Reference Parameters for Protein Hydrogen Exchange Rates J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-07-18 David Nguyen, Leland Mayne, Michael C. Phillips, S. Walter Englander
The analysis of many hydrogen exchange (HX) experiments depends on knowledge of exchange rates expected for the unstructured protein under the same conditions. We present here some minor adjustments to previously calibrated values and a stringent test of their accuracy.
Measurements of Atmospheric Proteinaceous Aerosol in the Arctic Using a Selective UHPLC/ESI-MS/MS Strategy J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-07-17 Farshid Mashayekhy Rad, Javier Zurita, Philippe Gilles, Laurens A. J. Rutgeerts, Ulrika Nilsson, Leopold L. Ilag, Caroline Leck
In this article, an analytical methodology to investigate the proteinaceous content in atmospheric size-resolved aerosols collected at the Zeppelin observatory (79 °N, 12 °E) at Ny Ålesund, Svalbard, from September to December 2015, is proposed. Quantitative determination was performed after acidic hydrolysis using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography in reversed-phase mode coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Chromatographic separation, as well as specificity in the identification, was achieved by derivatization of the amino acids with N-butyl nicotinic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester prior to the analysis. The chromatographic run was performed within 11 min and instrumental levels of detection (LODs) were between 0.2 and 8.1 pg injected on the column, except for arginine which exhibited an LOD of 37 pg. Corresponding method LODs were between 0.01 and 1.9 fmol/m3, based on the average air sampling volume of 57 m3. The sum of free amino acids and hydrolyzed polyamino acids was shown to vary within 6–2914 and 0.02–1417 pmol/m3 for particles in sizes < 2 and 2–10 μm in equivalent aerodynamic diameter, respectively. Leucine, alanine, and valine were the most abundant among the amino acids in both aerosol size fractions. In an attempt to elucidate source areas of the collected aerosols, 5- to 10-day 3D backward trajectories reaching the sampling station were calculated. Overall, the method described here provides a first time estimate of the proteinaceous content, that is, the sum of free and polyamino acids, in size-resolved aerosols collected in the Arctic.
Combined Short-Term Glucose Starvation and Chemotherapy in 3D Colorectal Cancer Cell Culture Decreases 14-3-3 Family Protein Expression and Phenotypic Response to Therapy J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-07-17 Monica M. Schroll, Katelyn R. Ludwig, Gabriel J. LaBonia, Emily L. Herring, Amanda B. Hummon
Short-term glucose starvation prior to chemotherapy has the potential to preferentially weaken cancer cells, making them more likely to succumb to treatment, while protecting normal cells. In this study, we used 3D cell cultures of colorectal cancer and assessed the effects of short-term glucose starvation and chemotherapy compared to treatment of either individually. We evaluated both phenotypic changes and protein expression levels. Our findings indicate that the combined treatment results in more significant phenotypic responses, including decreased cell viability and clonogenicity. These phenotypic responses can be explained by the decreased expression of LDHA and 14-3-3 family proteins, which were found only in the combined treatment groups. This study indicates that short-term glucose starvation has the potential to increase the efficacy of current cancer treatment regimes.
Structural Investigation of the Hormone Melatonin and Its Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metal Complexes in the Gas Phase J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-07-13 Satrajit Chakrabarty, Matthew J. DiTucci, Giel Berden, Jos Oomens, Evan R. Williams
Gas phase infrared dissociation spectra of the radical cation, deprotonated and protonated forms of the hormone melatonin, and its complexes with alkali (Li+, Na+, and K+) and alkaline earth metal ions (Mg2+, Ca2+, and Sr2+) are measured in the spectral range 800–1800 cm−1. Minimum energy geometries calculated at the B3LYP/LACVP++** level are used to assign structural motifs to absorption bands in the experimental spectra. The melatonin anion is deprotonated at the indole-N. The indole-C linking the amide chain is the most favored protonation site. Comparisons between the experimental and calculated spectra for alkali and alkaline earth metal ion complexes reveal that the metal ions interact similarly with the amide and methoxy oxygen atoms. The amide I band undergoes a red shift with increasing charge density of the metal ion and the amide II band shows a concomitant blue shift. Another binding motif in which the metal ions interact with the amide-O and the π-electron cloud of the aromatic group is identified but is higher in energy by at least 18 kJ/mol. Melatonin is deprotonated at the amide-N with Mg2+ and the metal ion coordinates to the amide-N and an indole-C or the methoxy-O. These results provide information about the intrinsic binding of metal ions to melatonin and combined with future studies on solvated melatonin-metal ion complexes may help elucidate the solvent effects on metal ion binding in solution and the biochemistry of melatonin. These results also serve as benchmarks for future theoretical studies on melatonin-metal ion interactions.
Extracting Charge and Mass Information from Highly Congested Mass Spectra Using Fourier-Domain Harmonics J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-07-12 Sean P. Cleary, Huilin Li, Dhanashri Bagal, Joseph A. Loo, Iain D. G. Campuzano, James S. Prell
Native mass spectra of large, polydisperse biomolecules with repeated subunits, such as lipoprotein Nanodiscs, can often be challenging to analyze by conventional methods. The presence of tens of closely spaced, overlapping peaks in these mass spectra can make charge state, total mass, or subunit mass determinations difficult to measure by traditional methods. Recently, we introduced a Fourier Transform-based algorithm that can be used to deconvolve highly congested mass spectra for polydisperse ion populations with repeated subunits and facilitate identification of the charge states, subunit mass, charge-state-specific, and total mass distributions present in the ion population. Here, we extend this method by investigating the advantages of using overtone peaks in the Fourier spectrum, particularly for mass spectra with low signal-to-noise and poor resolution. This method is illustrated for lipoprotein Nanodisc mass spectra acquired on three common platforms, including the first reported native mass spectrum of empty “large” Nanodiscs assembled with MSP1E3D1 and over 300 noncovalently associated lipids. It is shown that overtone peaks contain nearly identical stoichiometry and charge state information to fundamental peaks but can be significantly better resolved, resulting in more reliable reconstruction of charge-state-specific mass spectra and peak width characterization. We further demonstrate how these parameters can be used to improve results from Bayesian spectral fitting algorithms, such as UniDec.
Experimental Observation of the Effects of Translational and Rotational Electrode Misalignment on a Planar Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-04-05 Yuan Tian, Trevor K. Decker, Joshua S. McClellan, Qinghao Wu, Abraham De la Cruz, Aaron R. Hawkins, Daniel E. Austin
The performance of miniaturized ion trap mass analyzers is limited, in part, by the accuracy with which electrodes can be fabricated and positioned relative to each other. Alignment of plates in a two-plate planar LIT is ideal to characterize misalignment effects, as it represents the simplest possible case, having only six degrees of freedom (DOF) (three translational and three rotational). High-precision motorized actuators were used to vary the alignment between the two ion trap plates in five DOFs—x, y, z, pitch, and yaw. A comparison between the experiment and previous simulations shows reasonable agreement. Pitch, or the degree to which the plates are parallel along the axial direction, has the largest and sharpest impact to resolving power, with resolving power dropping noticeably with pitch misalignment of a fraction of a degree. Lateral displacement (x) and yaw (rotation of one plate, but plates remain parallel) both have a strong impact on ion ejection efficiency, but little effect on resolving power. The effects of plate spacing (y-displacement) on both resolving power and ion ejection efficiency are attributable to higher-order terms in the trapping field. Varying the DC (axial) trapping potential can elucidate the effects where more misalignments in more than one DOF affect performance. Implications of these results for miniaturized ion traps are discussed.
Specific Cα-C Bond Cleavage of β-Carbon-Centered Radical Peptides Produced by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-04-19 Keishiro Nagoshi, Mariko Yamakoshi, Kenya Sakamoto, Mitsuo Takayama
Radical-driven dissociation (RDD) of hydrogen-deficient peptide ions [M − H + H]·+ has been examined using matrix-assisted laser dissociation/ionization in-source decay mass spectrometry (MALDI-ISD MS) with the hydrogen-abstracting matrices 4-nitro-1-naphthol (4,1-NNL) and 5-nitrosalicylic acid (5-NSA). The preferential fragment ions observed in the ISD spectra include N-terminal [a] + ions and C-terminal [x]+, [y + 2]+, and [w]+ ions which imply that β-carbon (Cβ)-centered radical peptide ions [M − Hβ + H]·+ are predominantly produced in MALDI conditions. RDD reactions from the peptide ions [M − Hβ + H]·+ successfully explains the fact that both [a]+ and [x]+ ions arising from cleavage at the Cα-C bond of the backbone of Gly-Xxx residues are missing from the ISD spectra. Furthermore, the formation of [a]+ ions originating from the cleavage of Cα-C bond of deuterated Ala(d3)-Xxx residues indicates that the [a]+ ions are produced from the peptide ions [M − Hβ + H]·+ generated by deuteron-abstraction from Ala(d3) residues. It is suggested that from the standpoint of hydrogen abstraction via direct interactions between the nitro group of matrix and hydrogen of peptides, the generation of the peptide radical ions [M − Hβ + H]·+ is more favorable than that of the α-carbon (Cα)-centered radical ions [M − Hα + H]·+ and the amide nitrogen-centered radical ions [M − HN + H]·+, while ab initio calculations indicate that the formation of [M − Hα + H]·+ is energetically most favorable.
