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  • Holographic watermarks and steganographic markings for combating the counterfeiting practices of high-value metal products
    J. Mater. Process. Tech. (IF 3.647) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Krystian L. Wlodarczyk, Marcus Ardron, Nicholas J. Weston, Duncan P. Hand

    This paper describes recent advances in direct laser writing of tamper-proof holographic structures on metal surfaces for preventing counterfeiting of high-value metal products, e.g. luxury watches, medical tools and implants, collectible coins, etc. Each of these holographic structures consists of an array of optically-smooth craters arranged in such a way to generate diffractive images comprising, e.g. a company logo and/or a string of alphanumeric characters, providing a unique method for the traceability of genuine products. The craters are less than 10 μm across and less than 500 nm deep. They are generated on metals by UV nanosecond laser pulses (355 nm wavelength and 35 ns pulse duration) that lead to localized melting and evaporation of the material. This paper demonstrates various methods for combining the holographic structures with standard marking patterns, such as QR codes and Data Matrices, in order to form aesthetic holographic markings concealing secret messages about the products. By merging a few holographic patterns together it is also possible to generate so called “holographic watermarks”. Finally, this article describes a few approaches for making the holographic structures particularly difficult to replicate and counterfeit. This includes the generation of multi-level holograms as well as the formation of optically-smooth protrusions (bumps) in selected places within the holographic structures in order to create hidden identifiers and/or miniature signatures which cannot be detected by the naked eye.

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Hydrogen purification with CO2-selective facilitated transport membranes
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Witopo Salim, W.S. Winston Ho

    H2 is an important industrial gas, and high purity H2 is required for applications. Recent advances in both H2-selective and CO2-selective membranes for H2 purification are reviewed with an emphasis on the development of CO2-selective facilitated transport membranes for H2 purification. With CO2-selective facilitated transport membranes, examples of high-pressure and low-pressure H2 purification applications are discussed. In high-pressure H2 purification in the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) operation, experimental and modeling results demonstrated the potential of amine-containing facilitated transport membranes to achieve an economically attractive cost of electricity. CO2-selective membranes for low-pressure H2 purification for fuel cells have been developed for both PEMFC and SOFC. The membranes have been scaled-up, and they have shown promising gas transport performances for the respective applications.

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Utilizing Big Data for Batch Process Modeling and Control
    Comput. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.113) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Abhinav Garg, Prashant Mhaskar

    This manuscript illustrates the use of big data for modeling and control of batch processes. A modeling and control framework is presented that utilizes data variety (temperature or concentration measurements along with size distribution) to achieve newer control objectives. For an illustrative crystallization process, an approach is proposed consisting of a subspace state-space model augmented with a linear quality model, able to model and predict, and therefore control the particle size distribution (PSD). The identified model is deployed in a linear model predictive control (MPC) with explicit model validity constraints. The paper presents two formulations: a) one that minimizes the volume of fines in the product by leveraging the variety of measurements and b) the other that directly controls the shape of the particle size distribution in the product. The former case is compared to traditional control practice while the latter’s superior ability to achieve desired PSD shape is demonstrated.

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Multi-objective Optimisation for Biopharmaceutical Manufacturing under Uncertainty
    Comput. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.113) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Songsong Liu, Lazaros G. Papageorgiou

    This work addresses the multi-objective optimisation of manufacturing strategies of monoclonal antibodies under uncertainty. The chromatography sequencing and column sizing strategies, including the resin selection at each chromatography step, the number of columns, the column diameters and bed heights, and the number of cycles per batch, are optimised. The objective functions simultaneously minimise the cost of goods per gram and maximise the impurity reduction ability of the purification process. Three parameters are treated as uncertainties, including bioreactor titre, and chromatography yield and capability to remove impurities. Using chance constraint programming techniques, a multi-objective mixed integer optimisation model is proposed. Adapting both ε-constraint method and Dinkelbach's algorithm, an iterative solution approach is developed for Pareto-optimal solutions. The proposed model and approach are applied to an industrially-relevant example, demonstrating the benefits of the proposed model through Monte Carlo simulation. The sensitivity analysis of the confidence levels used in the chance constraints of the proposed model is also conducted.

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • 3D Hierarchical Structure of MoS2@G-CNT Combined with Post-Film Annealing for Enhanced Lithium-ion Storage
    J. Ind. Eng. Chem. (IF 4.841) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Nguyen Quoc Hai, Jin Seok Choi, Young-Chul Lee, Il Tae Kim, Jaehyun Hur
    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • A fast adhesive discrete element method for random packings of fine particles
    Chem. Eng. Sci. (IF 3.306) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Sheng Chen, Wenwei Liu, Shuiqing Li

    Introducing a reduced particle stiffness in discrete element method (DEM) allows for bigger time steps and therefore fewer total iterations in a simulation. Although this approach works well for dry non-adhesive particles, it has been shown that for fine particles with adhesion, system behaviors are drastically sensitive to the particle stiffness. Besides, a simple and applicable principle to set the parameters in adhesive DEM is also lacking. To solve these two problems, we first propose a fast DEM based on scaling laws to reduce particle Young’s modulus, surface energy and to modify rolling and sliding resistances simultaneously in the framework of Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR)-based contact theory. A novel inversion method is then presented to help users to quickly determine the damping coefficient, particle stiffness and surface energy to reproduce a prescribed experimental result. After validating this inversion method, we apply the fast adhesive DEM to packing problems of microparticles. Measures of packing fraction, averaged coordination number and distributions of local packing fraction and contact number of each particle are in good agreement with results simulated using original value of particle properties. The new method should be helpful to accelerate DEM simulations for systems associated with aggregates or agglomerates.

