have high contents of oleic acid and n-3 fatty acids (FA), respectively. Vitamin D3, an essential nutrient, is in low contents in meat. This study investigated the potential application of olive and linseed oils’ mixture as a backfat replacer, and vitamin D3 as a supplement, in order to develop a product enriched by polyunsaturated FAs and vitamin D3. Two treatments were manufactured: conventional (C: 0% emulsion, 0 μg vitamin D3/100 g product) and modified (M: 10.9% emulsion/, 8.3 μg vitamin D3/100 g product). The quality characteristics and cooking effects on the FA and vitamin D3 contents were assessed. The sensory properties of cooked patties were not affected by olive and linseed oils’ mixture (P > 0.05). The instrumental textural parameters were lower in cooked M patties (P < 0.01), except springiness (P = 0.766) that was not affected by formulation. The contents of α-linoleic acid in M patty were 19-fold higher than those from C patty. The contents of n-3 and n-6 were higher in M patty (P < 0.05) than in C patty. Although cooking decreased the content of vitamin D3 in M patty (6.7 compared with 5.2 μg/100 g product), considerable increments were achieved compared to C patty. Practical Application There is an increasing demand of consumers for healthier meat products; therefore, the improvement of their nutritional profile without negatively affecting quality characteristics is key factor for meat sector. This study emphasizes the feasibility of using the combination of olive and linseed oils’ mixture and vitamin D3 to yield new meat products with high contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D3. The effectiveness of combination of oils mixture and vitamin D3 tested in this study is proven and the high contribution of vitamin D3 and some fatty acids of nutritional interest identified.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Hepatoprotective Effects of Sophoricoside against Fructose-Induced Liver Injury via Regulating Lipid Metabolism, Oxidation, and Inflammation in Mice
    J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    Wenfeng Li, Yalong Lu

    Abstract The dried fruit of Sophora japonica L. is a traditional Chinese herb tea rich in sophoricoside that is an isoflavone glycoside. The aim of current study was to investigate the hepatic protective effect of sophoricoside in high fructose (HF) diet fed mice. Healthy male mice were fed 30% fructose water and treated 80 and 160 mg/kg·bw sophoricoside continuously for 8 wk. Our data showed that administration of sophoricoside at 80 and 160 mg/kg·bw observably decreased the body weight and liver weight in HF-fed mice. It was found that the treatment of sophoricoside decreased the hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and apolipoprotein-B levels, and elevated the serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and apolipoprotein-A1 levels. Moreover, the administration of sophoricoside decreased the HF-caused elevations of hepatic malonaldehyde, interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α levels, while increased the HF-induced decreases of hepatic superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Meanwhile, serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase activities were reduced by treatment of sophoricoside in HF-fed mice. Histopathology of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and oil red O staining of liver tissues also confirmed the beneficial effects of sophoricoside against liver injury induced by HF-diet in mice. These findings indicated that sophoricoside may be a novel natural isoflavone for alleviating HF-induced liver injury. Practical Application Fruit of Sophora japonica L. is a traditional herb tea and it recently becomes popular in China. Sophoricoside is an isoflavone glycoside (Genistein-4’-O-β-d-glucopyranoside) isolated from S. japonical L, and it possessed differential effects on the body health. The ingestion of sophoricoside or sophora fruit tea may be a novel strategy to prevent non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Biotechnological Applications of Proteases in Food Technology
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 5.974) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    Olga Luisa Tavano, Angel Berenguer-Murcia, Francesco Secundo, Roberto Fernandez-Lafuente

    Abstract This review presents some of the hottest topics in biotechnological applications: proteases in biocatalysis. Obviously, one of the most relevant areas of application is in the hydrolysis of proteins in food technology, and that has led to a massive use on proteomics. The aim is to identify via peptide maps the different proteins obtained after a specific protease hydrolysis. However, concepts like degradomics are also taking on a more relevant importance in the use and study of proteases and will also be discussed. Other protease applications, as seem in cleaning (detergent development), the pharmaceutical industry, and in fine chemistry, will be analyzed. This review progresses from basic areas such as protease classification to a discussion of the preparation of protease-immobilized biocatalysts, considering the different problems raised by the use of immobilized proteases due to the peculiar features of the substrates, usually large macromolecules. Production of bioactive peptides via limited hydrolysis of proteins will occupy an important place in this review.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Implementation of NIR technology for at-line rapid detection of sunflower oil adulterated with mineral oil
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.099) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    Pierre A. Picouet, Pere Gou, Risto Hyypiö, Massimo Castellari