An Internal Standard for Assessing Phosphopeptide Recovery from Metal Ion/Oxide Enrichment Strategies J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-04-18 Joao A. Paulo, Jose Navarrete-Perea, Alison R. Erickson, Jeffrey Knott, Steven P. Gygi
Phosphorylation-mediated signaling pathways have major implications in cellular regulation and disease. However, proteins with roles in these pathways are frequently less abundant and phosphorylation is often sub-stoichiometric. As such, the efficient enrichment, and subsequent recovery of phosphorylated peptides, is vital. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics is a well-established approach for quantifying thousands of phosphorylation events in a single experiment. We designed a peptide internal standard-based assay directed toward sample preparation strategies for mass spectrometry analysis to understand better phosphopeptide recovery from enrichment strategies. We coupled mass-differential tandem mass tag (mTMT) reagents (specifically, TMTzero and TMTsuper-heavy), nine mass spectrometry-amenable phosphopeptides (phos9), and peak area measurements from extracted ion chromatograms to determine phosphopeptide recovery. We showcase this mTMT/phos9 recovery assay by evaluating three phosphopeptide enrichment workflows. Our assay provides data on the recovery of phosphopeptides, which complement other metrics, namely the number of identified phosphopeptides and enrichment specificity. Our mTMT/phos9 assay is applicable to any enrichment protocol in a typical experimental workflow irrespective of sample origin or labeling strategy.
Rapid Quantification of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D 3 in Human Serum by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-04-09 Yulin Qi, Miriam Müller, Caroline S. Stokes, Dietrich A. Volmer
LC-MS/MS is widely utilized today for quantification of vitamin D in biological fluids. Mass spectrometric assays for vitamin D require very careful method optimization for precise and interference-free, accurate analyses however. Here, we explore chemical derivatization and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) as a rapid alternative for quantitative measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in human serum, and compare it to results from LC-MS/MS. The method implemented an automated imaging step of each MALDI spot, to locate areas of high intensity, avoid sweet spot phenomena, and thus improve precision. There was no statistically significant difference in vitamin D quantification between the MALDI-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS: mean ± standard deviation for MALDI-MS—29.4 ± 10.3 ng/mL—versus LC-MS/MS—30.3 ± 11.2 ng/mL (P = 0.128)—for the sum of the 25-hydroxyvitamin D epimers. The MALDI-based assay avoided time-consuming chromatographic separation steps and was thus much faster than the LC-MS/MS assay. It also consumed less sample, required no organic solvents, and was readily automated. In this proof-of-concept study, MALDI-MS readily demonstrated its potential for mass spectrometric quantification of vitamin D compounds in biological fluids.
Establishment of a Charge Reversal Derivatization Strategy to Improve the Ionization Efficiency of Limaprost and Investigation of the Fragmentation Patterns of Limaprost Derivatives Via Exclusive Neutral Loss and Survival Yield Method J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-04-09 Dong Sun, Xiangjun Meng, Tianming Ren, John Paul Fawcett, Hualu Wang, Jingkai Gu
Sensitivity is generally an issue in bioassays of prostaglandins and their synthetic analogs due to their extremely low concentration in vivo. To improve the ionization efficiency of limaprost, an oral prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) synthetic analog, we investigated a charge reversal derivatization strategy in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). We established that the cholamine derivative exhibits much greater signal intensity in the positive-ion mode compared with limaprost in the negative ion mode. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) involved exclusive neutral mass loss and positive charge migration to form stable cationic product ions with the positive charge on the limaprost residue rather than on the modifying group. This has the effect of maintaining the efficiency and specificity of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and avoiding cross talk. CID fragmentation patterns of other limaprost derivatives allowed us to relate the dissociation tendency of different neutral leaving groups to an internal energy distribution scale based on the survival yield method. Knowledge of the energy involved in the production of stabilized positive ions will potentially assist the selection of suitable derivatization reagents for the analysis of a wide variety of lipid acids.
Correction to: Fungal Secretome Analysis Via PepSAVI-MS: Identification of the Bioactive Peptide KP4 from Ustilago maydis J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-07-11 Christine L. Kirkpatrick, Nicole C. Parsley, Tessa E. Bartges, Madeline E. Cooke, Wilaysha S. Evans, Lilian R. Heil, Thomas J. Smith, Leslie M. Hicks
In the article “Fungal Secretome Analysis via PepSAVI-MS: Identification of the Bioactive Peptide KP4 from Ustilago maydis”, acknowledgement of financial support was inadvertently omitted. The authors apologize for this oversight.
Large-Area Graphene Films as Target Surfaces for Highly Reproducible Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Suitable for Quantitative Mass Spectrometry J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-07-11 Yoon Kyung Choi, Joo Yeon Oh, Sang Yun Han
Due to the known sweet-spot issues that intrinsically arise from inhomogeneous formation of matrix-analyte crystals utilized as samples in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry, its reproducibility and thus its applications for quantification have been somewhat limited. In this paper, we report a simple strategy to improve the uniformity of matrix-analyte crystal spots, which we realized by adapting large-area graphene films, i.e., non-inert, interacting surfaces, as target surfaces. In this example, the graphitic surfaces of the graphene films interact with excess matrix molecules during the sample drying process, which induces spontaneous formation of optically uniform MALDI sample crystal layers on the film surfaces. Further, mass spectrometric imaging reveals that the visible uniformity is indeed accompanied by reproducible MALDI ionization over an entire sample spot, which greatly suppresses the appearance of sweet spots. The results of this study confirm that the proposed method achieves good linear responses of ion intensity to the analyte concentration (R2 > 0.99) with small relative standard deviations (σ < 10%), which is a range applicable for quantitative measurements using MALDI mass spectrometry.
Simulation of Unidirectional Ion Ejection in an Asymmetric Half-Round Rod Electrode Linear Ion Trap Mass Analyzer J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-07-11 HaiYan Wu, LiPeng Zhang, ZaiYue Zhang, Jie Qian, ShuGuang Zhang, YingJun Zhang, SaiJin Ge, XiaoXu Li
An asymmetric trapping field was generated from an asymmetric half-round rod electrode linear ion trap (A-HreLIT), and its performance of unidirectional ion ejection was studied. Two different asymmetric structures of A-HreLITs were constructed, one rotating y electrode pairs toward an x electrode with an angle θ, and the other stretching one x electrode with a distance α. The center of trapping field was displaced away from the geometrical center of the ion trap, defined to be the midpoint along the axis of y between x electrodes, which leads to unidirectional ion ejection through one x electrode. Computer simulations were used to investigate the relationship between asymmetric geometric parameter of θ (or α) and analytical performance. Both structures could result in similar asymmetric trapping fields, which mainly composed of dipole, quadrupole, and hexapole fields. The dipole and hexapole fields were approximately proportional to the asymmetric geometric parameter of rotation angle θ (or stretch distance α). In simulation, ion trajectories and ion kinetic energy were calculated. For ions with m/z 609 Th, the simulation results showed that mass resolution of over 2400 (FWHM) and ion unidirectional ejection efficiency of nearly 90% were achieved in an optimized A-HreLIT. Ion detection efficiency of A-HreLIT could be improved significantly with only one ion detector, while maintaining a considerable mass resolution. Furthermore, the A-HreLIT could be driven by a traditional balanced RF power supply. These advantages make A-HreLIT suitable for developing miniaturized mass spectrometer with high performance.
Mass Spectral Detection of Forward- and Reverse-Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Resulting from Residual Solvent Vapors in Electrospray Sources J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-07-11 H. Jamie Kim, O. Tara Liyanage, Marina R. Mulenos, Elyssia S. Gallagher
Characterizing glycans is analytically challenging since glycans are heterogeneous, branched polymers with different three-dimensional conformations. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange-mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) has been used to analyze native conformations and dynamics of biomolecules by measuring the mass increase of analytes as labile protons are replaced with deuterium following exposure to deuterated solvents. The rate of exchange is dependent on the chemical functional group, the presence of hydrogen bonds, pH, temperature, charge, and solvent accessibility. HDX-MS of carbohydrates is challenging due to the rapid exchange rate of hydroxyls. Here, we describe an observed HDX reaction associated with residual solvent vapors saturating electrospray sources. When undeuterated melezitose was infused after infusing D2O, samples with up to 73% deuterium exchange were detected. This residual solvent HDX was observed for both carbohydrates and peptides in multiple instruments and dependent on sample infusion rate, infusion time, and deuterium content of the solvent. This residual solvent HDX was observed over several minutes of sample analysis and persisted long enough to alter the measured deuterium labeling and possibly change the interpretation of the results. This work illustrates that residual solvent HDX competes with in-solution HDX for rapidly exchanging functional groups. Thus, we propose conditions to minimize this effect, specifically for top-down, in-electrospray ionization, and quench-flow HDX experiments.
Using Digital Waveforms to Mitigate Solvent Clustering During Mass Filter Analysis of Proteins J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-07-09 Bojana Opačić, Nathan M. Hoffman, Zachary P. Gotlib, Brian H. Clowers, Peter T. A. Reilly
With advances in the precision of digital electronics, waveform generation technology has progressed to a state that enables the creation of m/z filters that are purely digitally driven. These advances present new methods of performing mass analyses that provide information from a chemical system that are inherently difficult to achieve by other means. One notable characteristic of digitally driven mass filters is the capacity to transmit ions at m/z ratios that vastly exceed the capabilities of traditional resonant systems. However, the capacity to probe ion m/z ratios that span multiple orders of magnitudes across multiple orders of magnitude presents a new set of issues requiring a solution. In the present work, when probing multiply charged protein species beyond m/z 2000 using a gentle atmospheric pressure interface, the presence of solvent adducts and poorly resolved multimers can severely degrade spectral fidelity. Increasing energy imparted into a target ion population is one approach minimizing these clusters; however, the use of digital waveform technology provides an alternative that maximizes ion transport efficiency and simultaneously minimizes solvent clustering. In addition to the frequency of the applied waveform, digital manipulation also provides control over the duty cycle of the target waveform. This work examines the conditions and approach leading to optimal digital waveform operation to minimize solvent clustering.