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Highly Conductive Anion Exchange Membranes with Low Water Uptake and Performance Evaluation in Electrodialysis
    Sep. Purif. Technol. (IF 3.927) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Liang Hao, Junbin Liao, Yuanwei Liu, Huimin Ruan, Arcadio Sotto, Bart Van der Bruggen, Jiangnan Shen

    The present work reports the preparation of a series of novel highly durable imidazolium-decorated anion exchange membranes (AEMs), with 3D network structure, via ultraviolet crosslinking reaction between 1-vinylimidazole and 1,6-hexanedithiol. AEM modified with trimethylamine (TMA) groups (no crosslinking, 45.7%) showed a significantly reduced water uptake within a range of 14.4%–23.6% at 80°C. Due to relatively good alkali-resistant of imidazolium groups and the compact structure stemmed from crosslinking network, the optimum cross-linked AEM (BPPO-Im 0.3) can retard the degradation and exhibits superior alkaline stability in 1.0 M NaOH at 60 oC for over 15 days, compared with TMA modified AEM. In ED application, BPPO-Im 0.3 AEM has a higher NaCl removal ratio of 77.82% than that of commercial AEM-Type II (74.13%) within 3 h experimental time. Accordingly, it shows higher current efficiency (67.43%) and lower energy consumption (1.94 kWh kg–1 NaCl), compared to commercial one (62.83%; 2.05 kWh kg–1). The facile fabrication process and the better-performance are suggestive of that BPPO-Im 0.3 is potentially applicable in ED.

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Sugaring-out extraction combining crystallization for recovery of succinic acid
    Sep. Purif. Technol. (IF 3.927) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Yaqin Sun, Xingxing Zhang, Yafeng Zheng, Ling Yan, Zhilong Xiu

    In this study, sugaring-out extraction combining crystallization was developed for succinic acid separation and purification. From the different sugaring-out extraction systems investigated, the following order in the phase forming ability of the solvents and sugars were observed: t-butanol>n-propanol >isopropanol, and galactose>glucose>fructose>mannose ≈ sucrose>xylose, respectively. Tert-butanol/glucose system showed the potential superiority in the partition behavior of succinic acid, glucose and solvent. The system parameters influencing the extraction efficiency, such as tie line length, system pH, temperature, glucose, t-butanol and succinic acid concentration were evaluated. The results showed that partition coefficient of succinic acid increased linearly as tie line length increased, and strongly depend on the system pH. 88.15% of succinic acid and 96.72% of t-butanol was distributed into the top phase while 94.69% of glucose into the bottom phase at a system consisting of 27% (w/w) glucose and 40% (w/w) t-butanol under pH 3.0 and temperature 25 oC. Succinic acid concentration had influence on its partition behavior due to its broadened scope of phase formation. The effect of temperature in the t-butanol/glucose system was not obvious for partition of succinic acid. Salts-assisted sugaring-out extraction of succinic acid in t-butanol-glucose system was also investigated. When the mass fraction of (NH4)2SO4 was increased from 1% to 9% (w/w), the recovery of SA from the broth increased from 87.62% to 89.55%. It was noteworthy that t-butanol recovery increased obviously from 96.21% to 99.48%, which means almost all of t-butanol was recovered to the top phase. . Finally, succinic acid purification was developed by gradient crystallization after recovering t-butanol by vacuum distillation and glucose by water-washing. By combining sugaring-out extraction with gradient crystallization, an identical total yield (73%) and a higher purity (98%) of succinic acid were obtained. The results obtained in this work support the establishment of sugaring-out extraction combining crystallization as a potential effective and economic strategy for bio-succinic acid separation.

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Activation effect of lead ions on scheelite flotation: Adsorption mechanism, AFM imaging and adsorption model
    Sep. Purif. Technol. (IF 3.927) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Liuyang Dong, Fen Jiao, Wenqing Qin, Hailing Zhu, Wenhao Jia
    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • The effect of pouring temperature and surface angle of vortex casting on microstructural changes and mechanical properties of 7050Al-3wt% SiC composite
    Mater. Sci. Eng. A (IF 3.414) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    S.H. Mousavi Anijdan, Masoud Sabzi

    In this investigation, the effect of pouring temperature and the surface angle of vortex casting on microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of 7050Al-3wt%SiC composite was studied. Two pouring temperatures of 700 °C and 800 °C were employed during the vortex casting. As well, two surface angles of 45° and 90° were used for the vortex casting. Cast microstructures were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), and optical microscope. Mechanical properties were measured by uniaxial tensile test, Vickers hardness and Charpy impact test. Microstructural studies showed a uniform distribution of SiC particles in the 7050 Al matrix is achievable by increasing the pouring temperature from 700 °C to 800 °C and also by decreasing the surface angle from 90° to 45°. This uniform distribution of particles was coincided with the breaking of the dendrite arms in the microstructure of 7050 Al-3wt% SiC. Mechanical properties measurements showed that the yield strength, hardness and fracture energy of the composite were increased by increasing the pouring temperature and reducing the surface angle during the vortex casting.

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • A Novel Large Cross-Section Quenching and Tempering Mold Steel Matching Excellent Strength–Hardness–Toughness Properties
    Mater. Sci. Eng. A (IF 3.414) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Hanghang Liu, Paixian Fu, Hongwei Liu, Chen Sun, Mingyue Sun, Dianzhong Li

    According to the synergistic effect of multiple elements, a novel large cross-section pre–hardened mold steel is designed with higher strength and hardness as well as toughness (HSTPM steel) compared with industrial high–end 718 H steel during the normal tempering temperature range (530 to 650 °C). The achievements on the strength and hardness of HSTPM steel are attributed to the effects of 0.5 wt% molybdenum (Mo) and 0.1 wt% vanadium (V) additions on the matrix structure, including misorientation gradient, dislocation density, and nano–sized precipitates. The main strengthening precipitate (V, Mo)C was finely characterized by high angle annular dark field–scanning transmission electron microscope (HADDF–STEM) analysis. In addition, it was found that rare earth (RE) additions of 0.015 wt% in HSTPM steel highly effective in refining inclusions for changing the morphologies of strip MnS and Al2O3 to tiny spherical RE2O2S, and the number of coarse inclusions (diameter exceeding 5μm) is significantly decreased in the same statistical volume (4.69×108 μm3) by three–dimensional X–ray microtomography statistical technique. The purification of molten steel and modification of inclusions by RE treatment are responsible for the improvement of impact toughness. Simultaneously, the lower carbon (C) content in HSTPM steel (high–end 718 H, 0.34 wt %; HSTPM, 0.23 wt %) also plays a large role in improving impact toughness. Finally, the synergistic effect of multiple elements delayed and eventually reduced the transformation range in pearlite compared with that in 718 H steel.