    Three experimental setups, based on near infrared technology (NIR), were tested for rapid “at-line” assessment of sunflower oil adulteration by mineral oil. Experimental setups included a commercial portable NIR, coupled to both reflexion (S1) and immersion probes (S2), and a prototype of a multichannel Quasi Imaging Visible NIR spectrometer (QIVN) coupled to an immersion probe (S3). Independent calibration and validation samples sets were prepared with mineral oils (MOs) content up to 10 % (w/w), and calibrations were developed using partial least square (PLS) regressions. Root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) ranges from 0.23 to 1.26 % (w/w) MOs, depending on the NIR setup. The best performances were obtained with S1, which provides satisfactory calibrations, and low number of false positives starting from levels of mineral oil around 1 %. S3 still provides acceptable calibrations, and could be practically used to detect mineral oil at concentrations higher than 2.5% (w/w) MOs.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Bacteriophages as modulator for the human gut microbiota: Release from dairy food systems and survival in a dynamic human gastrointestinal model
    LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-01-18
    Meike Samtlebe, Sylvain Denis, Sandrine Chalancon, Zeynep Atamer, Natalia Wagner, Horst Neve, Charles Franz, Herbert Schmidt, Stéphanie Blanquet-Diot, Jörg Hinrichs

    Understanding the functions of the human gut microbiota and its associated phageome is of major interest. The human gut contains about 1015 phage particles, suggesting that phages may modulate the gut microbiota. Nevertheless, the targeted application of phages in the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) faces numerous challenges, i.e., availability of appropriate phage delivery systems and sensitivity of phages to gastrointestinal conditions. In the present study, a dynamic gastrointestinal model (TIM-1 system) was used to investigate i) the survival kinetics of the lactococcal phage P008 added to three different “test meals” and ii) the delivery of this phage to the large intestine. In the stomach compartment, a protective effect of the food matrix was documented on phage stability. The highest survival rate in the stomach was observed for encapsulated phages and a residual phage titer (in total) of 8 log pfu was detected after 240 min digestion at a pH < 2.0. However, release from the gastric compartment appeared to be significantly delayed in this case. Regardless of the used "test meal", high phage delivery from the ileal compartment was observed after 4 h of digestion, with a maximum value of 27% for phages suspended in milk concentrate. Hence, this study indicates that phages survive in significant numbers (i.e., >90%) during passage through the upper human GIT and may hence be able – when added e.g. to a dairy food matrix – to affect the activity of the human gut microbiota.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Catalytic mechanism of the Ubiquitin-like NEDD8 transfer in RING E3-E2~nedd8-target Complex from QM/MM free energy simulations
    J. Chem. Inf. Model. (IF 3.76) Pub Date : 2018-01-18
    Yufei Yue, Yue Ma, Ping Qian, Hong Guo

    Ubiquitin-like (UBL) protein modifications play a key role in regulating protein function. In contrast to the ubiquitin (UB) and small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) which are ligated to a massive segment of proteome, the UBL NEDD8 is highly selective for modifying a lysine residue on closely related cullin proteins (CULs). In this study, the X-ray structure of a trapped E3-E2~NEDD8-target intermediate (RBX1-UBC1~NEDD8-CUL1-DCN1) is used to build computer models, and combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) and free energy (potential of mean force) simulations are performed to investigate the catalytic mechanism of the NEDD8 transfer from E2 to the lysine residue (K720) on the substrate in the complex. The role of the active site residues is examined. The simulation results show that either E117 or D143 from E2 may be able to work as a general base catalyst to deprotonate K720 on the substrate and K720 can then perform the nucleophilic attack on the thioester bond linking E2 and NEDD8. It is also shown that the formation of a new isopeptide bond between K720 and NEDD8 and the breaking of the thioester bond are concerted based on the computer simulations. Furthermore, the results suggest that K720 may act as a general acid catalyst to protonate the leaving group of C111 from E2. The free energy barrier for nucleophilic attack is estimated to be 14 -15 kcal/mol based on the free energy simulations.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Antihypertensive effects, molecular docking study and isothermal titration calorimetry assay of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from Chlorella vulgaris
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-18
    Jingli Xie, Xujun Chen, Junjie Wu, Yanyan Zhang, Yan Zhou, Lujia Zhang, Yajie Tang, Dong-Zhi Wei