Method for Quantifying Oxidized Methionines and Application to HIV-1 Env J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-07-09 Joshua T. Shipman, Eden P. Go, Heather Desaire
Recombinantly expressed proteins are susceptible to oxidation during expression, purification, storage, and analysis; the residue most susceptible to oxidation is methionine. Methionine oxidation can be overestimated using current quantitative analysis methods because oxidation can occur during sample preparation, and researchers often do not use methods that account for this possibility. An experimental strategy had been developed previously to solve this problem through the use of an 18O-labeled hydrogen peroxide reagent. However, the method did not address the analysis of peptides that contained multiple methionine residues. Herein, we develop and validate a new analysis method that uses theoretical isotope distributions and experimental spectra to quantify methionine oxidation that is present prior to sample preparation. The newly described approach is more rapid than the previously described method, and it needs only half the amount of protein for analysis. This method was validated using model proteins; then, it was applied to the analysis of recombinant HIV-1 Env, the key protein in HIV vaccine candidates. While Met oxidation of this protein could not be analyzed using previous methods, the approach described herein was useful for determining the oxidation state of HIV-Env.
Disulfide Connectivity Analysis of Peptides Bearing Two Intramolecular Disulfide Bonds Using MALDI In-Source Decay J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-07-09 Philippe Massonnet, Jean R. N. Haler, Gregory Upert, Nicolas Smargiasso, Gilles Mourier, Nicolas Gilles, Loïc Quinton, Edwin De Pauw
Disulfide connectivity in peptides bearing at least two intramolecular disulfide bonds is highly important for the structure and the biological activity of the peptides. In that context, analytical strategies allowing a characterization of the cysteine pairing are of prime interest for chemists, biochemists, and biologists. For that purpose, this study evaluates the potential of MALDI in-source decay (ISD) for characterizing cysteine pairs through the systematic analysis of identical peptides bearing two disulfide bonds, but not the same cysteine connectivity. Three different matrices have been tested in positive and/or in negative mode (1,5-DAN, 2-AB and 2-AA). As MALDI-ISD is known to partially reduce disulfide bonds, the data analysis of this study rests firstly on the deconvolution of the isotope pattern of the parent ions. Moreover, data analysis is also based on the formed fragment ions and their signal intensities. Results from MS/MS-experiments (MALDI-ISD-MS/MS) constitute the last reference for data interpretation. Owing to the combined use of different ISD-promoting matrices, cysteine connectivity identification could be performed on the considered peptides.
Optimized Electrostatic Linear Ion Trap for Charge Detection Mass Spectrometry J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-07-09 Joanna A. Hogan, Martin F. Jarrold
In charge detection mass spectrometry (CDMS), ions are passed through a detection tube and the m/z ratio and charge are determined for each ion. The uncertainty in the charge and m/z determinations can be dramatically reduced by embedding the detection tube in an electrostatic linear ion trap (ELIT) so that ions oscillate back and forth through the detection tube. The resulting time domain signal can be analyzed by fast Fourier transforms (FFTs). The ion’s m/z is proportional to the square of the oscillation frequency, and its charge is derived from the FFT magnitude. The ion oscillation frequency is dependent on the physical dimensions of the trap as well as the ion energy. A new ELIT has been designed for CDMS using the central particle method. In the new design, the kinetic energy dependence of the ion oscillation frequency is reduced by an order of magnitude. An order of magnitude reduction in energy dependence should have led to an order of magnitude reduction in the uncertainty of the m/z determination. In practice, a factor of four improvements was achieved. This discrepancy is probably mainly due to the trajectory dependence of the ion oscillation frequency. The new ELIT design uses a duty cycle of 50%. We show that a 50% duty cycle produces the lowest uncertainty in the charge determination. This is due to the absence of even-numbered harmonics in the FFT, which in turn leads to an increase in the magnitude of the peak at the fundamental frequency.
Conjugation of para -benzoquinone of Cigarette Smoke with Human Hemoglobin Leads to Unstable Tetramer and Reduced Cooperative Oxygen Binding J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-07-02 Amrita Mitra, Amit Kumar Mandal
Besides multiple life-threatening diseases like lung cancer and cardiovascular disease, cigarette smoking is known to produce hypoxia, a state of inadequate oxygen supply to tissues. Hypoxia plays a pivotal role in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Smoking during pregnancy imposes risk for the unborn child. In addition to carbon monoxide, conjugation of para-benzoquinone (pBQ), derived from cigarette smoke, with human hemoglobin (HbA) was also reported to contribute in hypoxia. In fact, conjugation of pBQ is more alarming than carbon monoxide as it is an irreversible covalent modification. In the present study, the functional assay of Hb-pBQ, performed through oxygen equilibrium curve, showed a significant decrease in both P50 and cooperativity. However, the structural changes associated with the observed functional perturbation of the hemoglobin conjugate (Hb-pBQ) are unknown to date. Enhanced sensitivity and high resolution of nano-ESI mass spectrometry platform have enabled to investigate the native structure of oligomers of hemoglobin in a single scan. The structural integrity of Hb-pBQ measured through the dissociation equilibrium constants (Kd) indicated that compared to HbA, Kd of tetramer-dimer and dimer-monomer equilibria were increased by 4.98- and 64.3-folds, respectively. Using isotope exchange mass spectrometry, we observed perturbations in the inter-subunit interactions of deoxy and oxy states of Hb-pBQ. However, the three-dimensional architecture of Hb-pBQ, monitored through collision cross-sectional area, did not show any change. We propose that the significant destabilization of the functionally active structure of hemoglobin upon conjugation with pBQ results in tighter oxygen binding that leads to hypoxia.
On-Chip Spyhole Nanoelectrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Sensitive Biomarker Detection in Small Volumes J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Xiaoqin Zhong, Liang Qiao, Géraldine Stauffer, Baohong Liu, Hubert H. Girault
A polyimide microfluidic chip with a microhole emitter (Ø 10–12 μm) created on top of a microchannel by scanning laser ablation has been designed for nanoelectrospray ionization (spyhole-nanoESI) to couple microfluidics with mass spectrometry. The spyhole-nanoESI showed higher sensitivity compared to standard ESI and microESI from the end of the microchannel. The limits of detection (LOD) for peptide with the spyhole-nanoESI MS reached 50 pM, which was 600 times lower than that with standard ESI. The present microchip emitter allows the analysis of small volumes of samples. As an example, a small cell lung cancer biomarker, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), was detected by monitoring the transition of its unique peptide with the spyhole-nanoESI MS/MS. NSE at 0.2 nM could be well identified with a signal to noise ratio (S/N) of 50, and thereby its LOD was estimated to be 12 pM. The potential application of the spyhole-nanoESI MS/MS in cancer diagnosis was further demonstrated with the successful detection of 2 nM NSE from 1 μL of human serum. Before the detection, the serum sample spiked with NSE was first depleted with immune spin column, then desalted by centrifugal filter device, and finally digested by trypsin, without any other complicated preparation steps. The concentration matched the real condition of clinical samples. In addition, the microchips can be disposable to avoid any cross contamination. The present technique provides a highly efficient way to couple microfluidics with MS, which brings additional values to various microfluidics and MS-based analysis.
AP-MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Gangliosides Using 2,6-Dihydroxyacetophenone J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-03-16 Shelley N. Jackson, Ludovic Muller, Aurelie Roux, Berk Oktem, Eugene Moskovets, Vladimir M. Doroshenko, Amina S. Woods
Matrix-assisted laser/desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is widely used as a unique tool to record the distribution of a large range of biomolecules in tissues. 2,6-Dihydroxyacetophenone (DHA) matrix has been shown to provide efficient ionization of lipids, especially gangliosides. The major drawback for DHA as it applies to MS imaging is that it sublimes under vacuum (low pressure) at the extended time necessary to complete both high spatial and mass resolution MSI studies of whole organs. To overcome the problem of sublimation, we used an atmospheric pressure (AP)-MALDI source to obtain high spatial resolution images of lipids in the brain using a high mass resolution mass spectrometer. Additionally, the advantages of atmospheric pressure and DHA for imaging gangliosides are highlighted. The imaging of [M–H]− and [M–H2O–H]− mass peaks for GD1 gangliosides showed different distribution, most likely reflecting the different spatial distribution of GD1a and GD1b species in the brain.
Gas Phase Ion Chemistry to Determine Isoaspartate in a Peptide Backbone J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 S. T. Ayrton, X. Chen, R. M. Bain, C. J. Pulliam, M. Achmatowicz, T. G. Flick, D. Ren, R. G. Cooks
Proof of concept evidence is presented for a new method for the determination of isoaspartate, an important post-translational modification. Chemical derivatization is performed using common reagents for the modification of carboxylic acids and shown to yield suitable diagnostic information with regard to isomerization at the aspartate residue. The diagnostic gas phase chemistry is probed by collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry, on the timescale of the MS experiment and semi-quantitative calibration of the percentage of isoaspartate in a peptide sample is demonstrated.