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Microstructures and mechanical properties of body-centered-cubic (Al,Ti)0.7(Ni,Co,Fe,Cr)5 high entropy alloys with coherent B2/L21 nanoprecipitation
    Mater. Sci. Eng. A (IF 3.414) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Chunling Li, Yue Ma, Jiamiao Hao, Yu Yan, Qing Wang, Chuang Dong, Peter K. Liaw

    Coherent precipitation of cuboidal B2/L21 nanoparticles in body-centered-cubic (BCC) based high entropy alloys (HEAs) is crucial for the improvement of mechanical properties. The present work investigated the influence of Ti addition on the phase constitutions and particle morphology in (Al,Ti)0.7M5 HEAs (M = Ni1Co1Fe1.5Cr1.5 and Ni1Co1Fe1Cr2) with different Al/Ti ratios. Series of alloy rods were prepared by suction-cast processing, and their microstructures and mechanical properties were then characterized comprehensively. It was found that the substitution of Ti for Al can change the phase structures of ordered precipitates, from B2-NiAl to L21-Ni2AlTi. Furthermore, the particle morphology of L21/B2 precipitates is closely related to the lattice misfit ε between L21/B2 phase and BCC matrix, in which a moderate ε (ε = 0⊡4 ~ 0⊡5 %) can contribute to the formation of cuboidal L21/B2 precipitates in BCC matrix, while a large ε (ε > 1⊡0 %) will cause a lath-like microstructure. High compressive yield strengths (above 1500 MPa) of these Al/Ti-contained HEAs with cuboidal coherent microstructure are primarily attributed to the particle size in light of the precipitation strengthening mechanism. In addition, the excess addition of Ti will transform the matrix structure of alloys from the BCC to the σ phase, leading to a serious brittleness.

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Enhancing mechanical properties of rolled Mg-Al-Ca-Mn alloy sheet by Zn addition
    Mater. Sci. Eng. A (IF 3.414) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    T. Nakata, C. Xu, K. Suzawa, K. Yoshida, N. Kawabe, S. Kamado

    A strong and ductile Mg-8Al-1Zn-1Ca-0.3Mn (wt.%) alloy sheet has been successfully developed via commercial rolling process. The ultimate tensile strength, 0.2% proof stress, and elongation to failure along the rolling direction of the sheet are 371 MPa, 275 MPa, and 17.1%, respectively. The high strength and ductility are attributed to the fine recrystallized grains and densely dispersed fine Mg17Al12 precipitates. Further, due to its isotropic basal texture, the Mg-8Al-1Zn-1Ca-0.3Mn alloy sheet shows little in-plane anisotropy. The ultimate tensile strength, 0.2% proof stress, and elongation to failure along the 45° and transverse direction of the sheet are almost the same as those in the rolling direction. The good tensile properties can be realized by using only inexpensive ingredients and commercial rolling process; therefore, the Mg-8Al-1Zn-1Ca-0.3Mn alloy sheet will be a candidate as structural materials for transportation vehicles.

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Ion Exchange Homogeneous Surface Diffusion Modelling by Binary Site Resin for the Removal of Nickel Ions from Wastewater in Fixed Beds
    Chem. Eng. J. (IF 6.735) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Anthony Ma, Ahmed Abushaikha, Stephen J. Allen, Gordon McKay

    The presence of toxic heavy metals in wastewater is a continuing threat to both the environment and living organisms. The present study investigates the ion-exchange potential of a dual-exchanged (Na+/H+) chelating resin to remove nickel ions from wastewater in a fixed bed column ion exchanger. The resin contains iminodiacetic acid (IDA) functional groups that can lead to the capture of heavy metal ions, provided that the pH condition and ratio of Na+: H+ are appropriate. Too much Na+ results in precipitation of nickel hydroxide, resulting in clogging of the ion exchange columns, while too much H+ in the solution leads to competitive protonation, reducing the uptake of Ni2+ ions. The experimental work has been supported by modelling results using a new film-homogeneous surface diffusion model (HSDM) to simulate the fixed bed breakthrough curves for the two exchange processes – assigned 1 and 2. The best fit model simulation curves were obtained by optimizing the overall external diffusion mass transfer coefficient kf (= 5.41 x 10-3 cms-1), the surface diffusivity Ds (Ds1 = 224 x 10-7cm2s-1 for 2Na+/ Ni2+ exchange; and, Ds2 = 3.60 x 10-10 cm2s-1 for 2H+/ Ni2+ exchange) and the equilibrium constant KRP (KRP1 = 351 dm3/g for 2Na+/ Ni2+ exchange; and KRP2 = 781 dm3/g for 2H+/ Ni2+ exchange) until a good fit was obtained between the model and experimental data. Optimisation was achieved by employing the downhill simplex method and performing a multidimensional minimization of the objective function, i.e. minmizing the SSE between the experimental data and the model prediction.