    The aim of this work is to explore angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) and discover the inhibitory mechanism of the peptides. After C. vulgaris proteins were gastrointestinal digested in silico, several ACE inhibitory peptides with C-terminal tryptophan were screened. Among them, two novel non-competitive ACE inhibitors, Thr-Thr-Trp (TTW) and Val-His-Trp (VHW), exhibited the highest inhibitory activity indicated by IC50 values, 0.61 ± 0.12 and 0.91 ± 0.31 μM respectively. Both the peptides were demonstrated stable against gastrointestinal digestion and ACE hydrolysis. The peptides were administrated to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) in the dose 5 mg/Kg body weight, and VHW could decrease 50 mmHg systolic blood pressure of SHRs (p < 0.05). Molecular docking displayed that both TTW and VHW formed six hydrogen bonds with active site pockets of ACE. Besides, isothermal titration calorimetry assay discovered that VHW could form more stable complex with ACE than TTW. Therefore, VHW was an excellent ACE inhibitor.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • A metabolomics study reveals enhanced inhibition and metabolic dysregulation in E. coli induced by Lactobacillus acidophilus fermented black tea extract
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-18
    Kundi Yang, Mattew Duley, Jiangjiang Zhu

    This study examined the ability of Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) to ferment black tea extract (BTE), and the enhancement of Escherichia coli cellular uptake of phenolic compounds when this bacteria was incubated with fermented BTE. The inhibitory effects of BTE to E. coli bacteria, with and w/o fermentation, were compared. Several intracellular phenolic compounds, as well as metabolic profiles of E. coli with and w/o treatments, were also determined using a HPLC-MS/MS-based approach. Our results showed that out of three concentrations from the non-fermented BTE treatment, only the extract from the 25 mg/ml tea leaves solution could inhibit E. coli survival, while LA fermented BTE extract from 5, 10 and 25 mg/mL tea leaves solutions all inhibited E. coli growth significantly. Intracellular concentration of (+)-catechin-3-gallate/ (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate and (+)-catechin / (-)-epicatechin were significantly higher when E. coli was treated with fermented BTE in comparison to non-fermented BTE. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicated that the intracellular phenolic compounds inhibited E. coli growth by increasing endogenous oxidative stress. Metabolic profiles of E. coli were also investigated to understand their metabolic response when treated with BTE, and significant metabolic changes of E. coli were observed. Metabolic profile data were further analyzed using partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to distinguish the fermented BTE treatment group from the control group and the non-fermented BTE treatment group. The results indicated a large-scale E. coli metabolic dysregulation induced by the fermented BTE. Our findings showed that LA fermentation can be an efficient approach to enhance phenolic inhibition of bacterial cells through increased endogenous oxidative stress and dysregulated metabolic activities.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Comparative analysis of EPA/DHA-PL forage and liposomes in orotic acid-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver rats and their related mechanisms
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-18
    Mengru Chang, Tiantian Zhang, Xiuqing Han, Qingjuan Tang, Teruyoshi Yanagita, Jie Xu, Changhu Xue, YuMing Wang