Identification of Vitamin D3 Oxidation Products Using High-Resolution and Tandem Mass Spectrometry J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Fatemeh Mahmoodani, Conrad O. Perera, Grant Abernethy, Bruno Fedrizzi, David Greenwood, Hong Chen
In a successful fortification program, the stability of micronutrients added to the food is one of the most important factors. The added vitamin D3 is known to sometimes decline during storage of fortified milks, and oxidation through fatty acid lipoxidation could be suspected as the likely cause. Identification of vitamin D3 oxidation products (VDOPs) in natural foods is a challenge due to the low amount of their contents and their possible transformation to other compounds during analysis. The main objective of this study was to find a method to extract VDOPs in simulated whole milk powder and to identify these products using LTQ-ion trap, Q-Exactive Orbitrap and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The multistage mass spectrometry (MSn) spectra can help to propose plausible schemes for unknown compounds and their fragmentations. With the growth of combinatorial libraries, mass spectrometry (MS) has become an important analytical technique because of its speed of analysis, sensitivity, and accuracy. This study was focused on identifying the fragmentation rules for some VDOPs by incorporating MS data with in silico calculated MS fragmentation pathways. Diels–Alder derivatization was used to enhance the sensitivity and selectivity for the VDOPs’ identification. Finally, the confirmed PTAD-derivatized target compounds were separated and analyzed using ESI(+)-UHPLC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode.
Implementation of Precursor and Neutral Loss Scans on a Miniature Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer and Performance Comparison to a Benchtop Linear Ion Trap J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-03-13 Dalton T. Snyder, Lucas J. Szalwinski, Ryan Hilger, R. Graham Cooks
Implementation of orthogonal double resonance precursor and neutral loss scans on the Mini 12 miniature rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer is described, and performance is compared to that of a commercial Thermo linear trap quadropole (LTQ) linear ion trap. The ac frequency scan version of the technique at constant rf voltage is used here because it is operationally much simpler to implement. Remarkably, the Mini 12 shows up to two orders of magnitude higher sensitivity compared to that of the LTQ. Resolution on the LTQ is better than unit at scan speeds of ~ 400 Th/s, whereas peak widths on the Mini 12, on average, range from 0.5 to 2.0 Th full width at half maximum and depend heavily on the precursor ion Mathieu q parameter as well as the pump down time that precedes the mass scan. Both sensitivity and resolution are maximized under higher pressure conditions (short pump down time) on the Mini 12. The effective mass range of the product ion ejection waveform was found to be 5.8 Th on the Mini 12 in the precursor ion scan mode vs. that of 3.9 Th on the LTQ. In the neutral loss scan mode, the product ion selectivity was between 8 and 11 Th on the Mini 12 and between 7 and 8 Th on the LTQ. The effects of nonlinear resonance lines on the Mini 12 were also explored.
Coaxial Electrospray Ionization for the Study of Rapid In-source Chemistry J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-06-13 Brynn N. Sundberg, Anthony F. Lagalante
Coaxial electrospray has been used effectively for several dual-emitter applications, but has not been utilized for the study of rapid in-source chemistry. In this paper, we report the fabrication of a coaxial, micro-volume dual-emitter through the modification of a manufacturer’s standard electrospray probe. This modification creates rapid mixing inside the Taylor cone and the ability to manipulate fast reactions using a variety of solvents and analytes. We demonstrate its potential as a low-cost, dual-emitter assembly for diverse applications through three examples: relative ionization in a biphasic electrospray, hydrogen-deuterium exchange, and protein supercharging.
Initial Protein Unfolding Events in Ubiquitin, Cytochrome c and Myoglobin Are Revealed with the Use of 213 nm UVPD Coupled to IM-MS J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-06-13 Alina Theisen, Rachelle Black, Davide Corinti, Jeffery M. Brown, Bruno Bellina, Perdita E. Barran
The initial stages of protein unfolding may reflect the stability of the entire fold and can also reveal which parts of a protein can be perturbed, without restructuring the rest. In this work, we couple UVPD with activated ion mobility mass spectrometry to measure how three model proteins start to unfold. Ubiquitin, cytochrome c and myoglobin ions produced via nESI from salty solutions are subjected to UV irradiation pre-mobility separation; experiments are conducted with a range of source conditions which alter the conformation of the precursor ion as shown by the drift time profiles. For all three proteins, the compact structures result in less fragmentation than more extended structures which emerge following progressive in-source activation. Cleavage sites are found to differ between conformational ensembles, for example, for the dominant charge state of cytochrome c [M + 7H]7+, cleavage at Phe10, Thr19 and Val20 was only observed in activating conditions whilst cleavage at Ala43 is dramatically enhanced. Mapping the photo-cleaved fragments onto crystallographic structures provides insight into the local structural changes that occur as protein unfolding progresses, which is coupled to global restructuring observed in the drift time profiles.
Radical Anions of Oxidized vs. Reduced Oxytocin: Influence of Disulfide Bridges on CID and Vacuum UV Photo-Fragmentation J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-06-12 Luke MacAleese, Marion Girod, Laurent Nahon, Alexandre Giuliani, Rodolphe Antoine, Philippe Dugourd
The nonapeptide oxytocin (OT) is used as a model sulfur-containing peptide to study the damage induced by vacuum UV (VUV) radiations. In particular, the effect of the presence (or absence in reduced OT) of oxytocin’s internal disulfide bridge is evaluated in terms of photo-fragmentation yield and nature of the photo-fragments. Intact, as well as reduced, OT is studied as dianions and radical anions. Radical anions are prepared and photo-fragmented in two-color experiments (UV + VUV) in a linear ion trap. VUV photo-fragmentation patterns are analyzed and compared, and radical-induced mechanisms are proposed. The effect of VUV is principally to ionize but secondary fragmentation is also observed. This secondary fragmentation seems to be considerably enabled by the initial position of the radical on the molecule. In particular, the possibility to form a radical on free cysteines seems to increase the susceptibility to VUV fragmentation. Interestingly, disulfide bridges, which are fundamental for protein structure, could also be responsible for an increased resistance to ionizing radiations.
Identification and High-Resolution Imaging of α-Tocopherol from Human Cells to Whole Animals by TOF-SIMS Tandem Mass Spectrometry J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-06-12 Anne L. Bruinen, Gregory L. Fisher, Rachelle Balez, Astrid M. van der Sar, Lezanne Ooi, Ron M. A. Heeren
A unique method for identification of biomolecular components in different biological specimens, while preserving the capability for high speed 2D and 3D molecular imaging, is employed to investigate cellular response to oxidative stress. The employed method enables observing the distribution of the antioxidant α-tocopherol and other molecules in cellular structures via time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS (MS1)) imaging in parallel with tandem mass spectrometry (MS2) imaging, collected simultaneously. The described method is employed to examine a network formed by neuronal cells differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), a model for investigating human neurons in vitro. The antioxidant α-tocopherol is identified in situ within different cellular layers utilizing a 3D TOF-SIMS tandem MS imaging analysis. As oxidative stress also plays an important role in mediating inflammation, the study was expanded to whole body tissue sections of M. marinum-infected zebrafish, a model organism for tuberculosis. The TOF-SIMS tandem MS imaging results reveal an increased presence of α-tocopherol in response to the pathogen.
Differentiating Positional Isomers of Nucleoside Modifications by Higher-Energy Collisional Dissociation Mass Spectrometry (HCD MS) J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-06-12 Manasses Jora, Andrew P. Burns, Robert L. Ross, Peter A. Lobue, Ruoxia Zhao, Cody M. Palumbo, Peter A. Beal, Balasubrahmanyam Addepalli, Patrick A. Limbach
The analytical identification of positional isomers (e.g., 3-, N4-, 5-methylcytidine) within the > 160 different post-transcriptional modifications found in RNA can be challenging. Conventional liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) approaches rely on chromatographic separation for accurate identification because the collision-induced dissociation (CID) mass spectra of these isomers nearly exclusively yield identical nucleobase ions (BH2+) from the same molecular ion (MH+). Here, we have explored higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD) as an alternative fragmentation technique to generate more informative product ions that can be used to differentiate positional isomers. LC-MS/MS of modified nucleosides characterized using HCD led to the creation of structure- and HCD energy-specific fragmentation patterns that generated unique fingerprints, which can be used to identify individual positional isomers even when they cannot be separated chromatographically. While particularly useful for identifying positional isomers, the fingerprinting capabilities enabled by HCD also offer the potential to generate HPLC-independent spectral libraries for the rapid analysis of modified ribonucleosides.
Oligomerisation of Synaptobrevin-2 Studied by Native Mass Spectrometry and Chemical Cross-Linking J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-06-12 Sabine Wittig, Caroline Haupt, Waldemar Hoffmann, Susann Kostmann, Kevin Pagel, Carla Schmidt
Synaptobrevin-2 is a key player in signal transmission in neurons. It forms, together with SNAP25 and Syntaxin-1A, the neuronal soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex and mediates exocytosis of synaptic vesicles with the pre-synaptic membrane. While Synaptobrevin-2 is part of a four-helix bundle in this SNARE complex, it is natively unstructured in the absence of lipids or other SNARE proteins. Partially folded segments, presumably SNARE complex formation intermediates, as well as formation of Synaptobrevin-2 dimers and oligomers, were identified in previous studies. Here, we employ three Synaptobrevin-2 variants—the full-length protein Syb(1-116), the soluble, cytosolic variant Syb(1-96) as well as a shorter version Syb(49-96) containing structured segments but omitting a trigger site for SNARE complex formation—to study oligomerisation in the absence of interaction partners or when incorporated into the lipid bilayer of liposomes. Combining native mass spectrometry with chemical cross-linking, we find that the truncated versions show increased oligomerisation. Our findings from both techniques agree well and confirm the presence of oligomers in solution while membrane-bound Synaptobrevin-2 is mostly monomeric. Using ion mobility mass spectrometry, we could further show that lower charge states of Syb(49-96) oligomers, which most likely represent solution structures, follow an isotropic growth curve suggesting that they are intrinsically disordered. From a technical point of view, we show that the combination of native ion mobility mass spectrometry with chemical cross-linking is well-suited for the analysis of protein homo-oligomers.
Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry of Lignin Pyrolyzates with Dopant-Assisted Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization and Molecular Structure Search with CSI:FingerID J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-06-12 Evan A. Larson, Carolyn P. Hutchinson, Young Jin Lee
Dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (dAPCI) is a soft ionization method rarely used for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The current study combines GC-dAPCI with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for analysis of a complex mixture such as lignin pyrolysis analysis. To identify the structures of volatile lignin pyrolysis products, collision-induced dissociation (CID) MS/MS using a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (QTOFMS) and pseudo MS/MS through in-source collision-induced dissociation (ISCID) using a single stage TOFMS are utilized. To overcome the lack of MS/MS database, Compound Structure Identification (CSI):FingerID is used to interpret CID spectra and predict best matched structures from PubChem library. With this approach, a total of 59 compounds were positively identified in comparison to only 22 in NIST database search of GC-EI-MS dataset. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of GC-dAPCI-MS/MS to overcome the limitations of traditional GC-EI-MS analysis when EI-MS database is not sufficient.
Experimental and Theoretical Studies on Gas-Phase Fragmentation Reactions of Protonated Methyl Benzoate: Concomitant Neutral Eliminations of Benzene, Carbon Dioxide, and Methanol J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-06-07 Hanxue Xia, Yong Zhang, Athula B. Attygalle
Protonated methyl benzoate, upon activation, fragments by three distinct pathways. The m/z 137 ion for the protonated species generated by helium-plasma ionization (HePI) was mass-selected and subjected to collisional activation. In one fragmentation pathway, the protonated molecule generated a product ion of m/z 59 by eliminating a molecule of benzene (Pathway I). The m/z 59 ion (generally recognized as the methoxycarbonyl cation) produced in this way, then formed a methyl carbenium ion in situ by decarboxylation, which in turn evoked an electrophilic aromatic addition reaction on the benzene ring by a termolecular process to generate the toluenium cation (Pathway II). Moreover, protonated methyl benzoate undergoes also a methanol loss (Pathway III). However, it is not a simple removal of a methanol molecule after a protonation on the methoxy group. The incipient proton migrates to the ring and randomizes to a certain degree before a subsequent transfer of one of the ring protons to the alkoxy group for the concomitant methanol elimination. The spectrum recorded from deuteronated methyl benzoate showed two peaks at m/z 105 and 106 for the benzoyl cation at a ratio of 2:1, confirming the charge-imparting proton is mobile. However, the proton transfer from the benzenium intermediate to the methoxy group for the methanol loss occurs before achieving a complete state of scrambling.
Benefit of the Use of GCxGC/MS Profiles for 1D GC/MS Data Treatment Illustrated by the Analysis of Pyrolysis Products from East Asian Handmade Papers J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-06-07 Bin Han, Silvia Lob, Michel Sablier
In this study, we report the use of pyrolysis-GCxGC/MS profiles for an optimized treatment of data issued from pyrolysis-GC/MS combined with the automatic deconvolution software Automated Mass Spectral Deconvolution and Identification System (AMDIS). The method was illustrated by the characterization of marker compounds of East Asian handmade papers through the examination of pyrolysis-GCxGC/MS data to get information which was used for manually identifying low concentrated and co-eluting compounds in 1D GC/MS data. The results showed that the merits of a higher separation power for co-eluting compounds and a better sensitivity for low concentration compounds offered by a GCxGC system can be used effectively for AMDIS 1D GC/MS data treatment: (i) the compound distribution in pyrolysis-GCxGC/MS profiles can be used as “peak finder” for manual check of low concentration and co-eluting compound identification in 1D GC/MS data, and (ii) pyrolysis-GCxGC/MS profiles can provide better quality mass spectra with observed higher match factors in the AMDIS automatic match process. The combination of 2D profile with AMDIS was shown to contribute efficiently to a better characterization of compound profiles in the chromatograms obtained by 1D analysis in focusing on the mass spectral identification.
A Mass Spectrometer in Every Fume Hood J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-06-07 Ethan M. McBride, Guido F. Verbeck
Since their inception, mass spectrometers have played a pivotal role in the direction and application of synthetic chemical research. The ability to develop new instrumentation to solve current analytical challenges in this area has always been at the heart of mass spectrometry, although progress has been slow at times. Herein, we briefly review the history of how mass spectrometry has been used to approach challenges in organic chemistry, how new developments in portable instrumentation and ambient ionization have been used to open novel areas of research, and how current techniques have the ability to expand on our knowledge of synthetic mechanisms and kinetics. Lastly, we discuss the relative paucity of work done in recent years to embrace the concept of improving benchtop synthetic chemistry with mass spectrometry, the disconnect between applications and fundamentals within these studies, and what hurdles still need to be overcome.
DNA Binding and Phosphorylation Regulate the Core Structure of the NF-κB p50 Transcription Factor J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-06-05 Matthias Vonderach, Dominic P. Byrne, Perdita E. Barran, Patrick A. Eyers, Claire E. Eyers
The NF-κB transcription factors are known to be extensively phosphorylated, with dynamic site-specific modification regulating their ability to dimerize and interact with DNA. p50, the proteolytic product of p105 (NF-κB1), forms homodimers that bind DNA but lack intrinsic transactivation function, functioning as repressors of transcription from κB promoters. Here, we examine the roles of specific phosphorylation events catalysed by either protein kinase A (PKAc) or Chk1, in regulating the functions of p50 homodimers. LC-MS/MS analysis of proteolysed p50 following in vitro phosphorylation allows us to define Ser328 and Ser337 as PKAc- and Chk1-mediated modifications, and pinpoint an additional four Chk1 phosphosites: Ser65, Thr152, Ser242 and Ser248. Native mass spectrometry (MS) reveals Chk1- and PKAc-regulated disruption of p50 homodimer formation through Ser337. Additionally, we characterise the Chk1-mediated phosphosite, Ser242, as a regulator of DNA binding, with a S242D p50 phosphomimetic exhibiting a > 10-fold reduction in DNA binding affinity. Conformational dynamics of phosphomimetic p50 variants, including S242D, are further explored using ion-mobility MS (IM-MS). Finally, comparative theoretical modelling with experimentally observed p50 conformers, in the absence and presence of DNA, reveals that the p50 homodimer undergoes conformational contraction during electrospray ionisation that is stabilised by complex formation with κB DNA.
Rapid Classification and Identification of Multiple Microorganisms with Accurate Statistical Significance via High-Resolution Tandem Mass Spectrometry J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-06-05 Gelio Alves, Guanghui Wang, Aleksey Y. Ogurtsov, Steven K. Drake, Marjan Gucek, David B. Sacks, Yi-Kuo Yu
Rapid and accurate identification and classification of microorganisms is of paramount importance to public health and safety. With the advance of mass spectrometry (MS) technology, the speed of identification can be greatly improved. However, the increasing number of microbes sequenced is complicating correct microbial identification even in a simple sample due to the large number of candidates present. To properly untwine candidate microbes in samples containing one or more microbes, one needs to go beyond apparent morphology or simple “fingerprinting”; to correctly prioritize the candidate microbes, one needs to have accurate statistical significance in microbial identification. We meet these challenges by using peptide-centric representations of microbes to better separate them and by augmenting our earlier analysis method that yields accurate statistical significance. Here, we present an updated analysis workflow that uses tandem MS (MS/MS) spectra for microbial identification or classification. We have demonstrated, using 226 MS/MS publicly available data files (each containing from 2500 to nearly 100,000 MS/MS spectra) and 4000 additional MS/MS data files, that the updated workflow can correctly identify multiple microbes at the genus and often the species level for samples containing more than one microbe. We have also shown that the proposed workflow computes accurate statistical significances, i.e., E values for identified peptides and unified E values for identified microbes. Our updated analysis workflow MiCId, a freely available software for Microorganism Classification and Identification, is available for download at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Yu/downloads.html.
Application of Tandem Two-Dimensional Mass Spectrometry for Top-Down Deep Sequencing of Calmodulin J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-06-04 Federico Floris, Lionel Chiron, Alice M. Lynch, Mark P. Barrow, Marc-André Delsuc, Peter B. O’Connor
Two-dimensional mass spectrometry (2DMS) involves simultaneous acquisition of the fragmentation patterns of all the analytes in a mixture by correlating their precursor and fragment ions by modulating precursor ions systematically through a fragmentation zone. Tandem two-dimensional mass spectrometry (MS/2DMS) unites the ultra-high accuracy of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) MS/MS and the simultaneous data-independent fragmentation of 2DMS to achieve extensive inter-residue fragmentation of entire proteins. 2DMS was recently developed for top-down proteomics (TDP), and applied to the analysis of calmodulin (CaM), reporting a cleavage coverage of about ~23% using infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) as fragmentation technique. The goal of this work is to expand the utility of top-down protein analysis using MS/2DMS in order to extend the cleavage coverage in top-down proteomics further into the interior regions of the protein. In this case, using MS/2DMS, the cleavage coverage of CaM increased from ~23% to ~42%.
Investigation of the Ionization Mechanism of NAD + /NADH-Modified Gold Electrodes in ToF-SIMS Analysis J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-06-04 Xin Hua, Li-Jun Zhao, Yi-Tao Long
Analysis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+/NADH)-modified electrodes is important for in vitro monitoring of key biological processes. In this work, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) was used to analyze NAD+/NADH-modified gold electrodes. Interestingly, no obvious characteristic peaks of nicotinamide fragment could be observed in the mass spectra of NAD+/NADH in their neutral sodium pyrophosphate form. However, after acidification, the characteristic peaks for both NAD+ and NADH were detected. This was due to the suppression effect of inner pyrophosphoric salts in both neutral molecules. Besides, it was proved that the suppression by inner salt was intramolecular. No obvious suppression was found between neighboring molecules. These results demonstrated the suppression effect of inner salts in ToF-SIMS analysis, providing useful evidence for the study of ToF-SIMS ionization mechanism of organic molecule-modified electrodes.