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • 更新日期:2018-09-19
  • METAL-DOPED ORGANIC AEROGELS FOR PHOTOCATALYTIC DEGRADATION OF TRIMETHOPRIM
    Chem. Eng. J. (IF 6.735) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    J. Bolobajev, M. Kask, K. Kreek, M. Kulp, M. Koel, A. Goi
    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Three step synthesis of benzylacetone and 4-(4-methoxyphenyl)butan-2-one in flow using micropacked bed reactors
    Chem. Eng. J. (IF 6.735) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Conor Waldron, Enhong Cao, Stefano Cattaneo, Gemma L. Brett, Peter J. Miedziak, Gaowei Wu, Meenakshisundaram Sankar, Graham J. Hutchings, Asterios Gavriilidis
    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Heterostructured SnS-ZnS@C Hollow Nanoboxes Embedded in Graphene for High Performance Lithium and Sodium ion Batteries
    Chem. Eng. J. (IF 6.735) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Yu Zhang, Pengxiang Wang, Yanyou Yin, Xinyu Zhang, Lishuang Fan, Naiqing Zhang, Kening Sun
    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • 更新日期:2018-09-19
  • 更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Bioinspired Highly Crumpled Porous Carbons with Multidirectional Porosity for High Rate Performance Electrochemical Supercapacitors
    ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. (IF 6.14) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Lin Peng, Yijin Cai, Ying Luo, Gang Yuan, Jianyu Huang, Chaofan Hu, Hanwu Dong, Yong Xiao, Yeru Liang, Yingliang Liu, Mingtao Zheng
    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • 更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Controllable Synthesis and Characterization of Soybean-Oil-Based Hyperbranched Polymers via One-Pot Method
    ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. (IF 6.14) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Xuan Qin, Yong He, Shafilluah Khan, Baihui Zhang, Fanxing Chen, Dong Dong, Zhao Wang, Liqun Zhang
    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Acidic Hydrothermal Dehydration of d-Glucose into Humins: Identification and Characterization of Intermediates
    ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. (IF 6.14) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Victor Maruani, Stacy Narayanin-Richenapin, Eric Framery, Bruno Andrioletti
    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Supramolecular Eutecto Gels: Fully Natural Soft Materials
    ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. (IF 6.14) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Salvatore Marullo, Alessandro Meli, Francesco Giannici, Francesca D’Anna
    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Designed formation of hollow Pt nanocrystals supported on MoOx-modified carbon for hign-performance of methanol electrooxidation
    ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. (IF 6.14) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    Zhenzhen Yang, Li Mengmeng, Peng Cui, Genlei Zhang, Xinde Jiang, Yuxin Wang

    In this study, we develop an efficient electro-catalyst for methanol oxidation that Pt nanocrystals (NCs) with hollow structure immobilized on MoOx-modified carbon black (h-Pt/MoOx-C). The MoOx-C is fabricated by the Phosphomolybdic acid self-assembly on carbon black. The h-Pt/MoOx-C is evolved from Ag@Pt core-shell NCs deposited on MoOx-C in saturated NaCl aqueous solution containing NH4OH. Because of the presence of MoOx, the electrocatalyst of solid Pt NCs anchored on MoOx-C (Pt/MoOx-C) for methanol oxidation exhibits about 3.4 times higher electrocatalytic activity than solid Pt NCs anchored on carbon black (Pt/C-H). The mass activity of h-Pt/MoOx-C is 2.4 times greater than that of Pt/MoOx-C, ascribing to the unique hollow structure. Furthermore, the h-Pt/MoOx-C also exhibits better tolerance to poisoning species and more stable under electrooxidation condition.

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Highly active, super-stable, and biocompatible Ag/polydopamine/g-C3N4 bactericidal photocatalyst: Synthesis, Characterization, and Mechanism
    ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. (IF 6.14) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Yunyan Wu, Yazhou Zhou, Han Xu, Qinqin Liu, Yi Li, Lili Zhang, Hanqing Liu, Zhigang Tu, Xiaonong Cheng, Juan Yang

    The goal of this paper is developing bactericidal photocatalyst silver/polydopamine/graphitic carbon nitride (Ag/PDA/g-C3N4) as a new type of antibacterial materials with high activity, super stability, and excellent biocompatibility. Small Ag NPs (3.6-10.5 nm) disperse uniformly on the PDA-modified g-C3N4 sheets. This biophotocatalyst has excellent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, including low MIC100%Ag of 9.5 ppm, MBC100%Ag of 6.3 ppm, but also a low cytotoxicity for human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) because of biocompatible PDA. After 30 days in air environment, only 0.18% of Ag+ was detected, which indicated the super stability of this biophotocatalyst comparing with the state-of the-art antibacterial materials. The possible bactericidal mechanism is the synergistic effect between photocatalytic PDA-modified g-C3N4 and active Ag NPs. The Ag NPs themselves have strong antibacterial activity due to their small sizes. Importantly, under light irradiation, the surface plasmonic effect of Ag NPs and the incorporation of PDA enhance the photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4 significantly by increasing its light absorption, improving photoconductivity for photo-generated electrons and holes, and inhibiting their recombination. As a result, the sufficient radicals such as •OH and O2•- radicals can be formed. The radicals, particularly •OH, together with holes can accelerate the death of bacterial through the destruction of biomolecules.

