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  • Elemental profile and oxygen isotope ratio (δ18O) for verifying the geographical origin of Chinese wines
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2018-01-18
    Shuangxi Fan, Qiding Zhong, Hongbo Gao, Daobing Wang, Guohui Li, Zhanbin Huang
    更新日期:2018-01-18
  • Improvement of nutritional components and in vitro antioxidative properties of soy-powder yogurts using Lactobacillus plantarum
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2018-01-17
    Jin Hwan Lee, Chung Eun Hwang, Eun Ju Cho, Yeong Hun Song, Su Cheol Kim, Kye Man Cho
    更新日期:2018-01-17
  • Application of thermal stability difference to remove flammutoxin in fungal immunomodulatory protein FIP-fve extract from Flammulina velutipes
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2018-01-17
    Ching-Hsin Tung, Chih-Chieh Lin, Huei-Ju Wang, Sung-Fang Chen, Fuu Sheu, Ting-Jang Lu
    更新日期:2018-01-17
  • 更新日期:2018-01-17
  • Concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances in foods and the dietary exposure among Taiwan general population and pregnant women
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2018-01-17
    Wen-Ling Chen, Fang-Yu Bai, Ying-Chia Chang, Pau-Chung Chen, Chia-Yang Chen
    更新日期:2018-01-17
  • A feasible and practical 1H NMR analytical method for the quality control and quantification of bioactive principles in Lycii Fructus
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2018-01-17
    Li-Ying Hsieh, Hsiu-Hui Chan, Ping-Chung Kuo, Hsin-Yi Hung, Yue-Chiun Li, Chao-Lin Kuo, Yong Peng, Zhong-Zhen Zhao, Daih-Huang Kuo, I. -Wen Sun, Tian-Shung Wu
    更新日期:2018-01-17
  • Effect of Phyllanthus emblica L. fruit on methionine and choline-deficiency diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2018-01-17
    Yu-Tang Tung, Cheng-Ze Huang, Jia-Hong Lin, Gow-Chin Yen
    更新日期:2018-01-17
  • 更新日期:2018-01-17
  • Combination of on-line desalting and HPLC-UV-ESI-MS for simultaneous detection and identification of FIP-fve and flammutoxin in Flammulina velutipes
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2018-01-17
    Ching-Hsin Tung, Chih-Chieh Lin, Ching-Chuan Tung, Sung-Fang Chen, Fuu Sheu, Ting-Jang Lu
    更新日期:2018-01-17
  • Enantioseparation of phenothiazines through capillary electrophoresis with solid phase extraction and polymer based stacking
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Wei-Bin Tseng, Ming-Mu Hsieh, Tai-Chia Chiu, Po-Lin Yu, Szu-Hua Chen
    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • 更新日期:2017-12-20
  • 更新日期:2017-12-19
  • Comprehensive two-dimensional APTES-decorated MCF7-cell membrane chromatographic system for characterizing potential anti-breast-cancer components from Yuanhu–Baizhi herbal medicine pair
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-12-19
    Xiao-Yu Wang, Xuan Ding, Yong-Fang Yuan, Le-Yi Zheng, Yan Cao, Zhen-Yu Zhu, Guo-Qing Zhang, Yi-Feng Chai, Xiao-Fei Chen, Zhan-Ying Hong
    更新日期:2017-12-19
  • 4-O-Caffeoylquinic acid as an antioxidant marker for mulberry leaves rich in phenolic compounds
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-12-19
    Jerome G. Ganzon, Lih-Geeng Chen, Ching-Chiung Wang
    更新日期:2017-12-19
  • PXR as a mediator of herb–drug interaction
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-12-19
    Brett C. Hogle, Xiudong Guan, M. Maggie Folan, Wen Xie
    更新日期:2017-12-19
  • Association of antioxidant nutraceuticals and acetaminophen (paracetamol): Friend or foe?
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-12-16
    Mohamed Abdel-Daim, Abdelrahman Ibrahim Abushouk, Raffaella Reggi, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Maura Palmery, Ilaria Peluso
    更新日期:2017-12-16
  • Transporter-mediated interaction of indican and methotrexate in rats
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-12-14
    Shiuan-Pey Lin, Chung-Ping Yu, Yu-Chi Hou, Ching-Ya Huang, Lu-Ching Ho, Shu-Ling Chan
    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Activation of P-glycoprotein and CYP 3A by Coptidis Rhizoma in vivo: Using cyclosporine as a probe substrate in rats
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-12-14
    Chung-Ping Yu, Ching-Ya Huang, Shiuan-Pey Lin, Yu-Chi Hou
    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Oxidative stress evoked damages leading to attenuated memory and inhibition of NMDAR–CaMKII–ERK/CREB signalling on consumption of aspartame in rat model
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-12-06
    Ashok Iyaswamy, Ananth Kumar Kammella, Citarasu Thavasimuthu, Wankhar Wankupar, Wankhar Dapkupar, Sambantham Shanmugam, Ravindran Rajan, Sheeladevi Rathinasamy
    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Nanoparticle based bio-bar code technology for trace analysis of aflatoxin B1 in Chinese herbs
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-12-06
    Yu-yan Yu, Yuan-yuan Chen, Xuan Gao, Yuan-yuan Liu, Hong-yan Zhang, Tong-Ying Wang
    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Mulberry Leaf Extracts prevent obesity-induced NAFLD with regulating adipocytokines, inflammation and oxidative stress
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-12-02
    Chiung-Huei Peng, Huei-Ting Lin, Dai-Jung Chung, Chien-Ning Huang, Chau-Jong Wang
    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Regulatory analysis on the medical use of ephedrine-related products in Taiwan
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-12-02
    Wan-Nan Yu, Li-Hsuan Wang, Hui-Wen Cheng
    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Immunochemical assay with monoclonal antibodies for detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin H
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-12-02
    Natalia Vasilyevna Rudenko, Anna Petrovna Karatovskaya, Anatolyi Nikolaevich Noskov, Anna Olegovna Shepelyakovskaya, Margarita Pavlovna Shchannikova, Irina Vladimirovna Loskutova, Olga Anatolievna Artyemieva, Daria Alexandrovna Nikanova, Elena Alexandrovna Gladyr, Fedor Alexandrovich Brovko
    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • General survey of Fructus Psoraleae from the different origins and chemical identification of the roasted from raw Fructus Psoraleae
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-12-01
    Junjun Yang, Jing Yang, Jie Du, Yuxin Feng, Xin Chai, Mingming Xiao, Yuefei Wang, Xiumei Gao
    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Studies on prevention of obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer by tea
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-12-01
    Chung Shu Yang, Hong Wang, Zachary Paul Sheridan
    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Effects of vinegar–egg on growth inhibition, differentiation human leukemic U937 cells and its immunomodulatory activity
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-11-14
    Shiu-Yu Wang, Chi-Yue Chang, Chih-Wei Chen