    ABSTRACT Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one predictive factor of death from various illnesses. The present study was to comparatively investigate the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched and docosahexaenoic acid-enriched phospholipids forage (EPA-PL and DHA-PL) and liposomes (lipo-EPA and lipo-DHA) on NAFLD and demonstrate possible protective mechanisms involved. The additive doses of EPA-PL and DHA-PL in all treatment groups were 1 % of total diets, respectively. Results showed that Lipo-EPA could significantly improve hepatic function by down-regulating orotic acid-induced serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels by 55.6 % and 34.2 %, respectively (p < 0.01). Moreover, lipo-EPA exhibited excellent inhibition on the mRNA expression of SREBP-1c and FAS at the values of 0.454 ± 0.09 (p < 0.01) and 0.523 ± 0.08 (p < 0.01), respectively, thus ameliorating OA-induced NAFLD. Meanwhile, lipo-EPA could significantly suppress the SREBP-2 and HMGR levels (31.4 % and 66.7 %, p < 0.05, respectively). In addition, EPA-PL and lipo-DHA could also significantly suppress hepatic lipid accumulation mainly by enhancement of hepatic lipolysis and cholesterol efflux. Furthermore, DHA-PL played a certain role in inhibiting hepatic lipogenesis and accelerating cholesterol efflux. The results obtained in this work might contribute to the understanding of biological activities of EPA/DHA-PL and liposomes and further investigation on its potential application values for food supplement.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Physicochemical properties of whey protein-stabilized astaxanthin nanodispersion and its transport via Caco-2 monolayer
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-18
    Xue Shen, Changhui Zhao, Jing Lu, Mingruo Guo

    Astaxanthin nanodispersion was prepared using whey protein isolate (WPI) and polymerized whey protein (PWP) through an emulsification–evaporation technique. The physicochemical properties of the astaxanthin nanodispersion were evaluated and the transport of astaxanthin was assessed using a Caco-2 cell monolayer model. The astaxanthin nanodispersions stabilized by WPI and PWP (2.5%, w/w) had a small particle size (121 ± 4.9 and 80.4 ± 5.9 nm), negative zeta potential (-19.3 ± 1.5 and -35.0 ± 2.2 mV), and high encapsulation efficiency (92.1 ± 2.9% and 93.5 ± 2.4%). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves indicated that amorphous astaxanthin existed in both astaxanthin nanodispersions. Whey protein-stabilized astaxanthin nanodispersion showed resistance to pepsin digestion but readily released astaxanthin after trypsin digestion. The nanodispersions showed no cytotoxicity to Caco-2 cells at a protein concentration below 10 mg/mL. WPI and PWP stabilized nanodispersions improved the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of Caco-2 cells to astaxanthin by 10.3- and 16.1- fold, respectively. The results indicated that whey protein-stabilized nanodispersion is a good vehicle to deliver lipophilic bioactive compounds like astaxanthin and to improve their bioavailability.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Zein nanoparticles as eco-friendly carrier systems for botanical repellents aiming sustainable agriculture
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-18
    Jhones Luiz Oliveira, Estefania Vangelie Ramos Campos, Anderson do Espirito Santo Pereira, Tatiane Pasquoto, Renata Lima, Renato Grillo, Daniel Junior de Andrade, Fabiano Aparecido dos Santos, Leonardo F. Fraceto

    Botanical repellents represent one of the main ways of reducing the use of synthetic pesticides and the contamination of soil and hydric resources. However, the poor stability and rapid degradation of these compounds in the environment hinders their effective application in the field. Zein nanoparticles can be used as eco-friendly carrier systems to protect these substances against premature degradation, provide desirable release characteristics, and reduce toxicity in the environment and to humans. In this study, we describe the preparation and characterization of zein nanoparticles loaded with the main constituents of the essential oil of citronella (geraniol and R-citronellal). The phytotoxicity, cytotoxicity, and insect activity of the nanoparticles towards target and nontarget organisms were also evaluated. The botanical formulations showed high encapsulation efficiency (> 90 %) in the nanoparticles, good physicochemical stability, and effective protection of the repellents against UV degradation. Cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity assays showed that encapsulation of the botanical repellents decreased their toxicity. Repellent activity tests showed that nanoparticles containing the botanical repellents were highly repellent against the Tetranychus urticae Koch mite. This nanotechnological formulation offers a new option for the effective use of botanical repellents in agriculture, reducing toxicity, protecting against premature degradation, and providing effective pest control.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Effects of plant sterols and/or β-cryptoxanthin at physiological serum concentrations on suicidal erythrocyte death
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-18
    Andrea Alvarez-Sala, Gabriel López-García, Alessandro Attanzio, Luisa Tesoriere, Antonio Cilla, Reyes Barbera, Amparo Alegria