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Facile formation of self-organized TiO2 nanotubes in electrolyte containing ionic liquid - ethylammonium nitrate and their remarkable photocatalytic properties
    ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. (IF 6.14) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Anna Prochownik, Paweł Mazierski, Wojciech Lisowski, Adriana Zaleska-Medynska, Klaudia Kosek, Justyna Łuczak

    The oriented TiO2 nanotube arrays (NTs) are identified as a stable, active and recyclable photocatalytic surface. However, their photoactivity is strictly depended on morphology (especially length), which could be controlled by anodic oxidation parameters, including electrolyte properties. To control the morphology, were successfully synthesized a series of NTs by a novel approach where ionic liquid (IL), ethylammonium nitrate [EAN][NO3], was used as an addition to an organic electrolyte. Using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy we are able to show how electrolyte composition influence nanotubes surface properties and photocatalytic activity. It was found that the change in the amount of [EAN][NO3] in electrolyte used for anodization in the range from 0.05 to 1.0 wt.% affected dynamic viscosity, conductivity and surface tension of electrolyte and finally alter morphology of formed nanotubes resulting in a proportional increase of the outer diameter and tube length from 105 to 140 nm and from 6.0 to 8.1 µm, respectively. The highest photoactivity (achieving high reaction rate constant, equal to k = 0.0941 min-1) and wettability was found for the sample prepared in the electrolyte containing 0.05 wt.% of [EAN][NO3] revealing the improved ability to light photoabsorption and suppression of recombination rate. It turned out that IL_NTs surface became more hydrophobic when stored in air ambience over 7 weeks after fabrication with approximately 20 – 52°. The increase of the contact angle from 9.3 to 13.1° with elongation of the tube diameter from 107 to 140 nm was also noted.

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Green, Solid-State Synthesis of Maleated Chitosan and Ionotropic Gelation with Chitosan
    ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. (IF 6.14) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Kartik Ravishankar, KM Shelly, Preeth Desingh, Rajalakshmi Subramaniyam, Abathodharanan Narayanan, Raghavachari Dhamodharan

    We, for the first time, report a green, solid-state method for synthesizing maleated chitosan, wherein maleation is brought about by stirring chitosan flakes in molten maleic anhydride. In a similar manner, other derivatives like succinated chitosan could also be prepared. Maleated chitosan, given its polyanionic nature in solution form, could be further used to crosslink chitosan polycation through electrostatic complexation. The resulting ‘all-chitosan’ gel, having very low cytotoxicity and a conducive surface for cell attachment, could be used as scaffolds for tissue engineering. In this context it is to be noted that presently, maleation of chitosan has been invariably carried out in solution phase, using harsh, environmentally-aggressive solvents like DMSO, DMF, Acetamide and the like.

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Drum stick seed powder as smart material for Water Purification: Role of Moringa Oleifera Coagulant Protein Coated Copper Phosphate Nanoflowers for the Removal of Heavy Toxic Metal Ions and Oxidative Degradation of Dyes from Water
    ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. (IF 6.14) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Sirilata Polepalli, Chebrolu Pulla Rao

    Seed powder of vegetable drum stick (Moringa Oleifera) is a house-hold known material for the coagulation of impurities from water. We find from our lab experiments that this material indeed removes toxic inorganic heavy metal ions and organic dyes, however, the latter can be degraded in presence of H2O2 under Cu2+ as catalyst. In order to understand the details of the treatment of water that is taking place by this seed powder, a simple inorganic – protein nano-flower system was developed using copper phosphate (CuP), and a low molecular weight, cationic and coagulant protein of Moringa Oleifera (MOCP), to result in the nanoflowers (NFs), CuPNF_MOCP. The CuPNF_MOCP were synthesized at different ratios of inorganic vs. protein components and characterized by spectroscopy and microscopy techniques. Both the time and protein concentration dependent flower growth showed complete flower morphology within 24 hours with tightly packed petals having smooth surface upon increasing the protein concentration as noticed from SEM. The NFs absorb organic dyes of which the anionic dyes were absorbed more preferentially over the cationic ones, owing to the cationic charge present on MOCP, as understood by studying six different dyes of which three are anionic and three are cationic in nature. The absorbed dyes by these NFs are degraded in presence of H2O2 due to presence of Cu2+ in CuP. These NFs also absorb heavy metal ions, such as, Pb2+, Cd2+ and Hg2+, with a high selectivity of >99% for Pb2+. Upon absorption of Pb2+, the surface of the NFs revealed needle shaped structures at petal edges in their micrographs, where the needles were confirmed to be Pb2+ by elemental mapping, powder XRD, energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy. Thus the water purification routinely carried out by the house-holds using the drumstick seed powder is essentially due to the coagulant protein present it and this has been demonstrated in the form of CuPNF_MOCP for scavenging toxic heavy metal ions and organic dyes from water sources. Hence this study provides a lead for the purification of water in a sustainable manner.

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • 更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Demulsification of Light Malaysian Crude Oil Emulsions Using an Electric Field Method
    Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. (IF 3.141) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    Erfan Mohammadian, Tajnor Suriya Taju Ariffin, Amin Azdarpour, Hossein Hamidi, Suriati Yusof, Maziyar Sabet, Effah Yahya
    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • 更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Least Squares-Support Vector Regression for Determining Product Concentrations in Acid-Catalyzed Propylene Oligomerization
    Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. (IF 3.141) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    Kaushik Sivaramakrishnan, Jinjun Nie, Arno de Klerk, Vinay Prasad
    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Self-Diffusion Coefficients from Entropy Scaling Using the PCP-SAFT Equation of State
    Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. (IF 3.141) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Madlen Hopp, Julia Mele, Joachim Gross
    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Study on Modification and Sulfur-Resistance Characteristics of Dolomite Catalysts over Wash Oil Catalytic Cracking
    Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. (IF 3.141) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Juan Yu, Dechang Meng, Huawei Zhang, Junqiang Gao, Yaqing Zhang, Tiantain Jiao, Peng Liang
    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • 更新日期:2018-09-19
  • 更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Efficient Inhibition of N2O during NO Absorption Process Using a CuO and (NH4)2SO3 Mixed Solution
    Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. (IF 3.141) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Yongheng Xiong, Qin Zhong, Man Ou, Wei Cai, Shipeng Wan, Yang Yu, Shule Zhang
    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Construction of Polyurethane-imide/Graphene oxide Nano-composite Foam with Gradient Structure and Its Thermal Mechanical Stability
    Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. (IF 3.141) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    Chengjie Li, Bing Hui, Lin Ye