    Vinegar and eggs have rich nutrients. In this study, the mixed form of both derived products, vinegar–egg solution and its products (vinegar–egg concentrate and vinegar–egg condensate) were chosen for an assessment of their biological activity. To further our understanding regarding the anticancer and immunomodulatory effects of vinegar–egg, we investigated its effects on the proliferation and differentiation of U937 cells. Vinegar–egg was treated using spray drying, freeze drying and vacuum concentration and used to stimulate human mononuclear cells. The conditioned media obtained from these cultures by filtration were used to treat U937 cells. Three conditioned media inhibited U937 cell growth by 22.1–67.25% more effectively than PHA-treated control (22.53%). CD11b and CD14 expression on the treated U937 cells were 29.1–45.4% and 31.6–47.2%, respectively. High levels of cytokines IL-1β, IFN-γ and TNF-α were detected in the three conditioned media. Vinegar–egg stimulates human mononuclear cells to secrete cytokines, which inhibit the growth of U937 cells and induce their differentiation.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Determination of ractopamine and salbutamol in pig hair by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-11-12
    Kai-Chun Chang, Yu-Ting Chang, Chin-En Tsai

    A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for the determination of two β-agonists (ractopamine and salbutamol) in pig hair samples. An isotope of ractopamine-d5 or salbutamol-d6 as an internal standard was used to carry out quantitative analysis. Concentrated sodium hydroxide was used to pretreat hair samples and then purified by the solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure. The extracted solution was evaporated and reconstituted for injection in the instrument with electrospray ionization (ESI) operating in a positive multiple-reaction-monitoring (MRM) mode. Ractopamine and salbutamol separation were performed on C18 analytical column under gradient condition. The internal standard calibration curve was linear in the range of concentration from 0.5 to 100 ng mL−1 (R2 > 0.995). Recoveries of this method estimated at three spiked concentrations of 100, 250 and 500 ng mL−1 in pig hair samples, were 79–82% for ractopamine and 77–96% for salbutamol. The corresponding inter-day and intra-day precisions expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD %) were 3.8–6.4% and 3.8–8.6%, respectively. The analytical time for one sample was 8 min. The detection limit of this method was 0.6 and 8.3 ng mL−1 for ractopamine and salbutamol, respectively. This developed method can be applied for monitoring the use of the β-agonists salbutamol and ractopamine in swine feed incurred pig hair.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Development and validation of an LC–MS/MS method for quantification of NC-8 in rat plasma and its application to pharmacokinetic studies
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-11-11
    Baxter Hepburn Kachingwe, Yow-Shieng Uang, Tsurng-Juhn Huang, Li-Hsuan Wang, Shwu-Jiuan Lin

    ent-16-Oxobeyeran-19-N-methylureido (NC-8) is a recently synthesized derivative of isosteviol that showed anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) activity by disturbing replication and gene expression of the HBV and by inhibiting the host toll-like receptor 2/nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway. To study its pharmacokinetics as a part of the drug development process, a highly sensitive, rapid, and reliable liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) method was developed and validated for determining NC-8 in rat plasma. After protein precipitation extraction, the chromatographic separation of the analyte and internal standard (IS; diclofenac sodium) was performed on a reverse-phase Luna C18 column coupled with a Quattro Ultima triple quadruple mass spectrometer in the multiple-reaction monitoring mode using the transitions, m/z 347.31 → 75.09 for NC-8 and m/z 295.89 → 214.06 for the IS. The lower limit of quantitation was 0.5 ng/mL. The linear scope of the standard curve was between 0.5 and 500 ng/mL. Both the precision (coefficient of variation; %) and accuracy (relative error; %) were within acceptable criteria of <15%. Recoveries ranged from 104% to 113.4%, and the matrix effects (absolute) were non-significant (CV ≤ 6%). The validated method was successfully applied to investigate the pharmacokinetics of NC-8 in male Sprague–Dawley rats. The present methodology provides an analytical means to better understand the preliminary pharmacokinetics of NC-8 for investigations on further drug development.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Rapid screening of toxic glycoalkaloids and micronutrients in edible nightshades (Solanum spp.)
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-11-11
    Bo Yuan, David Byrnes, Daniel Giurleo, Thomas Villani, James E. Simon, Qingli Wu

    African indigenous vegetables (AIVs) because of their nutrient density have the unique potential to reduce micronutrient deficiencies in sub-Saharan Africa, yet some may also contain anti-nutritive compounds. Vegetable nightshades from Solanum americanum, Solanum nigrum, Solanum scabrum and Solanum villosum are among the major AIVs used as a leafy vegetables and consumed regularly in many countries in sub-Sahara Africa. These under-recognized food crops have not been subjected to extensive studies for their nutritional and antinutritive factors. In this study, 15 entries of the vegetable nightshades were field-grown and the leaves which are the consumed product of commerce chemically profiled by LC/ESI-MS. Twenty-three flavones, eight saponins, and two glycoalkaloids along with a phenolic acid of chlorogenic acid were identified by MS and UV data. Anti-nutrient glycoalkaloids were quantified as total aglycones after acidic hydrolysis using MS detection and found to be within safe-consumption thresholds by comparison with the glycoalkaloid level in the globally consumed Solanum member eggplants. Edible nightshades were also found to be sources of β-carotene, vitamin E and total polyphenols and exhibited high antioxidant activity. Results of this study support that consumption of vegetable nightshades are safe from the presence of glycoalkaloids and thus, can contribute to the reduction of micronutrient deficiency in sub-Sahara Africa.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Stem cell therapy on skin: Mechanisms, recent advances and drug reviewing issues
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-11-11
    Gong-Yau Chu, Yu-Fu Chen, Hsiao-Yun Chen, Ming-Hsiao Chan, Churn-Shiouh Gau, Shih-Ming Weng