Comparing Positively and Negatively Charged Distonic Radical Ions in Phenylperoxyl Forming Reactions J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-06-04 Peggy E. Williams, David L. Marshall, Berwyck L. J. Poad, Venkateswara R. Narreddula, Benjamin B. Kirk, Adam J. Trevitt, Stephen J. Blanksby
In the gas phase, arylperoxyl forming reactions play a significant role in low-temperature combustion and atmospheric processing of volatile organic compounds. We have previously demonstrated the application of charge-tagged phenyl radicals to explore the outcomes of these reactions using ion trap mass spectrometry. Here, we present a side-by-side comparison of rates and product distributions from the reaction of positively and negatively charge tagged phenyl radicals with dioxygen. The negatively charged distonic radical ions are found to react with significantly greater efficiency than their positively charged analogues. The product distributions of the anion reactions favor products of phenylperoxyl radical decomposition (e.g., phenoxyl radicals and cyclopentadienone), while the comparable fixed-charge cations yield the stabilized phenylperoxyl radical. Electronic structure calculations rationalize these differences as arising from the influence of the charged moiety on the energetics of rate-determining transition states and reaction intermediates within the phenylperoxyl reaction manifold and predict that this influence could extend to intra-molecular charge-radical separations of up to 14.5 Å. Experimental observations of reactions of the novel 4-(1-carboxylatoadamantyl)phenyl radical anion confirm that the influence of the charge on both rate and product distribution can be modulated by increasing the rigidly imposed separation between charge and radical sites. These findings provide a generalizable framework for predicting the influence of charged groups on polarizable radicals in gas phase distonic radical ions.
Determining Energies and Cross Sections of Individual Ions Using Higher-Order Harmonics in Fourier Transform Charge Detection Mass Spectrometry (FT-CDMS) J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-06-02 Conner C. Harper, Andrew G. Elliott, Haw-Wei Lin, Evan R. Williams
A general method for in situ measurements of the energy of individual ions trapped and weighed using charge detection mass spectrometry (CDMS) is described. Highly charged (> 300 e), individual polyethylene glycol (PEG) ions are trapped and oscillate within an electrostatic trap, producing a time domain signal. A segmented Fourier transform (FT) of this signal yields the temporal evolution of the fundamental and harmonic frequencies of ion motion throughout the 500-ms trap time. The ratio of the fundamental frequency and second harmonic (HAR) depends on the ion energy, which is an essential parameter for measuring ion mass in CDMS. This relationship is calibrated using simulated ion signals, and the calibration is compared to the HAR values measured for PEG ion signals where the ion energy was also determined using an independent method that requires that the ions be highly charged (> 300 e). The mean error of 0.6% between the two measurements indicates that the HAR method is an accurate means of ion energy determination that does not depend on ion size or charge. The HAR is determined dynamically over the entire trapping period, making it possible to observe the change in ion energy that takes place as solvent evaporates from the ion and collisions with background gas occur. This method makes it possible to measure mass changes, either from solvent evaporation or from molecular fragmentation (MSn), as well as the cross sections of ions measured using CDMS.
Comprehensive Peptide Ion Structure Studies Using Ion Mobility Techniques: Part 3. Relating Solution-Phase to Gas-Phase Structures J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-06-01 Samaneh Ghassabi Kondalaji, Mahdiar Khakinejad, Stephen J. Valentine
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been utilized to study peptide ion conformer establishment during the electrospray process. An explicit water model is used for nanodroplets containing a model peptide and hydronium ions. Simulations are conducted at 300 K for two different peptide ion charge configurations and for droplets containing varying numbers of hydronium ions. For all conditions, modeling has been performed until production of the gas-phase ions and the resultant conformers have been compared to proposed gas-phase structures. The latter species were obtained from previous studies in which in silico candidate structures were filtered according to ion mobility and hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) reactivity matches. Results from the present study present three key findings namely (1) the evidence from ion production modeling supports previous structure refinement studies based on mobility and HDX reactivity matching, (2) the modeling of the electrospray process is significantly improved by utilizing initial droplets existing below but close to the calculated Rayleigh limit, and (3) peptide ions in the nanodroplets sample significantly different conformers than those in the bulk solution due to altered physicochemical properties of the solvent.
Atmospheric Solid Analysis Probe Coupled to Ion Mobility Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry, a Fast and Simple Method for Polyalphaolefin Characterization J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-05-31 Anna Luiza Mendes Siqueira, Mathieu Beaumesnil, Marie Hubert-Roux, Corinne Loutelier-Bourhis, Carlos Afonso, Yang Bai, Marion Courtiade, Amandine Racaud
Polyalphaolefins (PAOs) are polymers produced from linear alpha olefins through catalytic oligomerization processes. The PAOs are known as synthetic high-performance base stock fluids used to improve the efficiency of many other synthetic products. In this study, we report the direct characterization of PAOs using atmospheric solid analysis probe (ASAP) coupled with ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS). We studied different PAOs grades exhibiting low- and high-viscosity index. Specific adjustments of the ASAP source parameters permitted the monitoring of ionization processes as three mechanisms could occur for these compounds: hydride abstraction, nitrogen addition, and/or the formation of [M−2H]+• ions. Several series of fragment ions were obtained, which allowed the identification of the alpha olefin used to synthesize the PAO. The use of the ion mobility separation dimension provides information on isomeric species. In addition, the drift time versus m/z plots permitted rapid comparison between PAO samples and to evidence their complexity. These 2D plots appear as fingerprints of PAO samples. To conclude, the resort to ASAP-IMS-MS provides a rapid characterization of the PAO samples in a direct analysis approach, without any sample preparation.
Characterization of Long-Chain Fatty Acid as N-(4-Aminomethylphenyl) Pyridinium Derivative by MALDI LIFT-TOF/TOF Mass Spectrometry J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-05-31 Cheryl Frankfater, Xuntian Jiang, Fong-Fu Hsu
Charge remote fragmentation (CRF) elimination of CnH2n+2 residues along the aliphatic tail of long chain fatty acid is hall mark of keV high-energy CID fragmentation process. It is an important fragmentation pathway leading to structural characterization of biomolecules by CID tandem mass spectrometry. In this report, we describe MALDI LIFT TOF-TOF mass spectrometric approach to study a wide variety of fatty acids (FAs), which were derivatized to N-(4-aminomethylphenyl) pyridinium (AMPP) derivative, and desorbed as M+ ions by laser with or without matrix. The high-energy MALDI LIFT TOF-TOF mass spectra of FA-AMPP contain fragment ions mainly deriving from CRF cleavages of CnH2n+2 residues, as expected. These ions together with ions from specific cleavages of the bond(s) involving the functional group within the molecule provide more complete structural identification than those produced by low-energy CID/HCD using a linear ion-trap instrument. However, this LIFT TOF-TOF mass spectrometric approach inherits low sensitivity, a typical feature of high-energy CID tandem mass spectrometry. Because of the lack of unit mass precursor ion selection with sufficient sensitivity of the current LIFT TOF-TOF technology, product ion spectra from same chain length fatty acids with difference in one or two double bonds in a mixture are not distinguishable.
Automated On-tip Affinity Capture Coupled with Mass Spectrometry to Characterize Intact Antibody-Drug Conjugates from Blood J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-05-29 Ke Sherry Li, Phillip Y. Chu, Aimee Fourie-O’Donohue, Neha Srikumar, Katherine R. Kozak, Yichin Liu, John C. Tran
Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) present unique challenges for ligand-binding assays primarily due to the dynamic changes of the drug-to-antibody ratio (DAR) distribution in vivo and in vitro. Here, an automated on-tip affinity capture platform with subsequent mass spectrometry analysis was developed to accurately characterize the DAR distribution of ADCs from biological matrices. A variety of elution buffers were tested to offer optimal recovery, with trastuzumab serving as a surrogate to the ADCs. High assay repeatability (CV 3%) was achieved for trastuzumab antibody when captured below the maximal binding capacity of 7.5 μg. Efficient on-tip deglycosylation was also demonstrated in 1 h followed by affinity capture. Moreover, this tip-based platform affords higher throughput for DAR characterization when compared with a well-characterized bead-based method.
Ambient Profiling of Phenolic Content in Tea Infusions by Matrix-Assisted Ionization in Vacuum J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-05-29 Robert B. Cody
Matrix-assisted ionization in vacuum (MAIV) was used to analyze the polyphenol content of ten different tea infusions. Nine different Camellia sinensis infusions were analyzed including three green teas, two black teas, two oolong teas, jasmine tea, and white tea. An infusion of rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) tea was also analyzed. Each freshly brewed tea was diluted 1:1 with methanol, and 100 ppm of phenolphthalein was added as an internal standard. An excess of 3-nitrobenzonitrile (NBN) was added to each vial, and the solution containing NBN crystals was analyzed by aspiration directly into the mass spectrometer sampling orifice. A working curve constructed for dilutions of catechin with phenolphthalein internal standard showed good linearity for five replicates of each concentration. The measured relative abundances of flavonoid polyphenols in each tea were in good agreement with previously reported values. Polyphenol content in tea infusions varied from 19.2 to 108.6 mg 100 mL−1. In addition to the expected catechin flavonoids, abundant quinic acid and gallic acid was detected in the C. sinensis infusions. Characteristic A. linearis flavonoids were detected in the rooibos tea.