    Graphene oxide (GO)@Fe3O4 nano-hybrid with ferromagnetism was prepared and polyurethane-imide copolymer (PUI)/GO@Fe3O4 nano-composite foams with gradient structure were first fabricated under magnetic field. Fe3O4 nanoparticles intercalated into GO layers with high grafting ratio, resulting in complete exfoliation of GO in matrix. For the composite foam, the average cell size, cell wall thickness and apparent density gradually decreased along magnetic field direction, forming gradient cell structure in foam. Both mechanical property and thermal stability of foam were remarkably improved by addition of GO@Fe3O4. Compared with A region, in B region with enriched distribution of GO@Fe3O4, the compressive strength and modulus increased by 12.5% and 7.0%, respectively. The thermal degradation temperature, storage modulus and Tg were obviously improved, indicating enhancement of thermal mechanical stability of PUI along magnetic field, revealing formation of gradient distribution of thermal mechanical property in foam, which showed potential application prospective in aerospace and defense area.

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • The promotion of H3PW12O40 grafting on NOx abatement over γ-Fe2O3: Performance and reaction mechanism
    Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. (IF 3.141) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    Yang Geng, Shangchao Xiong, Bo Li, Yue Peng, Shijian Yang

    In this study, γ-Fe2O3 was grafted with tungstophosphoric acid (i.e., HPW) to improve its SCR performance at high temperatures. To investigate the mechanism of HPW grafting on the SCR activity of γ-Fe2O3, the kinetic parameters of NO reduction over γ-Fe2O3 and those of HPW/Fe2O3-500 were compared. Both the recrystallization of γ-Fe2O3 and the phase transition of spinel to hematite were restrained after HPW grafting, resulting in a higher BET surface area of HPW/Fe2O3-500. Meanwhile, the grafted HPW had a high acid strength, so the adsorption of NH3 on γ-Fe2O3 was promoted remarkably. Furthermore, the C-O reaction over γ-Fe2O3 was inhibited notably after HPW grafting as its oxidation ability decreased. Therefore, HPW/Fe2O3-500 exhibited a superior SCR activity at 250-500 oC, which was suitable for the power plants burning lignite.

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Catalytic Cracking of Hydrocarbons in a CREC Riser Simulator Using a Y-Zeolite Based Catalyst. Assessing the Catalyst/Oil (C/O) Ratio Effect.
    Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. (IF 3.141) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    A. Alkhlel, Hugo de Lasa

    The present study investigates the effects of the changes of the catalyst to feedstock ratio (C/O) on FCC cracking using a Y-zeolite based catalyst. Experiments are developed in a CREC Riser Simulator. This bench-scale mini-fluidized batch unit mimics the operating conditions of large-scale FCC units as follows: It uses temperatures ranging from 510°C-550°C and reaction times from 3s-7s. For every experiment, 0.2g of 1,3,5-TIPB is contacted with a 0.12g to 1g catalyst amount. This is done to achieve a C/O ratio in the range of 0.6 to 5. Experiments show the effects of increasing the C/O ratio on 1,3,5-TIPB conversion, coke formation and product selectivity. On this basis, a mechanism involving single catalyst sites for cracking and two sites for coke formation is considered. Coke formation is postulated as an additive process involving coke precursor species which are either adsorbed on sites in the same particle or adsorbed in close sites in different particles. The proposed mechanism helps explain the results obtained, introducing a rationale for the selection of optimum C/O ratios to yield the highest possible 1,3,5 TIPB conversions with controlled amounts of coke formation. It is anticipated that the findings of this study, will have a significant influence on the selection of an optimum C/O ratio for the design and operation of the most advanced FCC risers and downers.

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Esterification of Glycerol and Solketal by Oxidative NHC-Catalysis under Heterogeneous Batch and Flow Conditions
    React. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.641) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Daniele Ragno, Arianna Brandolese, Daniele Urbani, Graziano Di Carmine, Carmela De Risi, Olga Bortolini, Pier Paolo Giovannini, Alessandro Massi

    The design and synthesis of a set of supported azolium salt pre-catalysts is presented along with their utilization in the production of monoesters of glycerol and solketal by oxidative N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalysis through batch and continuous-flow approaches. After a propaedeutic study with soluble NHCs, the heterogeneous analogues (silica and polystyrene supports) were tested in a model monoesterification of glycerol using either the Kharasch oxidant or air (in the presence of electron transfer mediators) as the terminal oxidants. The best performing polystyrene-supported triazolium salt pre-catalyst afforded monoacylglycerols (MAGs) in high yields (up to 95%) and almost complete selectivity (monoester/diester > 95:5) using air and the green solvent Me-THF. The synthesis of fully bio-based MAGs from furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), citronellal, and vanillin is also reported. Continuous-flow experiments have been finally performed by fabricating the corresponding packed-bed microreactor, which could be operated for ca. 120 hours with maintenance of conversion efficiency and selectivity

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Kinetic analysis of the steam reforming of ethanol over Ni/SiO2 for the elucidation of metal dominated reaction pathways
    React. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.641) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Marinela D Zhurka, Angeliki Lemonidou, James A. Anderson, Panagiotis Kechagiopoulos

    Hydrogen production via steam reforming of biomass derived ethanol is a promising environmental alternative to the use of fossil fuels and a means of clean power generation. A kinetic study of ethanol steam reforming (ESR) is presented, where the effect of temperature, space time and partial pressure of reactants is investigated over a wide range in a fixed bed reactor over a Ni/SiO2 catalyst. The order of the reaction was found to be 0.5 in ethanol and almost zero in water, indicating a steam-independent rate limiting step, while an apparent activation energy of 48 kJ mol-1 was obtained. Identification of primary and secondary products revealed the reaction mechanism to be strongly affected by temperature with results suggesting the existence of two alternate pathways being active, one involving acetaldehyde and one an ethanol decomposition derived surface intermediate. Below 450oC ethanol decomposition and dehydrogenation were found to be dominant, whereas at higher temperatures secondary methane steam reforming (MSR) and water-gas shift (WGS) reactions became enhanced. Excess of water was able to promote the WGS and suppress the methanation reaction even at 400oC. Time-on-stream studies at 500oC revealed Ni/SiO2 to have a good balance between stability, activity and selectivity in ESR. Temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) and hydrogenation (TPH) analyses indicated that the carbonaceous deposits were graphitic in nature, suggesting the presence of filamentous coke.