    Stem cell products and its clinical applications have been widely discussed in recent years, particularly when the Japanese “induced pluripotent stem cells” founder Dr. Yamanaka was awarded as Nobel Prize laureate in 2013. For decades, major progresses have been achieved in the stem cell biology field, and more and more evidence showed that skin stem cells are involved in the process of skin repair. Stem/progenitor cells of the epidermis are recognized to play the most essential role in the tissue regeneration of skin. In this review, we first illustrated basic stem cell characteristics and various stem cell subtypes resided in the skin. Second, we provided several literatures to elucidate how stem/progenitor cells collaborate in the process of skin repair with the evidence from animal model studies and in vitro experiments. Third, we also introduced several examples of skin cell products on the pharmaceutic market and the ongoing clinical trials aiming for unmet medical difficulties of skin. Last but not least, we summarized general reviewing concerns and some disputatious issues on dermatological cell products. With this concise review, we hope to provide further beneficial suggestions for the development of more effective and safer dermatological stem/progenitor cell products in the future.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Standards and labeling of milk fat and spread products in different countries
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-11-11
    Chia-Lin Lee, Huei-Lin Liao, Wan-Chen Lee, Chao-Kai Hsu, Fwu-Chyn Hsueh, Jyh-Quan Pan, Chih-Hsuan Chu, Chieh-Ting Wei, Ming-Ju Chen

    In the present paper, we provide comprehensive information related to labeling claims and standards of identity of milk fat and spread products. By reviewing the standards and regulations for dairy and non-dairy fat products, Codex Alimentarius and several other countries have clearly specified these products and set the requirements for use of the product name to prevent misleading or confusing the consumers. Generally, for the milkfat products, the fat in the products should be exclusively from milk and/or the products obtained from milk. The milkfat contents of these products should be no less than 10%. Whereas, the blends or blended spreads are mixture of butter and vegetable oils with more than 3% of milkfat of the total fat content. The fat spreads are defined that any milkfat content must be no more than 3% of the total fat content. Although the specification of each fat product might be different, most countries still adopt the labeling system of Codex Alimentarius, including the use of the food names and the “reduced fat” claims. Each of the ingredients used in the food also need to be declared on the label.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • In vitro and in vivo assessment of delivery of hydrophobic molecules and plasmid DNAs with PEO–PPO–PEO polymeric micelles on cornea
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Feichin Hsiao, Po-Yang Huang, Takao Aoyagi, Shwu-Fen Chang, Jiahorng Liaw

    The stability and bio-distribution of genes or drug complexes with poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO–PPO–PEO, Pluronic F-68) polymeric micelles (PM) are essential for an effective nanosized PM delivery system. We used Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) pairs with PM and measured the FRET ratio to assess the stability of PM in vitro and in vivo on the cornea. The FRET ratio reached a plateau at 0.8 with 3% PM. Differential scanning calorimetry measurement confirmed the complex formation of FRET pairs with PM. Confocal imaging with the fluorophores fluorescein isothiocyanate isomer I (FITC) and rhodamine B base (RhB) also showed the occurrence of FRET pairs in vitro. The fluorophores were mixed with 3% PM solution or the FITC-labeled PEO–PPO–PEO polymers (FITC-P) were mixed with RhB-labeled plasmids (RhB–DNA). In addition, the in vitro corneal permeation of FRET pair complexes with PM reached a 0.8 FRET ratio. One hour after eye drop administration, FRET pairs colocalized in the cytoplasm, and surrounded and entered the nuclei of cells in the cornea, and the polymers were located in the corneal epithelial layers, as detected through anti-PEG immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, fluorescence colocalization in the cytoplasm and cell nucleus of the corneal epithelium was confirmed in tissues where RhB or RhB–DNA complexed with FITC-P was found to accumulate. We demonstrate that at a concentration of 3%, PM can encapsulate FRET pairs or RhB–DNA and retain their integrity within the cornea 1 h after administration, suggesting the feasibility and stability of PEO–PPO–PEO polymers as a vehicle for drug delivery.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • A new strategy for choosing “Q-markers” via network pharmacology, application to the quality control of a Chinese medical preparation
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Wei Xiang, Tong-Chuan Suo, Hua Yu, An-Ping Li, Shou-Qing Zhang, Chun-Hua Wang, Yan Zhu, Zheng Li

    Due to its chemical complexity, proper quality control for a Chinese medical preparation (CMP) has been a great challenge. Choosing the appropriate quality markers (Q-markers) for quality control of CMP is an important work. Best of all, the chosen Q-markers are the main chemical compounds from the herbals as well as the active constituents of this CMP. Only in this way the established quality control system can really achieve the purpose of controlling the quality of CMP and ensuring the safely and effectively use of CMP. To achieve the purpose, network pharmacology combined with the contents of chemical compounds in the CMP has been used in this research. We took an anti-arrhythmic CMP, Shenxian-Shengmai oral liquid (SSOL), as an example. Firstly, UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS method was used to analyze the main components of SSOL. A total of 64 compounds were unambiguously or tentatively identified and 32 of them were further validated by reference compounds. Secondly, the network was constructed based on the identified compounds to predict the effective compounds related to cardiac arrhythmias. Based on the existing database and the operation method of topology, a method of double network analysis (DNAA) was proposed, from which 10 important targets in the pathway of arrhythmia were screened out, and 26 compounds had good antiarrhythmic activity. Based on the prediction results of network pharmacology along with the contents of the compounds in this CMP, ten representative compounds were chosen as the Q-markers for the quality control of SSOL. We find that five of these ten compounds, including danshensu, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid A, epimedin A and icariin, have antiarrhythmic activity. Then, the UPLC-DAD method was established as the control method for SSOL.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • The integration of multi-platform MS-based metabolomics and multivariate analysis for the geographical origin discrimination of Oryza sativa L.
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Dong Kyu Lim, Changyeun Mo, Jeong Hee Lee, Nguyen Phuoc Long, Ziyuan Dong, Jing Li, Jongguk Lim, Sung Won Kwon

    For the authentication of white rice from different geographical origins, the selection of outstanding discrimination markers is essential. In this study, 80 commercial white rice samples were collected from local markets of Korea and China and discriminated by mass spectrometry-based untargeted metabolomics approaches. Additionally, the potential markers that belong to sugars & sugar alcohols, fatty acids, and phospholipids were examined using several multivariate analyses to measure their discrimination efficiencies. Unsupervised analyses, including principal component analysis and k-means clustering demonstrated the potential of the geographical classification of white rice between Korea and China by fatty acids and phospholipids. In addition, the accuracy, goodness-of-fit (R2), goodness-of-prediction (Q2), and permutation test p-value derived from phospholipid-based partial least squares-discriminant analysis were 1.000, 0.902, 0.870, and 0.001, respectively. Random Forests further consolidated the discrimination ability of phospholipids. Furthermore, an independent validation set containing 20 white rice samples also confirmed that phospholipids were the excellent discrimination markers for white rice between two countries. In conclusion, the proposed approach successfully highlighted phospholipids as the better discrimination markers than sugars & sugar alcohols and fatty acids in differentiating white rice between Korea and China.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Ultra-sensitive electrochemical sensing of acetaminophen and codeine in biological fluids using CuO/CuFe2O4 nanoparticles as a novel electrocatalyst
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Foroozan Hasanpour, Masoumeh Taei, Somayeh Tahmasebi