    The eryptotic and hemolytic effects of a phytosterol (PS) mixture (β-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol) and/or β-cryptoxanthin (β-Cx) at physiological serum concentration and their effect against oxidative stress induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBOOH) (75 and 300 µM) were evaluated. β-Cryptoxanthin produced an increase in eryptotic cells, cell volume, hemolysis and glutathione depletion (GSH), without ROS overproduction and intracellular Ca2+ influx. Co-incubation of both bioactive compounds protected against β-Cx-induced eryptosis. Under tBOOH stress, PS prevented eryptosis, reducing Ca+2 influx, ROS overproduction and GSH depletion at 75 µM, and hemolysis at both tBOOH concentrations. β-Cryptoxanthin showed no cytoprotective effect. Co-incubation with both bioactive compounds completely prevented hemolysis and partially prevented eryptosis, as well as GSH depletion induced by β-Cx plus tBOOH. Phytosterols at physiological serum concentrations help to prevent pro-eryptotic and hemolytic effects, and are promising candidate compounds for ameliorating eryptosis-associated diseases.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Qualitative and quantitative analysis of ethanolic extract and phenolic fraction of Jatropha aethiopica (Euphorbiaceae) leaves and their hypoglycemic potential.
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-18
    Daylin Gamiotea-Turro, Nathalia Aparecida de Paula Camaforte, Alexander Barbaro Valerino-Diaz, Yarelis Ortiz Nunez, Daniel Rinaldo, Anne Ligia Dokkedal, José Roberto Bosqueiro, Lourdes Campaner dos Santos

    While Jatropha aethiopica, popularly known in Cuba as “mata diabetes”, is used in salads and as a dietary supplement, its chemical composition and antidiabetic properties yet remains unclear. In this work, we evaluate the qualitative and quantitative composition of ethanolic extract (EE) and phenolic fraction (PF) of Jatropha aethiopica, leaves and their hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity. Chemical fractionation of the ethanolic extract yielded nine compounds, which included protocatechuic acid (1), chlorogenic acid (2), caffeic acid (3), quercetin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-[α-L-rhamnopyranolsyl-(1→6)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (4), a new kaempferol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-[α-L-rhamnopyranolsyl-(1→6)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (5), kaempferol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2[α-L-rhamnopyranolsyl-(1→6)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), rutin (7), kaempferol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (8) and quercetin (9). The compounds (1, 4-7) were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography photodiode array detection (HPLC-PDA) in both the ethanolic extract (62.65 ± 0.15 mg/g) and phenolic fraction (61.72 ± 0.23 mg/g). The results obtained show that both ethanolic extract and phenolic fraction contributed towards the improvement of glucose tolerance, which in turn led to a decline in the glucose levels. Remarkably, the ethanolic extract presented a relatively higher promising effect compared to metformin.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Antiinflammatory and antioxidant activities from the basolateral fraction of Caco-2 cells exposed to a rosmarinic acid enriched extract
    J. Agric. Food Chem. (IF 3.154) Pub Date : 2018-01-18
    MARISOL VILLALVA, Laura Jaime, Estela Aguado, Juan Antonio Nieto, Guillermo J. Reglero, Susana Santoyo