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Towards next generation CHO cell line development and engineering by systems approaches
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Jong Kwang Hong, Meiyappan Lakshmanan, Chetan Goudar, Dong-Yup Lee

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the most prevalent mammalian cell factories for producing therapeutic biologics, due to its capacity for complex post-translational modifications, ability to grow well in suspension cultures and low susceptibility to human viral infections. Significant advances in various modules of the CHO cell line development and engineering (CLD&E) have contributed to up to 100-fold increase in the product yields over the last three decades. Although production yield still remains the major focus in CLD&E, product quality and long-term stability have increasingly appeared to be the additional criteria. Towards achieving such goals, various platforms involving high-throughput clonal evaluation in automated manner, efficient vector designs, RNA interference methods and genome editing techniques have been developed to generate highly productive clones much faster with desired quality attributes and cell line traits. Since CHO genome was sequenced, we can now systematically characterize CHO cells using high-throughput omics profiles and in silico computational models, thereby identifying relevant targets for rational cell engineering which can be readily validated by the emerging genome editing techniques in a targeted and precise manner. In this review, we summarize the history of CHO CLD&E, and then describe the major technological advancements along with the application areas. Lastly, our perspectives on the next generation CLD&E are provided within the context of mammalian systems biotechnology.

    更新日期:2018-09-18
  • Preparation of PEGylated and biodegradable fluorescent organic nanoparticles with aggregation-induced emission characteristics through direct ring-opening polymerization
    J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.849) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Dazhuang Xu, Simin Zeng, Meiying Liu, Junyu Chen, Hongye Huang, Fengjie Deng, Jianwen Tian, Yuanqing Wen, Xiaoyong Zhang, Yen Wei
    更新日期:2018-09-18
  • Enhanced photocatalytic CO2 reduction activity of Z-scheme CdS/BiVO4 nanocomposite with thinner BiVO4 nanosheets
    J. CO2 UTIL. (IF 5.503) Pub Date : 2018-09-17
    Zhi-He Wei, Yan-Fang Wang, Yan-Yang Li, Lin Zhang, Hong-Chang Yao, Zhong-Jun Li
    更新日期:2018-09-18
  • A Comparative Study on Experimental and Response Surface Optimization of Lactic Acid Synergistic Extraction using Green Emulsion Liquid Membrane
    Sep. Purif. Technol. (IF 3.927) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Anil Kumar, Avinash Thakur, Parmjit Singh Panesar

    A comparative study on the optimization of various operating variables of lactic acid (LA) synergistic extraction through an environment-friendly green emulsion liquid membrane (GELM) using experimental and response surface optimization has been done. The comparison between response surface methodology (RSM) and experimentally optimized values has been achieved by optimizing various operating variables (internal phase concentration, LA concentration, extractant concentration, emulsification time, treat ratio, phase ratio, agitation speed, and stirring time). The formulation of GELM organic phase constituents was done by using rice bran oil (RBO) as a green solvent, hexane as a diluent, span 80 as a surfactant, tridodecylamine (TDDA) and Aliquat336 as extractants, and NaOH as a stripping phase reagent. A better GELM stability during the LA extraction process was obtained by using the combination of RBO, TDDA, Aliquat336, and span 80. This study has shown a good agreement among all the values excluding the LA concentration and emulsification time. Hence, this present finding has indicated that RBO possesses the high potential to be utilized in the several standing ELM operations for lessening the use of toxic and costly petroleum-based organic solvents.

    更新日期:2018-09-18
  • Hydrometallurgical valorization of chromium, iron, and zinc from an electroplating effluent
    Sep. Purif. Technol. (IF 3.927) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Ayesha Ishfaq, Sadia Ilyas, Arslan Yaseen, Muhammad Farhan

    Hydrometallurgical removal of heavy metals (like chromium, iron, and zinc) from an industrial effluent, and their valorization into less-toxic species has been studied. At first, the solvent extraction of Cr(VI) was investigated with tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) to separate this carcinogenic metal from an electroplating effluent containing 3.43 g·L−1 Cr, 1.3 g·L−1 Zn, 0.41 g·L−1 Fe, and 1.23 mol·L−1 free acid of chloride medium. The study based on parametric variation revealed the spontaneity in adduct formation (HCrO3Cl·2TBP) into organic phase through the exothermic extraction process (ΔH°, −18.8 kJ·mol−1). The extracted species of Cr(VI) was efficiently stripped (∼99%) as less-toxin Cr(III) by 30 min of contact with 2.0 mol·L−1 ascorbic acid solution. Thereafter, the hydrolytic precipitation of Cr(III) from stripped solution at pH ∼9.0, and Fe(III) from raffinate at pH 3.5 under continuous air-flow could yield the precipitates of Cr(OH)3 and FeOOH·2H2O, respectively. From the Fe-removed solution, a 5% stoichiometric excess of oxalic acid could effectively precipitate > 99.8% zinc in 30 min at 50 °C.