    Copper ferrite−copper oxide (CuO-CuFe2O4) nanoparticles as a semiconductor composite with p–n junction were synthesized by co-precipitation reaction. Then, a novel CuO-CuFe2O4 carbon paste modified electrode was fabricated which displays an effectual electrocatalytic response to the oxidation of acetaminophen (AC) and codeine (CO). A linear range of 0.01–1.5 μmol L−1 and 0.06–10.0 μmol L−1 with the detection limits of 0.007 μmol L−1 and 0.01 μmol L−1 were achieved for AC and CO, respectively. The practical usage of the proposed sensor revealed reasonable results for quantification of AC and CO in biological fluids.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Antibacterial activity of propolins from Taiwanese green propolis
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Yue-Wen Chen, Siou-Ru Ye, Chieh Ting, Yu-Hsiang Yu

    Taiwanese green propolis is a prenylated flavonoid rich honeybee product and propolins isolated from Taiwanese green propolis exert a broad spectrum of biological activities, such as anti-cancer and anti-oxidant. However, the anti-bacterial effects of Taiwanese green propolis or propolins are still poorly understood. In the current study, the antibacterial effects of Taiwanese green propolis and propolins were evaluated. Results show that the maximum dry matter yields of Taiwanese green propolis were observed in the 95% and 99.5% ethanol extracts compared to other extraction methods. Consistently, the highest concentration of propolins C, D, F and G from Taiwanese green propolis was obtained in 95% and 99.5% ethanol extracts. Propolins inhibited the growth of gram-positive bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes and Paenibacillus larvae). The average minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of propolins from ethanol extracts were 20 μg/ml. Among the propolins, propolin C had the highest antibacterial activity. Furthermore, Taiwanese green propolis also showed antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). In conclusion, these results demonstrate that Taiwanese green propolis and propolins have significant antibacterial activity, particularly against gram-positive bacterial strains.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Pt-MWCNT modified carbon electrode strip for rapid and quantitative detection of H2O2 in food
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-09-23
    Tai-Cheng Chou, Kai-Yu Wu, Fu-Xiang Hsu, Cheng-Kang Lee

    A single-use screen-printed carbon electrode strip was designed and fabricated. Nanohybrids, prepared by deposition of platinum (Pt) nanoparticles on multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT), was modified on the surface of screen-printed carbon electrode for the development of a fast, sensitive and cost-effective hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection amperometric sensor strip. With Pt-MWCNT nanohybrids surface modification, current generated in response to H2O2 by the screen-printed carbon electrode strip was enhanced 100 fold with an applied potential of 300 mV. Quality of as-prepared electrode strip was assured by the low coefficient of variation (CV) (<5%) of currents measured at 5 s. Three linear detection ranges with sensitivity of 75.2, 120.7, and 142.8 μA mM−1 cm−2 were observed for H2O2 concentration in the range of 1–15 mM, 0.1–1 mM, and 10–100 μM, respectively. The lowest H2O2 concentration could be measured by the as-prepared strip was 10 μM. H2O2 levels in green tea infusion and pressed Tofu could be rapidly detected with results comparable to that measured by ferrous oxidation xylenol orange (FOX) assay and peroxidase colorimetric method.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Determination of total mercury in seafood by ion-selective electrodes based on a thiol functionalized ionic liquid
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-09-22
    Juan Miao, Xin Wang, Yunchang Fan, Jing Li, Lina Zhang, Guitao Hu, Can He, Can Jin

    A mercury(II) ion-selective electrode with an ionic liquid (IL), 1-methyl-2-butylthioimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulphonyl)imide ([C1C4Sim]NTf2) as active material was constructed. Parameters affecting the performance of the electrodes such as the dosages of the IL and carbon nanotubes and the aqueous pH values were investigated. Experimental results indicated that the optimal composition of the electrode filling material was 47.6% [C1C4Sim]NTf2, 47.6% tetrabutylphosphonium bis(trifluoromethanesulphonyl)imide (TBPNTf2) and 4.8% carboxylic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-COOH). Under the selected conditions, the proposed electrodes showed a good linear response in the concentration range of 10−10–10−5 mol L−1 and had a detection limit of 4.1 × 10−11 mol L−1. No great interference from common metal ions was found. The proposed electrodes were applied to determine Hg2+ in seafood samples; the results were comparable to those of the direct mercury analyzer.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, tissue distribution and excretion of tangeretin in rat
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-09-22
    Wei-Lun Hung, Wei-Shan Chang, Wen-Chien Lu, Guor-Jien Wei, Yu Wang, Chi-Tang Ho, Lucy Sun Hwang

    Tangeretin, 4′,5,6,7,8-pentamethoxyflavone, is one of the major polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) existing in citrus fruits, particularly in the peels of sweet oranges and mandarins. Tangeretin has been reported to possess several beneficial bioactivities including anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and neuroprotective effects. To achieve a thorough understanding of the biological actions of tangeretin in vivo, our current study is designed to investigate the pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, distribution and excretion of tangeretin in rats. After oral administration of 50 mg/kg bw tangeretin to rats, the Cmax, Tmax and t1/2 were 0.87 ± 0.33 μg/mL, 340.00 ± 48.99 min and 342.43 ± 71.27 min, respectively. Based on the area under the curves (AUC) of oral and intravenous administration of tangeretin, calculated absolute oral bioavailability was 27.11%. During tissue distribution, maximum concentrations of tangeretin in the vital organs occurred at 4 or 8 h after oral administration. The highest accumulation of tangeretin was found in the kidney, lung and liver, followed by spleen and heart. In the gastrointestinal tract, maximum concentrations of tangeretin in the stomach and small intestine were found at 4 h, while in the cecum, colon and rectum, tangeretin reached the maximum concentrations at 12 h. Tangeretin excreted in the urine and feces was recovered within 48 h after oral administration, concentrations were only 0.0026% and 7.54%, respectively. These results suggest that tangeretin was mainly eliminated as metabolites. In conclusion, our study provides useful information regarding absorption, distribution, as well as excretion of tangeretin, which will provide a good base for studying the mechanism of its biological effects.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • A validated capillary electrophoretic method for the determination of indacaterol and its application to a pharmaceutical preparation
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-09-22
    Tufan Güray, Muzaffer Tunçel, Ulku Dilek Uysal