    The potential use of Origanum majorana L. as a source of bioavailable phenolic compounds, specifically rosmarinic acid (RA), has been evaluated. Phenolic bioavailability was tested using an in vitro digestion process followed by a Caco-2 cellular model of intestinal absorption. The HPLC-PAD-MS/MS analysis showed the main components in the extract were 6-hydroxyluteolin-7-O-glucoside and rosmarinic acid, followed by luteolin-O-glucoside. After digestion process, the amount of total phenolic compounds (TPC) only decreased slightly, although a remarkable reduction in RA (near 50%) was detected. Bioavailable fraction contained 7.37±1.39 mg/L digested extract of RA with small quantities of lithospermic acid and diosmin and presented an important antioxidant activity (0.89±0.09 mmol Trolox/L digested extract). Besides, this bioavailable fraction produced a significant inhibition in TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 secretion, using a human THP-1 macrophages model. Therefore, RA content in the basolateral compartment could play an important role in the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities found.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Binding Geometries of Silicate Species on Ferrihydrite Surfaces
    ACS Earth Space Chem. Pub Date : 2018-01-18
    Xiaoming Wang, James D. Kubicki, Jean-François Boily, Glenn A. Waychunas, Yongfeng Hu, Xionghan Feng, Mengqiang Zhu
    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Functionalization and Characterization of Magnetic Nanoparticles for the Detection of Ferritin Accumulation in Alzheimer’s Disease
    ACS Chem. Neurosci. (IF 3.883) Pub Date : 2018-01-18
    Tamara Fernández, Alberto Martínez-Serrano, Lorena Cussó, Manuel Desco, Milagros Ramos-Gómez
    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • 1,2,3-Triazole Rings as a Disulfide Bond Mimetic in Chimeric AGRP-Melanocortin Peptides: Design, Synthesis, and Functional Characterization
    ACS Chem. Neurosci. (IF 3.883) Pub Date : 2018-01-18
    Srinivasa R. Tala, Anamika Singh, Cody J. Lensing, Sathya M. Schnell, Katie T. Freeman, James R. Rocca, Carrie Haskell-Luevano
    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of 1-benzylamino-2-hydroxyalkyl derivatives as new potential disease-modifying multifunctional anti-Alzheimer’s agents
    ACS Chem. Neurosci. (IF 3.883) Pub Date : 2018-01-18
    Dawid Panek, Anna Więckowska, Jakub Jończyk, Justyna Godyń, Marek W. Bajda, Tomasz Wichur, Anna Pasieka, Damijan Knez, Anja Pislar, Jan Korabecny, Ondrej Soukup, Vendula Sepsova, Raimon Sabaté, Janko Kos, Stanislav Gobec, Barbara Malawska

    The multitarget approach is a promising paradigm in drug discovery, potentially leading to new treatment options for complex disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease. Herein, we present the discovery of a unique series of 1-benzylamino-2-hydroxyalkyl derivatives combining inhibitory activity against butyrylcholinesterase, β-secretase, β-amyloid and tau protein aggregation, all related to mechanisms which underpin Alzheimer’s disease. Notably, diphenylpropylamine derivative 10 showed balanced activity against both disease-modifying targets – inhibition of β-secretase (IC50 hBACE-1 = 41.60 μM), inhibition of amyloid β aggregation (IC50 Aβ = 3.09 μM), inhibition of tau aggregation (55% at 10 μM), as well as against symptomatic targets: butyrylcholinesterase inhibition (IC50 hBuChE = 7.22 μM). It might represent an encouraging starting point for development of multifunctional disease-modifying anti-Alzheimer’s agents.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Sustained consumption of cocoa-based dark chocolate enhances seizure-like events in the mouse hippocampus
    Food Funct. (IF 3.247) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    Ana Cicvaric, Tanja Bulat, Daniel Bormann, Yiaje Yang, Bastian Auer, Ivan Milenkovic, Maureen Cabatic, Radoslav Milicevic, Francisco J. Monje