    更新日期:2018-09-18
  • Intensified redox co-conversion of As(III) and Cr(VI) with MIL-125(Ti)-derived COOH functionalized TiO2: Performance and mechanism
    Chem. Eng. J. (IF 6.735) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Kaihua Gao, Jitao Chen, Zhongmin Liu, Yaru Li, Yongchuan Wu, Jingyu Zhao, Ping Na
    更新日期:2018-09-18
  • Superhydrophobic composite coating with active corrosion resistance for AZ31B magnesium alloy protection
    Chem. Eng. J. (IF 6.735) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Chendi Ding, Yu Tai, Dong Wang, Linghua Tan, Jiajun Fu

    A superhydrophobic, self-healing anti-corrosion coating was prepared by in-situ growth of tungstate corrosion inhibitor intercalated layer double hydroxides (LDHs) conversion film on the AZ31B magnesium alloy and then post-sealing a hydrophobic polymer layer of ureido crosslinked polydimethylsiloxane (U-PDMS) with laurate modified LDHs power (La-LDH) on the surface. The coverage of the dense, water-repellent top layer could suppress the penetration of electrolyte into the bottom LDHs layer and preserve the intercalated tungstate inhibitor from being wasted by ion-exchange at the very beginning of immersion. The anti-corrosion performance provided by the composite film was assessed by multiple methods including, potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential (OCP), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), immersion test and scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET). The results indicate that compared to LDHs coating, the superhydrophobic composite coating shows longer term protection and faster self-healing effect, which is of great significance to expand the potential applications of magnesium alloys.

    更新日期:2018-09-18
  • 更新日期:2018-09-18
  • Numerical Simulation of Radiation Distribution in a Slurry Reactor: the Effect of Distribution of Catalyst Particles
    Chem. Eng. J. (IF 6.735) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Jia Wang, Baoqing Deng, Jin Gao, Haocheng Cao

    The multiphase flow leads a non-uniform distribution of catalyst particles in a slurry reactor. The previous studies used the inlet catalyst loading to compute the absorption coefficient and the scattering coefficient in the slurry reactor, which did not consider the non-uniform distribution of catalyst particle. The present study numerically studies the effect of multiphase flow on the radiation distribution in a slurry reactor. Herein, the absorption coefficient and the scattering coefficient are related to the local volume fraction of catalyst. The volume fraction of catalyst is obtained using the Eulerian-Eulerian method. The radiative transfer equation is solved using the DO model. Results show that the local catalyst loading are non-uniform in the slurry reactor. The reactor-averaged catalyst loading is always less than the inlet catalyst loading. It may leads to the underestimation of the incident radiation as well as UV disinfection and the overestimation of LVREA and as well as photocatalytic reaction rate. It is more reasonable to compute the absorption coefficient and the scattering coefficient using the local catalyst loading. A large diameter and a large inlet catalyst loading can lead to a large catalyst loading in the reactor, the large absorption coefficient and scattering coefficient, meaning a low radiation intensity in the reactor. There exists an optimal inlet catalyst loading for the photocatalytic reaction.

    更新日期:2018-09-18
  • Self-Assembly of Zein-Based Microcarrier System for Colon-Targeted Oral Drug Delivery
    Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. (IF 3.141) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Hongdi Wang, Xiaotong Zhang, Wei Zhu, Yanbin Jiang, Zhibing Zhang
    更新日期:2018-09-18
  • 更新日期:2018-09-18
  • Efficient Process Monitoring via the Integrated Use of Markov Random Fields Learning and the Graphical Lasso
    Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. (IF 3.141) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Changsoo Kim, Hodong Lee, Kyeongsu Kim, Younggeun Lee, Won Bo Lee
    更新日期:2018-09-18
  • 更新日期:2018-09-18
  • 更新日期:2018-09-18
  • Insight into enhancement of NO reduction with methane by multifunctional catalysis over mixture of Ce/HZSM-5 and CoOx in excess of oxygen
    Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. (IF 3.141) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Fujin Huang, Wei Hu, Jianjun Chen, Yang Wu, Pengfei Qu, Shandong Yuan, Lin Zhong, Yao-Qiang Chen

    Selective catalytic reduction of NO by CH4 (CH4-SCR) is a promising choice to eliminate toxic NO from emissions of mobile and stationary sources. However, because of insufficient activity, so far catalyst for CH4-SCR has not been used commercially. Getting a clear understanding of the mechanism of CH4-SCR is thus very important for developing optimum catalyst for the NO elimination. From the angle of multifunctional catalysis, we designed a catalyst which consisted of CoOx and Ce/HZSM-5. With the synergistic function of catalysis, the activity of CH4-SCR was considerably enhanced. In-situ DRIFTS was applied to investigate the catalytic mechanism of CH4-SCR. It suggests that CoOx offers the sites to boost the oxidation of NO to NOx. Meanwhile, Ce/HZSM-5 provides redox and acidic sites which are necessary for activating methane and reducing the formed intermediates into desired products, N2 and CO2.

    更新日期:2018-09-18
  • Effect of a Sulfonated Benzothiadiazole Unit on the Morphology and Ion Conduction Behavior of a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane
    Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. (IF 3.141) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Shuntaro Amari, Shinji Ando, Shoji Miyanishi, Takeo Yamaguchi

    From the viewpoint of improving the physical properties of ion conducting membranes, especially proton exchange mem-branes (PEM), obtaining well-defined nano-channels using conjugated polymers has attracted significant amount of atten-tion. This study aims to propose a novel and simple molecular design concept for aromatic random copolymers based on sulfonated benzothiadiazole (SBT) units to induce nanostructuring. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM), we observed that introducing a small amount of the SBT unit induced significant hydrophilic and hydrophobic domain aggregation in the prepared membrane. Furthermore, results indicated that both the proton carrier density and the membrane’s physical prop-erties were affected by the morphological transformations, which arises due to the SBT unit effect. In particular, the SBT-based membrane with the aggregated hydrophilic domain provides favorable structures for proton transfer, which enables effective proton conductivity throughout the membrane. These results indicate that the SBT unit is a key trigger for mor-phology nano-structuring.

    更新日期:2018-09-18
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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