    Indacaterol is a new inhaled ultra-long acting β 2 -agonist. It has been recently approved in the European Union for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This paper reports, for the first time, a method for the determination and validation of Indacaterol (IND) using an internal standard in capsules. Capillary electrophoretic separation was performed on an uncoated fused-silica capillary (50 cm effective length, 75 μm i.d.) and background electrolyte composed of 20 mmol L−1 of sodium tetraborate buffer, 15% (v/v) methanol (pH = 10.0) with the application of 20 kV of potential; 10 s at 5 × 103 N m−2 (50 mbar) of injection time; and wavelength of 200 nm and 25 °C of temperature. The linearity was evaluated in the range of 4.90 × 10−6 mol L−1 (2.50 μg mL−1) and 3.94 × 10−5 mol L−1 (20.00 μg mL−1), with R = 0.9993 for inter-day. LOD and LOQ values were 2.18 × 10−8 mol L−1 (0.011 μg mL−1) and 7.25 × 10−8 mol L−1 (0.037 μg mL−1) for inter-day, respectively. The precision values were 0.50–1.06% for intra-day and 2.12% for inter-day as RSD%. The accuracy was tested by the standard addition method with the recovery values being between 98.79 and 99.09 as percentages with RSD% interval of 0.01–0.80. The developed method was validated according to ICH guidelines. Indacaterol was successfully determined in Arcapta® capsule dosage form by the validated CE method with a relative error of 0.28%. The result was within the requirements of the USP 34-NF29. Therefore, the validated method may be used for the determination of Indacaterol in its capsules in quality control laboratories.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Sialoglycoprotein isolated from eggs of Carassius auratus promotes fracture healing in osteoporotic mice
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-09-22
    Fei Wang, Lihua Han, Xiaohong Wang, Yuanyuan Li, Yujie Zhu, Jingfeng Wang, Changhu Xue

    In this study, open tibial fracture surgery was performed on mice with ovariectomy induced osteoporosis to investigate the effect of a treatment with sialoglycoprotein isolated from Carassius auratus eggs (Ca-SGP) on fracture healing. Dynamic histological analysis showed that Ca-SGP promoted the generation of cartilage callus on day 5 post-surgery, then facilitated the transformation of the cartilage callus to bony callus on days 11 and 24 post-surgery, and enhanced the remodeling of bony callus on 35 day post-surgery. Moreover, Ca-SGP significantly decreased the secretion of TNF-α and IL-1β in serum on day 5 post-surgery, thus inhibiting the negative spread of the inflammatory reaction. On day 11 post-surgery, Ca-SGP clearly decreased the serum level and the mRNA expression of Aggrecan but also increased the secretion and the expression of VEGF and MMP13, thus promoting the degradation of the cartilage matrix and vascular invasion. On day 24 post-surgery, Ca-SGP remarkably increased the mRNA expression of osteogenesis markers Col1a and OCN, and increased callus BV/TV and Tb.N, this facilitating the formation of woven bone. On day 35 post-surgery, Ca-SGP enhanced the transformation of woven bone into lamellar bone and improved the callus biomechanical property. In conclusion, Ca-SGP promoted fracture healing in osteoporotic mice by accelerating endochondral ossification.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Modified QuEChERS method for 24 plant growth regulators in grapes using LC-MS/MS
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-09-22
    Chieh-Han Pu, Shao-Kai Lin, Wei-Chen Chuang, Tsyr-Horng Shyu

    A multiresidue analytical method was developed for grapes for the following 24 plant growth regulators: 1-naphthylacetamide, 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, 2,4,5-T, 2-naphthoxyacetic acid, 3-indolylacetic acid, 4-(3-indolyl)-butyric acid, 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, 4-nitrophenol, 6-benzylaminopurine, N6-isopentenyladenine, butralin, chlormequat chloride, chlorphonim-Cl, cloprop, forchlorfenuron, gibberellic acid 3, gibberellic acid 4, gibberellic acid 7, inabenfide, mepiquat chloride, paclobutrazol, prohydrojasmon, thidiazuron and uniconizole-P. The compounds were extracted from grape samples using an extraction method modified from the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method. Liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry was used for the detection and quantification of the compounds. Validation of the method was performed by using recovery studies at both intra-day and inter-day intervals, as well as by evaluation of the matrix effect, limit of quantification, trueness and precision. We used matrix-matched calibrations for the quantification of the compounds, which all resulted in determination coefficients (r2) higher than 0.995. The limit of quantification ranged from 0.1 to 5 ng/mL. Recovery studies using three spiking concentrations at varying levels showed recoveries of 70.2–112.6% and 67.5–101.8% at intra-day and inter-day intervals, respectively. Relative standard deviations were below 20% for the recovery studies. The extraction method were further validated by performing recovery study and matrix effect test in six different grape varieties from Taiwan and the United States and all resulted in comparable results. Application of the established method to 50 grape samples, resulted in the detection of chlormequat chloride and forchlorfenuron residues in the tested grapes. The results of the method validation and real sample analysis shows the extraction method is therefore suitable for routine monitoring of residue in grapes.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Exploration of Wedelia chinensis leaf-assisted silver nanoparticles for antioxidant, antibacterial and in vitro cytotoxic applications
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-08-30
    Merina Paul Das, Jeyanthi Rebecca Livingstone, Pandiyarasan Veluswamy, Jayabrata Das

    Green synthetic route of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has already been proved to be an advantageous over other physico-chemical approaches due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness, ecofriendly and nontoxicity. In this finding, aqueous Wedelia chinensis leaf extract (WLE) mediated synthesis of AgNPs was approached. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at 408 nm preliminary indicated the formation of AgNPs, while TEM and XRD characterization confirmed the formation of spherically shaped and crystalline AgNPs with an average size of 31.68 nm, respectively. The plausible biomolecules in the aqueous leaf extract responsible for the reduction and stabilization of AgNPs were identified by FTIR analysis and found to be polyphenolic groups in flavonoid. Further, synthesized AgNPs was explored for different biological applications. Biosynthesized AgNPs showed significant free radical scavenging activity as compared to Wedelia leaf extract and antibacterial activity against clinically isolated test pathogens where Gram-negative bacteria were found more susceptible to AgNPs than Gram-positive one. In addition, in vitro cytotoxic response was also evaluated on hepatocellular carcinoma Hep G2 cell lines and showed a dose-dependent cytotoxic response with an IC50 value of 25 μg/mL.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Use of a Bayesian approach in the design and evaluation of NCE2s
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-08-30
    Chao-Yi Wang, Lien-Cheng Chang, Min-Shung Lin, Chin-Fu Hsiao, Jin-ding Huang