Stimulated Motion Suppression (STMS): a New Approach to Break the Resolution Barrier for Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-05-29 Xiaoyu Zhou, Xinwei Liu, Spencer Chiang, Wenbo Cao, Ming Li, Zheng Ouyang
Ion trap is an excellent platform to perform tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), but has an intrinsic drawback in resolving power. Using ion resonant ejection as an example, the resolution degradation can be largely attributed to the broadening of the resonant frequency band (RFB) between ion motion and driving alternative-current (AC). To solve this problem, stimulated motion suppression (STMS) was developed. The key idea of STMS is the use of two suppression alternative-current (SAC) signals, which both have reversed initial phases to the main AC. The SACs can block the unexpected sideband ion resonances (or ejections), therefore playing a key role in sharpening the RFB. The proof-of-concept has been demonstrated through ion trajectory simulations and validated experimentally. STMS provides a new and versatile means for the improvement of the ion trap resolution, which for a long time has reached the bottleneck through conventional methods, e.g., increasing the radio-frequency (RF) voltage and decreasing the mass scan rate. At the end, it is worth noting that the idea of STMS is very general and principally can be applied in any RF device for the purposes of high-resolution mass analysis and ion isolation.
Structural Characterization and Absolute Quantification of Microcystin Peptides Using Collision-Induced and Ultraviolet Photo-Dissociation Tandem Mass Spectrometry J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-05-29 Troy J. Attard, Melissa D. Carter, Mengxuan Fang, Rudolph C. Johnson, Gavin E. Reid
Microcystin (MC) peptides produced by cyanobacteria pose a hepatotoxic threat to human health upon ingestion from contaminated drinking water. While rapid MC identification and quantification in contaminated body fluids or tissue samples is important for patient treatment and outcomes, conventional immunoassay-based measurement strategies typically lack the specificity required for unambiguous determination of specific MC variants, whose toxicity can significantly vary depending on their structures. Furthermore, the unambiguous identification and accurate quantitation of MC variants using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS)-based methods can be limited due to a current lack of appropriate stable isotope-labeled internal standards. To address these limitations, we have systematically examined here the sequence and charge state dependence to the formation and absolute abundance of both “global” and “variant-specific” product ions from representative MC-LR, MC-YR, MC-RR, and MC-LA peptides, using higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD)-MS/MS, ion-trap collision-induced dissociation (CID)-MS/MS and CID-MS3, and 193 nm ultraviolet photodissociation (UPVD)-MS/MS. HCD-MS/MS was found to provide the greatest detection sensitivity for both global and variant-specific product ions in each of the MC variants, except for MC-YR where a variant-specific product uniquely formed via UPVD-MS/MS was observed with the greatest absolute abundance. A simple methodology for the preparation and characterization of 18O-stable isotope-labeled MC reference materials for use as internal standards was also developed. Finally, we have demonstrated the applicability of the methods developed herein for absolute quantification of MC-LR present in human urine samples, using capillary scale liquid chromatography coupled with ultra-high resolution / accurate mass spectrometry and HCD-MS/MS.
Radical Rearrangement Chemistry in Ultraviolet Photodissociation of Iodotyrosine Systems: Insights from Metastable Dissociation, Infrared Ion Spectroscopy, and Reaction Pathway Calculations J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-05-29 Karnamohit Ranka, Ning Zhao, Long Yu, John F. Stanton, Nicolas C. Polfer
We report on the ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) chemistry of protonated tyrosine, iodotyrosine, and diiodotyrosine. Distonic loss of the iodine creates a high-energy radical at the aromatic ring that engages in hydrogen/proton rearrangement chemistry. Based on UVPD kinetics measurements, the appearance of this radical is coincident with the UV irradiation pulse (8 ns). Conversely, sequential UVPD product ions exhibit metastable decay on ca. 100 ns timescales. Infrared ion spectroscopy is capable of confirming putative structures of the rearrangement products as proton transfers from the imine and β-carbon hydrogens. Potential energy surfaces for the various reaction pathways indicate that the rearrangement chemistry is highly complex, compatible with a cascade of rearrangements, and that there is no preferred rearrangement pathway even in small molecular systems like these.
Assessment of Dimeric Metal-Glycan Adducts via Isotopic Labeling and Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-05-25 Kelsey A. Morrison, Brad K. Bendiak, Brian H. Clowers
Adduction of multivalent metal ions to glycans has been shown in recent years to produce altered tandem mass spectra with collision-induced dissociation, electron transfer techniques, and photon-based fragmentation approaches. However, these approaches assume the presence of a well-characterized precursor ion population and do not fully account for the possibility of multimeric species for select glycan-metal complexes. With the use of ion mobility separations prior to mass analysis, doubly charged dimers are not necessarily problematic for tandem MS experiments given that monomer and dimer drift times are sufficiently different. However, multistage mass spectrometric experiments performed on glycans adducted to multivalent metals without mobility separation can yield chimeric fragmentation spectra that are essentially a superposition of the fragments from both the monomeric and dimeric adducts. For homodimeric adducts, where the dimer contains two of the same glycan species, this is less of a concern but if heterodimers can form, there exists the potential for erroneous and misleading fragment ions to appear if a heterodimer containing two different isomers is fragmented along with a targeted monomer. We present an assessment of heterodimer formation between a series of six tetrasaccharides, of which three are isomers, adducted with cobalt(II) and a monodeuterated tetrasaccharide. Using ion mobility separations prior to single-stage and tandem mass analysis, the data shown demonstrate that heterodimeric species can indeed form, and that ion mobility separations are highly necessary prior to using tandem techniques on metal-glycan adducts.
Development and Evaluation of a Reverse-Entry Ion Source Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-05-23 Michael L. Poltash, Jacob W. McCabe, John W. Patrick, Arthur Laganowsky, David H. Russell
As a step towards development of a high-resolution ion mobility mass spectrometer using the orbitrap mass analyzer platform, we describe herein a novel reverse-entry ion source (REIS) coupled to the higher-energy C-trap dissociation (HCD) cell of an orbitrap mass spectrometer with extended mass range. Development of the REIS is a first step in the development of a drift tube ion mobility-orbitrap MS. The REIS approach retains the functionality of the commercial instrument ion source which permits the uninterrupted use of the instrument during development as well as performance comparisons between the two ion sources. Ubiquitin (8.5 kDa) and lipid binding to the ammonia transport channel (AmtB, 126 kDa) protein complex were used as model soluble and membrane proteins, respectively, to evaluate the performance of the REIS instrument. Mass resolution obtained with the REIS is comparable to that obtained using the commercial ion source. The charge state distributions for ubiquitin and AmtB obtained on the REIS are in agreement with previous studies which suggests that the REIS-orbitrap EMR retains native structure in the gas phase.
Absolute Quantitation of Glycoforms of Two Human IgG Subclasses Using Synthetic Fc Peptides and Glycopeptides J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-05-23 Rini Roy, Evelyn Ang, Emy Komatsu, Ronald Domalaon, Adrien Bosseboeuf, Jean Harb, Sylvie Hermouet, Oleg Krokhin, Frank Schweizer, Hélène Perreault
Immunoglobulins, such as immunoglobulin G (IgG), are of prime importance in the immune system. Polyclonal human IgG comprises four subclasses, of which IgG1 and IgG2 are the most abundant in healthy individuals. In an effort to develop an absolute MALDI-ToF-MS quantitative method for these subclasses and their Fc N-glycoforms, (glyco)peptides were synthesized using a solid-phase approach and used as internal standards. Tryptic digest glycopeptides from monoclonal IgG1 and IgG2 samples were first quantified using EEQYN(GlcNAc)STYR and EEQFN(GlcNAc)STFR standards, respectively. For IgG1, a similar glycopeptide where tyrosine (Y) was isotopically labelled was used to quantify monoclonal IgG1 that had been treated with the enzyme Endo-F2, i.e., yielding tryptic glycopeptide EEQYN(GlcNAc)STYR. The next step was to quantify single subclasses within polyclonal human IgG samples. Although ion abundances in the MALDI spectra often showed higher signals for IgG2 than IgG1, depending on the spotting solvent used, determination of amounts using the newly developed quantitative method allowed to obtain accurate concentrations where IgG1 species were predominant. It was observed that simultaneous analysis of IgG1 and IgG2 yielded non-quantitative results and that more success was obtained when subclasses were quantified one by one. More experiments served to assess the respective extraction and ionization efficiencies of EEQYNSTYR/EEQFNSTFR and EEQYN(GlcNAc)STYR/EEQFN(GlcNAc)STFR mixtures under different solvent and concentration conditions.
Structural Studies of Fucosylated N -Glycans by Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry and Collision-Induced Fragmentation of Negative Ions J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-05-22 David J. Harvey, Weston B. Struwe
There is considerable potential for the use of ion mobility mass spectrometry in structural glycobiology due in large part to the gas-phase separation attributes not typically observed by orthogonal methods. Here, we evaluate the capability of traveling wave ion mobility combined with negative ion collision-induced dissociation to provide structural information on N-linked glycans containing multiple fucose residues forming the Lewisx and Lewisy epitopes. These epitopes are involved in processes such as cell-cell recognition and are important as cancer biomarkers. Specific information that could be obtained from the intact N-glycans by negative ion CID included the general topology of the glycan such as the presence or absence of a bisecting GlcNAc residue and the branching pattern of the triantennary glycans. Information on the location of the fucose residues was also readily obtainable from ions specific to each antenna. Some isobaric fragment ions produced prior to ion mobility could subsequently be separated and, in some cases, provided additional valuable structural information that was missing from the CID spectra alone.