    While the consumption of caffeine and cocoa has been associated to a variety of health benefits to humans, some authors have proposed that excessive caffeine intake may increase the frequency of epileptic seizures in humans and reduce the efficiency of antiepileptic drugs. Little is known, however, about the proconvulsant potential of the sustained, excessive intake of cocoa on hippocampal neural circuits. Using the mouse as experimental model, we examined the effects of chronic consumption of food enriched in cocoa-based dark chocolate on motor and mood-related behaviours as well as on the excitability properties of hippocampal neurons. Cocoa food enrichment did not affect body weights or mood-related behaviours but rather promoted general locomotion and improved motor coordination. However, ex vivo electrophysiological analysis revealed a significant enhancement in seizure-like population spike bursting at the neurogenic dentate gyrus, which was paralleled by a significant reduction in the levels of GABA-α1 receptors thus suggesting that an excessive dietary intake of cocoa-enriched food might alter some of the synaptic elements involved in epileptogenesis. These data invite for further multidisciplinary research aiming to elucidating the potential deleterious effects of the chocolate abuse on behaviour and brain hyperexcitability.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • 更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Antimatched Electromagnetic Metasurfaces for Broadband Arbitrary Phase Manipulation in Reflection
    ACS Photonics (IF 6.756) Pub Date : 2018-01-18
    Odysseas Tsilipakos, Thomas Koschny, Costas M. Soukoulis
    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Volatome analysis approach for the taxonomic classification of tree exudate collection using Proton Transfer Reaction Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry
    Flavour Frag. J. (IF 1.644) Pub Date : 2018-01-18
    Cosimo Taiti, Corrado Costa, Simone Figorilli, Marco Billi, Stefania Caparrotta, Diego Comparini, Stefano Mancuso
    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Synergetic Effects of Prenatal and Postnatal High Sucrose Intake on Glucose Tolerance and Hepatic Insulin Resistance in Rat Offspring
    Mol. Nutr. Food Res. (IF 4.323) Pub Date : 2018-01-18
    Pengjie Zhang, Di Zhu, Yueming Zhang, Lingjun Li, Xionghui Chen, Wenna Zhang, Ruixiu Shi, Jianying Tao, Bing Han, Zhice Xu

    Scope : High sucrose intake during pregnancy is linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus and altered insulin resistance. Methods and results : This study attempted to ascertain whether prenatal high sucrose intake (20% sucrose) alleviates the detrimental effects of high postnatal sugar consumption in the offspring, and the molecular mechanisms were investigated using a rat model. High prenatal sucrose exposure increased the body weight of the offspring at 1 to 3 weeks of age. Exposure to both prenatal and postnatal high sucrose increased glucose tolerance in the 4-month-old adult offspring compared with offspring receiving other treatments. Postnatal high sucrose exposure suppressed food intake but increased the total daily caloric and fluid intake. Both fasting blood glucose and plasma triglyceride levels were increased, but the fasting insulin level was unaffected. Prenatal high sucrose intake enlarged pancreatic islet area; however, prenatal-plus-postnatal high sucrose exposure induced smaller pancreatic islets. IRS-1(S612) protein phosphorylation was significantly increased, and the GSK-3β (S9) phosphorylation level was reduced. Conclusion : Both prenatal and prenatal-plus-postnatal high sucrose exposure substantially affected biological functions related to insulin homeostasis. IRS-1(S612) protein phosphorylation appears to be a part of the molecular mechanism underlying these effects. These results add to the understanding of how high sucrose intake contributes to insulin resistance and diabetes pathogenesis and how postnatal nutrition and lifestyle may mitigate detrimental prenatal exposures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • Hydrothermal synthesis of hybrid rod-like hollow CoWO4/Co1-xS for high-performance supercapacitor
    ChemElectroChem (IF 4.136) Pub Date : 2018-01-18
    Jinhua Ge, jihuai Wu, Jia Dong, Jinbiao Jia, Beirong Ye, Si Jiang, Jiali Zeng, Quanlin Bao

    Rod-like hollow cobalt tungstate/non-stoichiometric cobalt sulfide (CoWO4/ Co1−xS) hybrid is successfully in-situ grown on nickel foam by a simple two-step hydrothermal process. Due to the unique hollow structure, the as-synthesized CoWO4/Co1−xS hybrid electrode possesses large surface area and delivers high specific capacitance of 1894.5 Fg−1 at a current density of 1 Ag−1. Using the CoWO4/Co1−xS hybrid electrode as anode and activated carbon (AC) electrode as cathode, asymmetric supercapacitor of CoWO4/Co1−xS//AC exhibits high capacitance of 103.1 Fg−1 and high specific capacitance retention of 87.27% after 5000 cycles. Furthermore, the asymmetric supercapacitor demonstrates the maximum power density of 4000 Wkg−1 at energy density of 22.5 Whkg−1. The superior performances of the device can be ascribed to ingenious structure and positive synergistic effects in hybrid. The facile preparation process and excellent performances presented here indicate the CoWO4/Co1−xS hybrid as a promising candidate electrode materials for supercapacitor.