    Taiwan's regulatory agency defines New Chemical Entity 2 (NCE2) as a compound drug that has been approved and marketed for ten years in a top-ten pharmaceutically-advanced country but which is new in Taiwan. To apply for registration of NCE2 in Taiwan, a clinical trial may be conducted in Taiwan to evaluate the efficacy and safety. Since the NCE2 has been approved in at least one of the top-ten pharmaceutically-advanced countries, we can borrow the information from all of the observed data from other countries to synthesize the data from both Taiwan and other countries to assess the NCE2 efficacy. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian approach that uses a mixture of prior information to help evaluate an NCE2's efficacy. Numerical examples illustrate applications of the proposed approach in different scenarios. A method for sample-size determination for such trials is also proposed.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Study of forced degradation behavior of pramlintide acetate by HPLC and LC–MS
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-08-24
    Yu Yuan, Yuan-Bo Li, Zheng-Fu Tai, Yi-Peng Xie, Xu-Feng Pu, Jian Gao

    Pramlintide acetate (Symlin®), a synthetic analogue of the human hormone amylin. It was approved in March 2005 as a subcutaneous injection for the adjunctive treatment of patients who have type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus. The objective of current investigation was to study the degradation behavior of pramlintide acetate under different ICH recommended stress conditions by HPLC and LC–MS. Pramlintide acetate was subjected to stress conditions of hydrolysis (acidic or alkaline), oxidation, photolysis and thermal decomposition. Extensive degradation products were observed under the hydrolysis, oxidation or thermal stress conditions, while minimal degradation was found in the photolytic conditions. Successful separation of drug from the degradation products was achieved by the validated chromatography (RP-HPLC and SCX-HPLC) methods. Subsequent to isolation, the molecular weight of each component was determined by LC–MS. The LC–MS m/z values and fragmentation patterns of 4 impurities matched with the predicted degradation products of pramlintide acetate.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Production of antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory peptides from Kluyveromyces marxianus protein hydrolysates: Purification and molecular docking
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-08-19
    Mahta Mirzaei, Saeed Mirdamadi, Mohamad Reza Ehsani, Mahmoud Aminlari

    Kluyveromyces marxianus protein hydrolysates were prepared by two different sonicated-enzymatic (trypsin and chymotrypsin) hydrolysis treatments to obtain antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory peptides. Trypsin and chymotrypsin hydrolysates obtained by 5 h, exhibited the highest antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities. After fractionation using ultrafiltration and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) techniques, two new peptides were identified. One fragment (LL-9, MW = 1180 Da) with the amino acid sequence of Leu-Pro-Glu-Ser-Val-His-Leu-Asp-Lys showed significant ACE inhibitory activity (IC50 = 22.88 μM) while another peptide fragment (VL-9, MW = 1118 Da) with the amino acid sequence of Val-Leu-Ser-Thr-Ser-Phe-Pro-Pro-Lys showed the highest antioxidant and ACE inhibitory properties (IC50 = 15.20 μM, 5568 μM TE/mg protein). The molecular docking studies revealed that the ACE inhibitory activities of VL-9 is due to interaction with the S2 (His513, His353, Glu281) and S′1 (Glu162) pockets of ACE and LL-9 can fit perfectly into the S1 (Thr345) and S2 (Tyr520, Lys511, Gln281) pockets of ACE.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Methods for efficient analysis of tocopherols, tocotrienols and their metabolites in animal samples with HPLC-EC
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-08-19
    Mao-Jung Lee, William Feng, Lu Yang, Yu-Kuo Chen, Eric Chi, Anna Liu, Chung S. Yang

    Tocopherols and tocotrienols, collectively known as vitamin E, have received a great deal of attention because of their interesting biological activities. In the present study, we reexamined and improved previous methods of sample preparation and the conditions of high-performance liquid chromatography for more accurate quantification of tocopherols, tocotrienols and their major chain-degradation metabolites. For the analysis of serum tocopherols/tocotrienols, we reconfirmed our method of mixing serum with ethanol followed by hexane extraction. For the analysis of tissue samples, we improved our methods by extracting tocopherols/tocotrienols directly from tissue homogenate with hexane. For the analysis of total amounts (conjugated and unconjugated forms) of side-chain degradation metabolites, the samples need to be deconjugated by incubating with β-glucuronidase and sulfatase; serum samples can be directly used for the incubation, whereas for tissue homogenates a pre-deproteination step is needed. The present methods are sensitive, convenient and are suitable for the determination of different forms of vitamin E and their metabolites in animal and human studies. Results from the analysis of serum, liver, kidney, lung and urine samples from mice that had been treated with mixtures of tocotrienols and tocopherols are presented as examples.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Characteristics of fucose-containing polysaccharides from submerged fermentation of Agaricus blazei Murill
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-08-18
    Hsueh-Ting Wang, Li-Chan Yang, Hui-Ching Yu, Miaw-Ling Chen, Huei-Ju Wang, Ting-Jang Lu

    Fucose is one of important residues of recognition pattern for many immune cells. In this study, we characterized bioactive fucose-containing acidic polysaccharides from submerged fermentation of Agaricus blazei Murill. We obtained the polysaccharides through a cell-based activity-guided strategy, and used carbohydrate recognition monoclonal antibodies based Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) along with methylation and NMR analyses to investigate the structural characteristics of the polysaccharides. The polysaccharides had Mw of 3.5 × 105 Da. The major sugars were l-fucose, l-arabinose, d-galactose, d-xylose, and d-galacturonic acid in the molar ratio of 6.4, 15.5, 28.5, 14.7, and 25.0% with a small amount of d-glucose, d-mannose, l-rhamnose, and d-glucuronic acid. Results indicated that the bioactive polysaccharides consisted of a (1,4)-Galp and (1,4)-GalAp back bone; (1,2)-Xyl and (1,2)-Rha might also comprise backbone or constitute side chain; linkage (1,5)-Ara and terminal fucosyl residues were also involved in the polysaccharides. Regarding bioactivity, removal of the terminal l-fucosyl residues reduced the TNF-α cytokine stimulating activity of the polysaccharides in a RAW 264.7 macrophage cell-line test, whereas NF-κB and TLR4 affected the polysaccharide-induced TNF-α production.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Methodology for sample preparation and size measurement of commercial ZnO nanoparticles
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-08-18
    Pei-Jia Lu, Wei-En Fu, Shou-Chieh Huang, Chun-Yen Lin, Mei-Lin Ho, Yu-Pen Chen, Hwei-Fang Cheng