An Automated, High-Throughput Method for Interpreting the Tandem Mass Spectra of Glycosaminoglycans J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-05-22 Jiana Duan, I. Jonathan Amster
The biological interactions between glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and other biomolecules are heavily influenced by structural features of the glycan. The structure of GAGs can be assigned using tandem mass spectrometry (MS2), but analysis of these data, to date, requires manually interpretation, a slow process that presents a bottleneck to the broader deployment of this approach to solving biologically relevant problems. Automated interpretation remains a challenge, as GAG biosynthesis is not template-driven, and therefore, one cannot predict structures from genomic data, as is done with proteins. The lack of a structure database, a consequence of the non-template biosynthesis, requires a de novo approach to interpretation of the mass spectral data. We propose a model for rapid, high-throughput GAG analysis by using an approach in which candidate structures are scored for the likelihood that they would produce the features observed in the mass spectrum. To make this approach tractable, a genetic algorithm is used to greatly reduce the search-space of isomeric structures that are considered. The time required for analysis is significantly reduced compared to an approach in which every possible isomer is considered and scored. The model is coded in a software package using the MATLAB environment. This approach was tested on tandem mass spectrometry data for long-chain, moderately sulfated chondroitin sulfate oligomers that were derived from the proteoglycan bikunin. The bikunin data was previously interpreted manually. Our approach examines glycosidic fragments to localize SO3 modifications to specific residues and yields the same structures reported in literature, only much more quickly.
Assignment by Negative-Ion Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry of the Tetrasaccharide Backbones of Monosialylated Glycans Released from Bovine Brain Gangliosides J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-05-11 Wengang Chai, Yibing Zhang, Laura Mauri, Maria G. Ciampa, Barbara Mulloy, Sandro Sonnino, Ten Feizi
Gangliosides, as plasma membrane-associated sialylated glycolipids, are antigenic structures and they serve as ligands for adhesion proteins of pathogens, for toxins of bacteria, and for endogenous proteins of the host. The detectability by carbohydrate-binding proteins of glycan antigens and ligands on glycolipids can be influenced by the differing lipid moieties. To investigate glycan sequences of gangliosides as recognition structures, we have underway a program of work to develop a “gangliome” microarray consisting of isolated natural gangliosides and neoglycolipids (NGLs) derived from glycans released from them, and each linked to the same lipid molecule for arraying and comparative microarray binding analyses. Here, in the first phase of our studies, we describe a strategy for high-sensitivity assignment of the tetrasaccharide backbones and application to identification of eight of monosialylated glycans released from bovine brain gangliosides. This approach is based on negative-ion electrospray mass spectrometry with collision-induced dissociation (ESI-CID-MS/MS) of the desialylated glycans. Using this strategy, we have the data on backbone regions of four minor components among the monosialo-ganglioside-derived glycans; these are of the ganglio-, lacto-, and neolacto-series.
On the Kendrick Mass Defect Plots of Multiply Charged Polymer Ions: Splits, Misalignments, and How to Correct Them J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-05-11 Thierry N. J. Fouquet, Robert B. Cody, Yuka Ozeki, Shinya Kitagawa, Hajime Ohtani, Hiroaki Sato
The Kendrick mass defect (KMD) analysis of multiply charged polymeric distributions has recently revealed a surprising isotopic split in their KMD plots—namely a 1/z difference between KMDs of isotopes of an oligomer at charge state z. Relying on the KMD analysis of actual and simulated distributions of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), the isotopic split is mathematically accounted for and found to go with an isotopic misalignment in certain cases. It is demonstrated that the divisibility (resp. indivisibility) of the nominal mass of the repeating unit (R) by z is the condition for homolog ions to line up horizontally (resp. misaligned obliquely) in a KMD plot. Computing KMDs using a fractional base unit R/z eventually corrects the misalignments for the associated charge state while using the least common multiple of all the charge states as the divisor realigns all the points at once. The isotopic split itself can be removed by using either a new charge-dependent KMD plot compatible with any fractional base unit or the remainders of KM (RKM) recently developed for low-resolution data all found to be linked in a unified theory. These original applications of the fractional base units and the RKM plots are of importance theoretically to satisfy the basics of a mass defect analysis and practically for a correct data handling of single stage and tandem mass spectra of multiply charged homo- and copolymers.
Analytical Scheme Leading to Integrated High-Sensitivity Profiling of Glycosphingolipids Together with N - and O -Glycans from One Sample J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-05-09 John D. Benktander, Solomon T. Gizaw, Stefan Gaunitz, Milos V. Novotny
Glycoconjugates are directly or indirectly involved in many biological processes. Due to their complex structures, the structural elucidation of glycans and the exploration of their role in biological systems have been challenging. Glycan pools generated through release from glycoprotein or glycolipid mixtures can often be very complex. For the sake of procedural simplicity, many glycan profiling studies choose to concentrate on a single class of glycoconjugates. In this paper, we demonstrate it feasible to cover glycosphingolipids, N-glycans, and O-glycans isolated from the same sample. Small volumes of human blood serum and ascites fluid as well as small mouse brain tissue samples are sufficient to profile sequentially glycans from all three classes of glycoconjugates and even positively identify some mixture components through MALDI-MS and LC-ESI-MS. The results show that comprehensive glycan profiles can be obtained from the equivalent of 500-μg protein starting material or possibly less. These methodological improvements can help accelerating future glycomic comprehensive studies, especially for precious clinical samples.
A Simple Analytical Model for Predicting the Detectable Ion Current in Ion Mobility Spectrometry Using Corona Discharge Ionization Sources J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-05-08 Ansgar Thomas Kirk, Tim Kobelt, Hauke Spehlbrink, Stefan Zimmermann
Corona discharge ionization sources are often used in ion mobility spectrometers (IMS) when a non-radioactive ion source with high ion currents is required. Typically, the corona discharge is followed by a reaction region where analyte ions are formed from the reactant ions. In this work, we present a simple yet sufficiently accurate model for predicting the ion current available at the end of this reaction region when operating at reduced pressure as in High Kinetic Energy Ion Mobility Spectrometers (HiKE-IMS) or most IMS-MS instruments. It yields excellent qualitative agreement with measurement results and is even able to calculate the ion current within an error of 15%. Additional interesting findings of this model are the ion current at the end of the reaction region being independent from the ion current generated by the corona discharge and the ion current in High Kinetic Energy Ion Mobility Spectrometers (HiKE-IMS) growing quadratically when scaling down the length of the reaction region.
Fragmentation Pathways of Lithiated Hexose Monosaccharides J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-05-08 Maha T. Abutokaikah, Joseph W. Frye, John Tschampel, Jordan M. Rabus, Benjamin J. Bythell
We characterize the primary fragmentation reactions of three isomeric lithiated D-hexose sugars (glucose, galactose, and mannose) utilizing tandem mass spectrometry, regiospecific labeling, and theory. We provide evidence that these three isomers populate similar fragmentation pathways to produce the abundant cross-ring cleavage peaks (0,2A1 and 0,3A1). These pathways are highly consistent with the prior literature (Hofmeister et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 5964–5970, 1991, Bythell et al. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 28, 688–703, 2017, Rabus et al. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 19, 25643–25652, 2017) and the present labeling data. However, the structure-specific energetics and rate-determining steps of these reactions differ as a function of precursor sugar and anomeric configuration. The lowest energy water loss pathways involve loss of the anomeric oxygen to furnish B1 ions. For glucose and galactose, the lithiated α-anomers generate ketone structures at C2 in a concerted reaction involving a 1,2-migration of the C2-H to the anomeric carbon (C1). In contrast, the β-anomers are predicted to form 1,3-anhydroglucose/galactose B1 ion structures. Initiation of the water loss reactions from each anomeric configuration requires distinct reactive conformers, resulting in different product ion structures. Inversion of the stereochemistry at C2 has marked consequences. Both lithiated mannose forms expel water to form 1,2-anhydromannose B1 ions with the newly formed epoxide group above the ring. Additionally, provided water loss is not instantaneous, the α-anomer can also isomerize to generate a ketone structure at C2 in a concerted reaction involving a 1,2-migration of the C2-H to C1. This product is indistinguishable to that from α-glucose. The energetics and interplay of these pathways are discussed.
Conformational Assessment of Adnectin and Adnectin-Drug Conjugate by Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-05-07 Richard Y.-C. Huang, Steven R. O’Neil, Daša Lipovšek, Guodong Chen
Higher-order structure (HOS) characterization of therapeutic protein-drug conjugates for comprehensive assessment of conjugation-induced protein conformational changes is an important consideration in the biopharmaceutical industry to ensure proper behavior of protein therapeutics. In this study, conformational dynamics of a small therapeutic protein, adnectin 1, together with its drug conjugate were characterized by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) with different spatial resolutions. Top-down HDX allows detailed assessment of the residue-level deuterium content in the payload conjugation region. HDX-MS dataset revealed the ability of peptide-based payload/linker to retain deuterium in HDX experiments. Combined results from intact, top-down, and bottom-up HDX indicated no significant conformational changes of adnectin 1 upon payload conjugation.
On the Effect of Sphere-Overlap on Super Coarse-Grained Models of Protein Assemblies J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (IF 2.869) Pub Date : 2018-05-07 Matteo T. Degiacomi
Ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM/MS) can provide structural information on intact protein complexes. Such data, including connectivity and collision cross sections (CCS) of assemblies’ subunits, can in turn be used as a guide to produce representative super coarse-grained models. These models are constituted by ensembles of overlapping spheres, each representing a protein subunit. A model is considered plausible if the CCS and sphere-overlap levels of its subunits fall within predetermined confidence intervals. While the first is determined by experimental error, the latter is based on a statistical analysis on a range of protein dimers. Here, we first propose a new expression to describe the overlap between two spheres. Then we analyze the effect of specific overlap cutoff choices on the precision and accuracy of super coarse-grained models. Finally, we propose a method to determine overlap cutoff levels on a per-case scenario, based on collected CCS data, and show that it can be applied to the characterization of the assembly topology of symmetrical homo-multimers.
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