    更新日期:2018-01-18
  • 更新日期:2018-01-18
  • Enhanced Mass Activity and Stability of Bimetallic Pd−Ni Nanoparticles on Boron-Doped Diamond for Direct Ethanol Fuel Cell Applications
    ChemElectroChem (IF 4.136) Pub Date : 2018-01-18
    Christos K. Mavrokefalos, Maksudul Hasan, James F. Rohan, John S. Foord
    更新日期:2018-01-18
  • From Water and Ni Foam to a Ni(OH)2@Ni Foam Binder-Free Supercapacitor Electrode: A Green Corrosion Route
    ChemElectroChem (IF 4.136) Pub Date : 2018-01-18
    Xu Liu, Yue Yang, Xinxin Xing, Tong Zou, Zidong Wang, Yude Wang

    The Front Cover shows the green corrosion route from water and Ni foam to a Ni(OH)2@Ni foam binder-free supercapacitor electrode. This binder-free supercapacitor electrode can be generated through the corrosion of Ni foam by water and oxygen. Here, the sea and sky represent the water and oxygen, respectively, making up the background of the cover picture.More information can be found in the Article by X. Liu et al.

    更新日期:2018-01-18
  • 更新日期:2018-01-18
  • Preparation of black pepper oleoresin inclusion complexes based on beta-cyclodextrin for antioxidant and antimicrobial delivery applications using kneading and freeze drying methods: A comparative study
    LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-01-18
    Necla Ozdemir, Cícero C. Pola, Bruna N. Teixeira, Laura E. Hill, Ali Bayrak, Carmen L. Gomes

    Black pepper oleoresin (BPO) is a valuable pepper product since it includes both flavor and pungency; however, these compounds are sensible to environmental conditions. β-cyclodextrins (BCD) can be used to encapsulate BPO and potentially enhance its applicability. BCD inclusion complexes can be produced by several methods; however, to date there are no studies, which directly compares how different microencapsulation methods affect BPO inclusion complexes functional properties. This study aimed to synthesize BPO-BCD inclusion complexes using freeze drying (FD) and kneading (KN) methods and compare their physico-chemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. BPO encapsulation in BCD by both methods were confirmed by thermal and phase solubility results. Particle sizes ranged from 393 to 607 nm and entrapment efficiencies from 90.2 to 79.3% for KN and FD methods, respectively. Encapsulation method did not influence (p < .05) either the total phenolic content or the antioxidant activity. KN-BPO-inclusion complexes were more effective in inhibiting Listeria monocytogenes growth than FD-BPO-inclusion complexes, while neither inclusion complexes were able to inhibit Escherichia coli O157:H7 at tested concentrations. Therefore, KN encapsulation method using BCD can be useful to maintain BPO active properties for longer time, being applicable to delay oxidative reactions and inhibit Gram-positive microorganism growth in food products.

    更新日期:2018-01-18
  • A process to decontaminate sliced fresh cucumber (Cucumis sativus) using electron beam irradiation
    LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-01-18
    Brinda Joshi, Rosana G. Moreira, Basri Omac, M. Elena Castell-Perez

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is one of the most cultivated vegetable in the world which is mostly consumed raw. Raw products are important vehicles for the transmission of pathogens which cause foodborne illness. Recently, a multistate Salmonella Poona outbreak in the USA was linked to the consumption of contaminated imported Californian cucumbers. Hence, measures to decontaminate fresh produce are necessary. Electron-beam irradiation is an effective nonthermal decontamination method. However, it could induce negative quality effects such as loss of texture, flavor, and nutrients. Therefore, the need to optimize the irradiation process. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the radiation D10-value of Salmonella Poona on sliced cucumber; (2) quantify the effect of electron-beam irradiation on the product quality attributes (texture and color) throughout storage at refrigeration temperature (4 ±1 ± 1  °C); and (3) optimize irradiation treatment to ensure proper decontamination (5D) while maintaining produce quality. The D10-value of the Salmonella Poona strain used in this study was 0.38 ± 0.03 kGy. Although the irradiated samples were softer (P < .05) than the non-irradiated controls, all irradiated samples were acceptable to the consumer panelists. In summary, irradiation treatment had no negative impact (P > .05) on the quality parameters of sliced cucumbers.

    更新日期:2018-01-18
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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