    This study discusses the strategies on sample preparation to acquire images with sufficient quality for size characterization by scanning electron microscope (SEM) using two commercial ZnO nanoparticles of different surface properties as a demonstration. The central idea is that micrometer sized aggregates of ZnO in powdered forms need to firstly be broken down to nanosized particles through an appropriate process to generate nanoparticle dispersion before being deposited on a flat surface for SEM observation. Analytical tools such as contact angle, dynamic light scattering and zeta potential have been utilized to optimize the procedure for sample preparation and to check the quality of the results. Meanwhile, measurements of zeta potential values on flat surfaces also provide critical information and save lots of time and efforts in selection of suitable substrate for particles of different properties to be attracted and kept on the surface without further aggregation. This simple, low-cost methodology can be generally applied on size characterization of commercial ZnO nanoparticles with limited information from vendors.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • HPTLC-FLD-SERS as a facile and reliable screening tool: Exemplarily shown with tyramine in cheese
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-08-18
    Liao Wang, Xue-Ming Xu, Yi-Sheng Chen, Jie Ren, Yun-Tao Liu

    The serious cytotoxicity of tyramine attracted marked attention as it induced necrosis of human intestinal cells. This paper presented a novel and facile high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method tailored for screening tyramine in cheese. Separation was performed on glass backed silica gel plates, using methanol/ethyl acetate/ammonia (6/4/1 v/v/v) as the mobile phase. Special efforts were focused on optimizing conditions (substrate preparation, laser wavelength, salt types and concentrations) of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) measurements directly on plates after derivatization, which enabled molecule-specific identification of targeted bands. In parallel, fluorescent densitometry (FLD) scanning at 380

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Characterization of key aroma-active compounds in lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.)
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-08-18
    Shi Feng, Mingyang Huang, Jonathan Henry Crane, Yu Wang

    Volatile compounds in ‘Sweetheart’ lychee were examined using gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS). Solvent assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) technique was used to identify the aroma-active compounds in lychee. Further characterization of the most important odorants in ‘Sweetheart’ lychee was achieved using aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Thirty-one key aroma-active odorants were identified in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 2–1024. Methional (cooked potato) and geraniol (sweet, floral) exhibited the highest FD factors of 1024 and 512, respectively, these were followed by furaneol (sweet, caramel), nerol (floral, sweet), dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) (preserved vegetable, sulfury), linalool (floral), (E,Z)-2,6 nonadienal (cucumber) and nerolidol (metalic, sesame oil). Furthermore, the flavor profile of ‘Sweetheart’ lychee was described by sensory analysis. Floral, tropical fruit, peach/apricot and honey were scored with relatively high scores for each aroma attribute. The sweetness rating was the highest score among all the attributes.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Silver nanoparticle biosynthesis by using phenolic acids in rice husk extract as reducing agents and dispersants
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-08-18
    Yee-Shing Liu, Yung-Chung Chang, Hui-Huang Chen

    Rice husk extract, obtained using acid and alkali pretreatment extraction (AAPE), contains bioactive compounds and exhibits reducing abilities. Phenolic composition in rice husk extract was analyzed and the mechanism of silver nanoparticle (AgNP) biosynthesis by using AAPE rice husk extract was investigated in this study. Stable and spherically shaped AgNPs with a size of <15 nm were prepared under the following conditions: 0.001 M AgNO3, AAPE rice husk extract diluted 10 times, pH 10, and reacted at 25 °C for 60 min. Synergistic effects among phenolic acids contributed to the formation of AgNPs, with the acids acting as excellent reducing agents (owing to their abundant hydroxyl groups) and excellent dispersants (owing to their derived CO groups), which enhanced the NPs' stability. Caffeic acid (CA) was demonstrated to synthesize AgNPs independently and is suggested to be the most crucial compound for reducing Ag+ during the biosynthesis with rice husk extract. A possible mechanism and reaction process for the formation of AgNPs synthesized using CA in rice husk extracts is proposed.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Relative content of gallic acid over 5-galloylquinic acid as an index for the baking intensity of oolong teas
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-08-18
    Miki Mei-Chi Wang, Yun Yeh, Yu-En Shih, Jason Tze-Cheng Tzen

    Phenolic compounds in a series of old oolong teas prepared by baking annually were monitored and compared. The results showed that the relative content of gallic acid over 5-galloylquinic acid was subsequently elevated during this preparatory process. To reveal the effect was mainly resulted from baking or aging, two sets of oolong teas were collected and examined; one set was generated from fresh oolong tea via continually daily baking and the other set was composed of aged oolong teas with no or light baking in the storage period. The relative content of gallic acid over 5-galloylquinic acid was observed to be subsequently elevated when oolong tea was continually baked at 90, 100, 110, and 120 °C for 8 h day after day. In contrast, the relative contents of gallic acid over 5-galloylquinic acid in aged oolong teas with no or light baking were found to be similar to or slightly higher than that in fresh oolong tea. The results suggest that the relative content of gallic acid over 5-galloylquinic acid seems to be a suitable index for the baking intensity of oolong tea in different preparations.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Effects of electrode gap and electric current on chlorine generation of electrolyzed deep ocean water
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-08-18
    Guoo-Shyng Wang Hsu, Shun-Yao Hsu

    Electrolyzed water is a sustainable disinfectant, which can comply with food safety regulations and is environmental friendly. A two-factor central composite design was adopted for studying the effects of electrode gap and electric current on chlorine generation efficiency of electrolyzed deep ocean water. Deep ocean water was electrolyzed in a glass electrolyzing cell equipped with platinum-plated titanium anode and cathode in a constant-current operation mode. Results showed that current density, chlorine concentration, and electrolyte temperature increased with electric current, while electric efficiency decreased with electric current and electrode gap. An electrode gap of less than 11.7 mm, and a low electric current appeared to be a more energy efficient design and operation condition for the electrolysis system.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Water-soluble polysaccharides from Ulva intestinalis: Molecular properties, structural elucidation and immunomodulatory activities
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-08-18
    Mehdi Tabarsa, SangGuan You, Elham Hashem Dabaghian, Utoomporn Surayot

    Water-soluble sulfated polysaccharides extracted from Ulva intestinalis and fractionated using DEAE Sepharose fast flow column to identify their molecular properties and macrophage cells stimulating activities. Crude and fractions (F1 and F2) were formed of neutral sugars (58.7–74.7%), sulfates (6.2–24.5%), uronic acids (4.9–5.9%) and proteins (3.2–10.4%). Different levels of sugar constituents including rhamnose (30.1–39.1%), glucose (39.0–48.4%), galactose (0.0–15.8%), xylose (8.5–11.3) and arabinose (0.0–5.1%). The molecular weight (Mw) of crude and fractionated polysaccharides ranged from 87.1 × 103 to 194.1 × 103 (g/mol). Crude polysaccharides were not toxic to RAW264.7 cells and fractions induced cell proliferation. Fraction F1 stimulated RAW264.7 cells to release considerable amounts of nitric oxide, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12 cytokines. The main backbone of the most immunostimulating polysaccharide (F1) was consisted of mixed linkages of (1 → 2)-linked rhamnose and (1 → 2)-linked glucose residues.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Systematic study on active compounds as antibacterial and antibiofilm agent in aging onions
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-07-26
    Kavita Sharma, Neelima Mahato, Yong Rok Lee

    Quantitative investigation and systematic studies of quercetin, total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidants, antibacterial and antibiofilm or antibiofouling properties of methanolic extracts of onions obtained from six different varieties have been carried out to explore their relative merits in terms of biological activities of fresh and aging onions. Total phenolic content in the extracts was examined spectrophotometrically using Folin–Ciocalteau's phenol reagent and total antioxidant activity was studied by FRAP and DPPH methods. In vitro antibacterial activity of the extracts was investigated on Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) respectively, by using a modified Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion method. Antibiofilm activity was tested by crystal violet assay. The best results against biofilm formation were observed for the extracts obtained from onions stored for three months. The total phenolic and antioxidant content found to be increased upon aging in all the six varieties; red skinned onion (Happyhong) showed the highest level of total phenolics (5110.07 ± 196.56 μg GAEg−1 FW) and total flavonoids (2254.00 ± 154.82 μg QEg−1 FW) after three months. The results showed that in all the varieties, quercetin content as well as biological activity increases with aging in the stored onions compared with the fresh ones.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Compositional analyses of white, brown and germinated forms of popular Malaysian rice to offer insight into the growing diet-related diseases
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-07-26
    Bilyaminu Abubakar, Hafeez Muhammad Yakasai, Norhasnida Zawawi, Maznah Ismail

    Diet-related metabolic diseases, and especially obesity, are metabolic disorders with multifactorial aetiologies. Diet has been a cornerstone in both the aetiology and management of this metabolic disorders. Rice, a staple food for over half of the world's population, could be exploited as part of the solution to check this menace which has been skyrocketing in the last decade. The present study investigated nine forms of rice from three widely grown Malaysian rice cultivars for in vitro and in vivo (glycaemic index and load) properties that could translate clinically into a lower predisposition to diet-related diseases. The germinated brown forms of MRQ 74 and MR 84 rice cultivars had high amylose content percentages (25.7% and 25.0%), high relative percentage antioxidant scavenging abilities of 85.0% and 91.7%, relatively low glycaemic indices (67.6 and 64.3) and glycaemic load (32.3 and 30.1) values, and modest glucose uptake capabilities of 33.69% and 31.25%, respectively. The results show that all things being equal, rice cultivars that are germinated and high in amylose content when compared to their white and low amylose counterparts could translate into a lower predisposition to diet-related diseases from the dietary point of view in individuals who consume this cereal as a staple food.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Antioxidant activity and calcium binding of isomeric hydroxybenzoates
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-07-26
    Zichen Zhao, Martina Vavrusova, Leif Horsfelt Skibsted

    The association constant for calcium binding to hydroxybenzoates in aqueous 0.16 M NaCl at 25 °C was found electrochemically to have the value Kass = 280 mol L−1 with ΔHo = −51 kJ mol−1, ΔSo = −122 J mol−1 K−1 for the 2-isomer (salicylate), Kass = 7 mol L−1 with ΔHo = −39 kJ mol−1, ΔSo = −116 J mol−1 K−1 for the 3-isomer, and Kass = 8 mol L−1 with ΔHo = −51 kJ mol−1, ΔSo = −155 J mol−1 K−1 for the 4-isomer. The 3- and 4-isomers were found more efficient as antioxidants than the 2-isomer in decreasing oxygen consumption rate in a peroxidating methyl linoleate emulsion and less sensitive to presence of calcium. All isomers were found prooxidative for iron-catalyzed initiation of oxidation due to enhanced radical formation as shown by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Calcium salicylate was found to have low solubility with a solubility product Ksp = 4.49·10−6 based on activity with ΔHo = 67 kJ mol−1, ΔSo = 123 J mol−1 K−1 for dissolution in water, when corrected for the strong complex formation. Calcium in food and beverages may thus lower antioxidant activity of plant phenols through complexation or by precipitation.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • A simple and robust quantitative analysis of retinol and retinyl palmitate using a liquid chromatographic isocratic method
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-07-25
    Satoshi Yokota, Shigeru Oshio

    Vitamin A is a vital nutritional substances that regulates biological activities including development, but is also associated with disease onset. The extent of vitamin A intake influences the retinoid content in the liver, the most important organ for the storage of vitamin A. Measurement of endogenous retinoid in biological samples is important to understand retinoid homeostasis. Here we present a reliable, highly sensitive, and robust method for the quantification of retinol and retinyl palmitate using a reverse-phase HPLC/UV isocratic method. We determined the impact of chronic dietary vitamin A on retinoid levels in livers of mice fed an AIN-93G semi-purified diet (4 IU/g) compared with an excess vitamin A diet (1000 IU/g) over a period from birth to 10 weeks of age. Coefficients of variation for intra-assays for both retinoids were less than 5%, suggesting a higher reproducibility than any other HPLC/UV gradient method. Limits of detection and quantification for retinol were 0.08 pmol, and 0.27 pmol, respectively, which are remarkably higher than previous results. Supplementation with higher doses of vitamin A over the study period significantly increased liver retinol and retinyl palmitate concentrations in adult mice. The assays described here provide a sensitive and rigorous quantification of endogenous retinol and retinyl palmitate, which can be used to help determine retinoid homeostasis in disease states, such as toxic hepatitis and liver cancer.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • An investigation of the olive phenols activity as a natural medicine
    J. Food Drug Anal. (IF 3.048) Pub Date : 2017-07-25
    Faik Gökalp

    The natural antioxidants of olive oil have phenolic structure and their activities are related to the formation of stable derivatives. In this study, the single components of the phenolic fraction of olive oil (1,4-hydroquinone, Semiquinone and 1,4-benzoquinone) have been studied as theoretical by using DFT (Density functional Theory). The behaviors of phenolic compounds of olive against to the alkyl peroxy radicals were investigated. Our data show that 1,4-benzoquinone is the best electron transfer agent in primary metabolic processes to human life. The frontier orbital gap, namely HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital)–LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) gap is the smallest for 1,4-benzoquinone. Hence, it is more stable than the others in blood. The natural phenolic compound's mechanism of many plants can be explained by using DFT method without consuming time and money. In this study, we have indicated the behaviors of natural antioxidants of olive oil's single components phenolic structure in blood phase.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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